Garden of Edan Masthead

[Home]  [Sutta Indexes]  [Glossology]  [Site Sub-Sections]

The Garden of Edan

The Flora and Fauna of the Pāḷi Canon

Please note: this section is intended to be no more than a suggestion for some interested person to develop. Entries are haphazard at best. Most are simply entries copied from PED. It is intended that this page be no more than an index to individual pages for each entry, but for the time being such entries as do exist are mostly found only on this list.

Reference Works:

Nature and the Environment in Early Buddhism, Bhante S. Dhammika. This work does most of what should be done for this section.

Table of Contents

[ A ][ B ][ C ][ D ][ E ][ F ][ G ][ H ][ I ][ J ][ K ][ L ][ M ][ N ][ O ][ P ][ R ][ S ][ T ][ U ][ V ][ W ][ Y ]


-----[ A ]-----

Adina cardifolia (?) dalbergia.
The name phandana (quivering) signifies an aspen, poplar or bo-tree. AN 3.69

Agalu [cp. Sanskrit aguru, which is believed to appear in Hebrew ahalim (aloe), also in Gr. ἀλόμ and ἀγάλλοχον] fragrant aloe wood, Agallochum Vv 531 (aggalu = VvA 237 aga-lugandha); VvA. 158 (-f candana). Cp. also Av. 6 1.24, and akalu.

Akka [cp. Sk. arka] N. of a plant: Calotropis Gigantea, swallow-wort M I.429 (*assa jiyā bowstrings made from that plant).

Aṭṭhi2 (neuter) [Sanskrit asthi = Avesta asti, Greek ὄστεον, ὄστρακον, ὰστάγαλος; Latin os (°oss); also Greek ὅζος branch Gothic asts]
2. the stone of a fruit J II.104.
-kadali a special kind of the plantain tree (Musa Sapientum) J V.406.

Ankura2 [cp. Sanskrit ankura, to anka a bend = a tendril etc.] a shoot, a sprout (lit. or figurative) J II.105; VI.331, 486; Dhs 617

Aṅkola [dialect for aṅkura] a species of tree Alangium Hexapetalum J VI.535.

Aṅga-hetuka a species of wild birds, living in forests Ja VI 538.

Angārin (adjective) [to angāra] (burning) like coal, of brightred colour, crimson Th 1, 527 = J I.87 (dumā trees in full bloom).

Acchiva [°Sanskrit akṣiba and akṣība] a certain species of tree (Hypanthera Moringa) J VI.535.

Ajagara [aja + gara = gala from °gel to devour, thus "goat-eater"] a large snake (rock-snake°), Boa Constrictor J VI.507; Miln 23, 303, 364, 406; DhA III.60. Also as ajakara at J III.484 (cp. Trenckner, Notes p. 64).

Aja (feminine) a she-goat J III.125; IV.251.

Ajamoja [Sanskrit ajamoda, cp. Sanskrit ajājī] cummin-seed VvA 186.

Ajjuka [°Sanskrit arjaka] N. of a plant, Ocimum Gratissimum Vin IV.35; DA I.81 (all MSS. have ajjaka).

Ajjukaṇṇa [°Sanskrit arjakarṇa] N. of a tree Pentaptera Tomentosa J VI.535 (nn).

Ajjuna [Vedic arjuna, to raj; cp. Greek ὰργόϛ white, ἄργυροϛ silver, Latin argentum] the tree Pentaptera Arjuna J VI.535; DhA I.105 (°rukkha).

Añjana 2. glossy, jet-black -rukkha Name of a tree ("black" tree) J I.331.

Atimuttaka [Sanskrit atimuktaka] Name of a plant, Gaertnera Racemosa Vin II.256 = M I.32; Miln 338.

Ativisā (feminine) [Sanskrit ativiṣā] Name of a plant Vin I.201; IV.35.

Adāsa [probably = adaɱsa, from ḍasati to bite, cp. dāṭhā tooth; lit meaning "toothless" or "not biting"] a kind of bird J IV.466.

Anojā [Sanskrit anujā] a kind of shrub or tree with red flowers Ja VI 536 (koranḍaka + a.); usually in compound anojapuppha the a. flower, used for wreaths etc. Ja I 9 (°dāma, a garland of a flowers); VI 227 (the same); Dhp-a II 116 (°cangoṭaka).

Apphoṭā (feminine) [from appoṭeti to blossom] Name of a kind of Jasmine Ja VI 336.

Amajja [etymology?] a bud Ja V 416 (= makula Commentary).

Amba Amba [derivation unknown. Not found in pre-Buddhist literature. The Sanskrit is āmra. Probably non-Aryan], the Mango tree, Maṅgifera Indica D I 46, 53, 235; Ja II 105, 160; Vv 7910; Pp 45; Miln 46; Pv-a 153, 187.

-aṭṭhi the kernel or stone of the mango fruit Dhp-a III 207, 208;
-ārāma a garden of mangoes, mango grove Vv 795; Vv-a 305;
-kañjika mango gruel Vv 3337 (= ambilakañjika Vv-a 147);
-pakka a (ripe) mango fruit Ja II 104, 394; Dhp-a III 207;
-panta a border of mango trees Vv-a 198;
-pānaka a drink made from mangoes Dhp-a III 207;
-piṇḍi a bunch of mangoes Ja III 53; Dhp-a III 207;
-pesikā the peel, rind, of the mango fruit Vin II 109;
-potaka a mango sprout Dhp-a III 206 sq;
-phala a mango fruit Pv-a 273, 274;
-rukkha a mango tree Dhp-a III 207; Vv-a 198;
-vana a mango grove or wood D II 126; Ja I 139; Vv-a 305;
-siñcaka one who waters the mangoes, a tender or keeper of mangoes Vv 797.

Ambāṭaka Ambāṭaka the hog-plum, Spondias Maṅgifera (a kind of mango) Vin II 17 (°vana); Sv I 271 (°rukkha).

Ambuja (masculine and neuter) [ambu + ja of jan] "water-born", i.e. 2. (neuter) a lotus Snp 845 (= paduma Nidd I 202); Dāṭh V 46; Saddh 360.

Aravinda [ara + vinda (?) Abhidh-r-m gives as Sanskrit aravinda neuter] a lotus, Nymphaea Nelumbo Dāṭh V 62.

Alāpu Alāpu (neuter) [= alābu, with p for b: so Trenckner Notes 6216] a gourd, pumpkin Dhp 149 (= Dhp-a III 112; vv.ll. alābu and alābbu).

Alābu Alābu [Sanskrit alābūf.] a long white gourd, Cucurbita Lagenaris M I 80 (tittaka°), 315 (the same); Pv-a 47 (the same); As 405. — See also alāpu.

Asana3 (neuter) [Sanskrit asana] the tree Pentaptera Tomentosa Ja I 40 (as Bodhi-tree of Gotama); II 91; V 420; VI 530.

Asoka2 [Sanskrit aśoka] the Asoka tree, Jonesia Asoka Ja V 188; Vv 354, 359 (°rukkha); Vism 625 (°aṅkura); Vv-a 173 (°rukkha).

Assa3 [Vedic aśva, cf. Avesta aspō; Greek ἵππος, dialect ἴκκος; Latin equus; Old-Irish ech; Gallic epo-; Cymr. ep, Gothic aīhva; Os. ehu; Anglo-Saxon eoh] — a horse;.

-kaṇṇa Name of a tree, Vatica Robusta, literally "horse-ear" (cf. similarly Gothic aīhva-tundi the thornbush, literally horse-tooth) Ja II 161; IV 209; VI 528.

Assattha1 [Vedic aśvattha, explained in KZ I 467 as aśva-ttha dialect for aśva-stha "standing place for horses, which etymology is problematic; it is likely that the Sanskrit word is borrowed from a local dialect.] — the holy fig-tree, Ficus Religiosa; the tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment, i.e. the Bo tree Vin IV 35; D II 4 (sammā-sambuddho assatthassa mūle abhisambuddho); S V 96; Ja I 16 (V 75, in word-play with assattha2 of V 79).

Āṭa [etymology? Cf. Sanskrit āṭi Turdus Ginginianus, see Abhidh-r-m page 148] a kind of bird Ja VI 539 (= dabbimukha Commentary).

Ābhujī (feminine) [literally the one that bends, probably a poetic metaphor] Name of a tree, the Bhūrja or Bhojpatra Ja V 195 (= bhūjapatta-vana Commentary), 405 (= bhūjapatta Commentary).

Āli1 Āli1 (masculine or feminine? [Sanskrit āḷi] a certain kind of fish Ja V 405.

Ālu (neuter) [Sanskrit ālu and °ka; cognate with Latin ālum and alium, see Walde Latin Wtb. under alium] — a bulbous plant, Radix globosa esculenta or amorphophallus (Kern), Arum campanulatum (Hardy) Ja IV 371 = VI 578; IV 373.

Ālupa (neuter) [etymology? Kern, Toev. s.v. suggests ālu-a > ālupa = āluka the edible root of Amorphophallus Campanulatus Ja IV 46 (= āluka-kaṇḍa Commentary). The form āluva occurs at Ap 237.

Āsāvati (feminine) Name of a creeper (growing at the celestial grove Cittalatā) Ja III 250, 251.

Āsītika (masculine) [etymology? Cf. BHS āsītakī Lal 319] a certain plant M I 80 = 245 (°pabba).


-----[ B ]-----

Bakula [cf. Classical Sanskrit bakula, name of the tree Mimusops elengi, and its (fragrant) flower] in milāta°-puppha is v.l. Pj I 60 (see App. page 870 Pj.) for °ākuli°, which latter is also read at Vism 260.

Badara (masculine and neuter) [cf. Vedic badara and badarī] the fruit of the jujube tree (Zizyphus jujuba), not unlike a crabapple in appearance and taste, very astringent, used for medicine A I 130 = Pp 32; A III 76; Vin IV 76; Ja III 21; As 320 (cited among examples of acrid flavours); Vv-a 186. Spelling padara for b° at Ja IV 363; VI 529. -aṭṭhi kernel of the j. Pj II 247; -paṇḍu light yellow (fresh) jujube-fruit A I 181 (so read for bhadara°); -missa mixture or addition of the juice of jujube fruits Vin IV 76; -yūsa juice of the j. fruit Vv-a 185.

Badarī (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit badarī] the jujube tree Ja II 260.

Badālatā (feminine) [etymology uncertain, may it be *padālatā, pa + agent noun of dal causative, literally "destroyer"?] a creeper (with thorns Kern, Toev. sub voce) D III 87 = Vism 418; Buddhaghosa says (see D.B. III 84) "a beautiful creeper of sweet taste."

Bandhuka (adjective) [from bandhu] 1. the plant Pentapetes phoenicea Ja IV 279 (°puppha, evidently only a contraction of bandhu-jīvaka, cf. Comentary bandhujīvaka puppha; although Sanskrit bandhūka is given as synonym of bandhujīva at Abhidh-r-m 2, 53). 2. in bandhukaroga M II 121 probably to be read paṇḍuka°, as v.l.; see paṇḍuroga.

Bandhujīvaka [cf. Classical Sanskrit bandhujīva] the plant Pentapetes phoenicea M II 14 (°puppha); D II 111 (the same); Ja IV 279; Vism 174; As 14; Vv-a 43, 161. DN 33, 34 8s

Babbaja [cf. Vedic balbaja, doubtful whether it belongs to Latin bulbus; for the initial b. very often p. is found: see pabbaja] a sort of coarse grass or reed, used to make slippers, etc. Vin I 190; D II 55; S II 92; III 137; IV 158; A II 211; Dhp 345; Dhp-a IV 55. -pādukā a slipper out of b. grass Dhp-a III 451; -lāyaka cutter or reaper of grass S III 155; A III 365.

Babbu (and °ka) [Epic Sanskrit babhruka a kind of ichneumon; Vedic babhru brown, cf. Latin fiber = beaver, further connection "bear," see Walde, Latin Wtb. sub voce fiber] a cat Ja I 480 (= biḷāra Commentary) = Dhp-a II 152.

Barihin [cf. Sanskrit barhin] a peacock Ja IV 497.

Barihisa (neuter) [Vedic barhis] the sacrificial grass D I 141; M I 344; A II 207; Pp 56.

Bala2 [cf. Sanskrit bala: Abhidh-r-m 5, 23; and Pāli balākā] a species of carrion crow Ja V 268; also in compound balaṅkapāda having crow's feet, i.e. spreading feet (perhaps for balāka°?) Ja VI 548 (Commentary explains by pattharita-pāda, read patthārita°).

Balākā (feminine) [cf. Vedic balākā, perhaps to Latin fulica, Greek ϕαλαρίς a water fowl, Old High German pelicha = German belche] a crane Thag 307; Ja II 363; III 226; Miln 128 (°ānaɱ megha-saddena gabbhāvakkanti hoti); Vism 126 (in simile, megha-mukhe b. viya); Sv I 91 (v.l. baka).

Bali [cf. Vedic bali; regarding etymology Grassmann connects it with bhr̥] -puṭṭha a crow (cf. Sanskrit balipuṣṭa "fed by oblations") Abh 638; -vadda (cf. Sanskrit balivarda, after the Pāli?) an ox, especially an ox yoked to the plough or used in ploughing (on similes with b. see JPTS 1907, 349) S I 115, 170; IV 163f., 282f.; A II 108f.; Snp page 13 (cf. Pj II 137); Dhp 152 = Thag 1025; Ja I 57; V 104 (Sāliyo b. phālena pahaṭo); Vism 284 (in simile of their escape from the ploughman); Dhp-a I 24 (dhuraɱ vahanto balivaddassa, v.l. balibaddassa); Vv-a 258 (vv.ll. °baddha and °bandha). The spelling balibadda occurs at Vin IV 312;

Baḷavā (feminine) [cf. Vedic vaḍavā] a mare, only in compound °mukha the mare's mouth, i.e. an entrance to Niraya (cf. Vedic vaḍavagni and vaḍavāmukha) Thag 1104 (translation "abyss-discharged mouth," cf. Ps.B, page 418).

Baḷīyakkha [etymology?] a species of birds Ja VI 539.

Bahu-vāraka the tree Cordia myxa Abh 558;

Bākucī (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit bākucī] the plant Vernonia anthelminthica Abh 586.

Bidala (adjective/noun) [cf. Sanskrit vidala in same meaning, from vi + dal] 1. a kind of pulse, split pea Ja IV 353 (= mugga), in °sūpa haricot soup Ja IV 352. 2. a split bamboo cane, in °mañcaka a bedstead made of laths of split bamboo, the use of which is given as one of the characteristic features of the ascetic life Vin II 149; Ja I 9; Dhp-a I 135.

Bimba 2. the red fruit of Momordica monadelpha, a species of amaranth [cf. Sanskrit bimba and bimbī, a kind of gourd] Ja III 478; VI 457, 591; Vv 366 (kañcana°-vaṇṇa of the colour of the golden Bimba) Dhammapala at Vv-a 168 takes it as bimba 1 = paṭimā; Dhp-a I 387 (°phala, with reference to red lips). bimboṭṭha (feminine °ī) (having) red lips Ja III 477; VI 590 (nigrodhapatta-bimb'oṭṭhī) Thig-a 133 (Ap. verse 57). The Sanskrit vimbī according to Abhidh-r-m 2, 48 is equal to oṣṭhī, a plant (Bryonia grandis?).

Bimba -jāla [BR. bimbajā?] the Bimba tree, Momordica monadelpha (literal net of b. fruits) Ja I 39; VI 497 (cf. page 498 rattaṅkura-rukkhaɱ probably with v.l. to be read ratta-kuravaka°, see bimbi-jāla); Bv XVI 19.

Bimbijāla the red amaranth tree, the Bodhi tree of the former Buddha Dhammadassin Ja I 39; V 155. At Ja VI 497, 498 the form is bimbajāla. The Comentary explanation gives ratta-kuravaka as a synonym.

Bila1 (neuter) [Vedic bila, perhaps from bhid to break, cf. KZ 12, 123. Thus already explained by Dhātup 489: bila bhedane] a hole, den, cave A II 33 = S III 85; Thag 189; Nidd I 362; Ja I 480; II 53; VI 574 (= guhā Commentary); Miln 151; Saddh 23. — kaṇṇa° orifice of the ear Vism 195; vammīka° ant's nest Ja IV 30; sota° = kaṇṇa° As 310. -āsaya (adjective) living in holes, a cave-dweller, one of the four classes of animals (bil°, dak°, van°, rukkh°) S III 85 = A II 33; Nidd I 362; Bv II 97; Ja I 18.

Bilaṅga [etymology doubtful; one compares both Sanskrit viḍaṅga the plant Embelia ribes, and vilaṅga the plant Erycibe paniculata] sour gruel Ja VI 365 (= kañjiya); usually in stock phrase kaṇājaka bilaṅga-dutiya (seed-cake?) accompanied by sour gruel Vin II 77, 78; S I 90; A I 145; IV 392; Ja I 228; III 299; Pj II 94; Dhp-a III 10 (v.l. pilaṅka-°akaɱ); IV 77; Vv-a 222, 298 (bilaṅka°).

Billa [cf. Vedic bilva] fruit of the Bilva tree, Ægle marmelos or Bengal quince, only in one stock phrase where its size is compared with sizes of smaller fruits, and where it is preceded by āmalaka S I 150 = A IV 170 (vv.ll. villa, bila, beḷu, bilāla) = Snp 125 (vv.ll. pillā billā, billa; Text reading after Sinhalese mss billi). Cf. derivations bella and beluva.

Biḷāra [etymology uncertain, probably a loan-word; cf. late Sanskrit biḍāla and see also Pāli biḷāla. The Prākrit forms are birāla and virāla, feminine birālī] a cat D II 83; M I 128, 334; S II 270; A III 122 (viḷāra); V 202, 289

Biḷārikā (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit biḍālikā] a she-cat Ja III 265.

Biḷāra1 [see biḷāra] a cat Ja I 110; II 244; VI 593. pakkha° a flying fox Ja VI 538.

Biḷālī (feminine) [feminine of biḷāla = biḷāra, cf. Sanskrit biḍālī, also name of a plant, see on Prākrit chira-birālī = Sanskrit kṣīra-biḍālī Pischel, Pkt Gram. §241] a bulbous plant, a tuber Ja IV 46 (= °vallīkanda, cf. gloss latātanta on kalamba), 371 (= °kanda Commentary page 373); VI 578. Cf. takkaḷa.

Bīja (neuter) [cf. Vedic bīja] 1. seed, germ, semen, spawn. Used very frequently in figurative sense: see on similes JPTS 1907, 116. — D I 135 (°bhatta seed-corn and food); III 44 (the five kinds: see below under °gāma); M I 457; S I 21, 134, 172, 227; III 54, 91; IV 315; A I 32 (ucchu°), 135, 223, 229, 239; III 404; IV 237; V 213 (ucchu°); Snp 77 (saddhā bījaɱ tapo vuṭṭhi, cf. Pj II 142f., where a detailed discussion on bīja is found), 209, 235 (khīṇa° adjective figurative); Ja I 242 (tiṇa°-ādīni grass and other seeds), 281; Pv I 11; Vism 555 (in simile); Pj I 194 (on Snp 235, in another comparison); Saddh 24, 270f., 318. nibbatta° (or nivatta°) (adjective) that which has dropped its seed (hence a lawful food) Vin I 215, Cf. II 109; IV 35. -gāma seed-group, seed-kingdom, seed-creation (opposite bhūta-gāma). There are 5 kinds of seeds usually enumerated, e.g. at D I 5 (explained at Sv I 77, translated at D.B. I 6 and passim), viz. mūla°, khandha°, phalu°, agga°, bija°, or plants propagated by roots, cuttings, joints, buddings, shoots, seeds (D.B. III 40: tubers, shoots, berries, joints, seeds). The same set occurs at D III 44, 47; Vin IV 34; Pj II 144. — Without reference to the 5 kinds at M III 34; S V 46; Miln 33; -jāta species of seed S III 54; -bīja one of the 5 groups of edible or useful plants, falling under bījagāma. It is explained at Vin IV 35 and Sv I 81 by the terms pubbaṇṇa (i.e. the seven dhaññāni or grains, sāli, vīhi, yava, godhūma, kaṅgu, varaka, kudrūsa) and aparaṇṇa (i.e. beans and other leguminous plants, and gourds such as mugga, māsa, tila, kulattha, alābu, kumbhaṇḍa)

Bījaka [from bīja] scion, offspring Vin III 18. — nīla° a waterplant Vin III 276 (Commentary on Vin III 177).

Bīraṇa [cf. Sanskrit vīraṇa and vīraṇī-mūla = uśīra Abhidh-r-m 2, 467] a fragrant grass, Andropogon muricatum S III 137; (here represented as larger than the kusa and babbaja grasses, smaller than a tree).

Bunda [Vedic budhna] the root of a tree Abh 549.

Beluva and Beḷuva [the guṇa-form of billa, in like meaning. It is the diæretic form of Sanskrit bailva or *vailva, of which the contracted form is Pāli bella] 1. the Vilva tree, Ægle marmelos M I 108; II 6; Ja IV 363, 368; VI 525, 560. 2. wood of the Vilva tree S I 22; D II 264; Mhbv 31. -pakka ripe fruit of the Vilva Ja V 74; -paṇḍu(-vīṇā) a yellow flute made of Vilva wood, representing a kind of magic flute which according to Pj II 393 first belonged to Māra, and was then given to Pañcasikha, one of the heavenly Musicians, by Sakka. See Vism 392 (attributed to Pañcasikha); Dhp-a I 433 (of Māra; v.l. veḷuvadaṇḍa-vīṇā); III 225 (of P.); Pj II 393 (v.l. veluva°); -laṭṭhi a young sprout of the Vilva tree Pj I 118; -salāṭuka the unripe fruit of the Vilva, next in size to the smaller kola, surpassed in size by the ripe billa or billi S I 150 = A IV 170 = Snp page 125.

Bella (masculine and neuter) [= beluva, q.v.] the fruit of the Vilva tree (a kind of citron?) Ja III 77 (Commentary beluva); VI 578. Also in doubtful passage at Ja III 319 (v.l. mella, phella).

Bodhi or Bo tree the tree of wisdom, the sacred Bo tree, the fig tree (Assattha, Ficus religiosa) under which Gotama Buddha arrived at perfect knowledge. The tree is near the spot where Buddhagāya is now, about 60 miles from Patna. It is regarded by pilgrims as the centre of the world (cf. pathavī-nābhi mahā-bodhimaṇḍo Mbvs 79). It is also spoken of as Mahābodhi (e.g. Ja IV 228; Vism 403). — Vism 72, 299, 342; Dhp-a I 105; Thig-a 62; Vibh-a 473. -aṅgaṇa the courtyard in which the Bo tree stands Sv I 191; Vism 188 (°vatta); Vibh-a 349; -tala "Bodhi-foundation," i.e. the place or ground of the B. tree, otherwise Bodhi-maṇḍa Ja I 105; Mhbv 9; Dhp-a I 117; -pakka fruit of the Bo tree Ja IV 229; -pādapa the Bodhi tree Mbhv 1; -pūjā veneration of, or offerings to the Bo tree Mhbv 81; -maṇḍa (for °maṇḍala) the ground under the Bodhi tree, hence the spot (or "throne"), on which the Buddha was seated at the time of attaining highest enlightenment. The term is only found in very late canonical and post-canonical literature. Bv II 65, 183; Vism 203; Ja IV 228, 232; Mhbv 79; Pj II 2, 30, 225, 258, 281, 340, 391, 441; Dhp-a I 86; II 69; IV 72; Thig-a 2. Cf. BHS bodhimaṇḍa Divy 392; -maha feast in honour of the Bo tree Ja IV 229; -mūla the root or foot of the Bo tree Pj II 32, 391; cf. Bodhiyā mūle Nidd I 172, 458 = Paṭis I 174; -rukkha the Bodhi tree Vin I 1.

Byaggha [cf. Sanskrit vyāghra] a tiger Ja II 110; Saddh 388. feminine byagghinī Miln 67.

Brahatībrahatī name of a plant Abh 588.

Bignonia suaviolens SN 5.48.70

Bombax Heptaphyllum

Butea Fondosa

Bhagini-māla a "sister garland" (?) name of a tree Ja VI 270 (= upari-bhaddaka).

Bhaṇḍi [?] a certain plant or flower Ja V 420. Reading uncertain.

Bhadda(a) and Bhadra(b) 3. bull (cf. Sanskrit bhadra, Abhidh-r-m 5, 21) Thag 16, 173, 659. -muttaka [cf. Sanskrit bhadramusta] a kind of fragrant grass (Cyperus rotundus) Sv I 81; Abh 599;

Bhamara [cf. Epic and Classical Sanskrit bhramara; either to bhram (semantically quick, unsteady motion = confused noise)1. a bee Ja V 205 (°vaṇṇa bee-coloured, i.e. of black colour, in explanation of kaṇha); Thig 252. Usually in similes, e.g. at Dhp 49 (cf. Dhp-a I 374f.)

Bhallāṭaka [cf. Epic Sanskrit bhallātaka] the marking nut plant Semicarpus anacardium Ja VI 578.

Bhaveyya [cf. Classical Sanskrit bhavya] a sort of tree, perhaps Averrhoa carambola Ja VI 529.

Bhasati [cf. Epic Sanskrit bhaṣate] to bark (of dogs) Ja IV 182 (preterit bhasi; so read for Text bhusi). — past participle bhasitaɱ (as noun) bark ibid. (mahā-bhasitaɱ bhasi, read for bhusita). See also bhusati.

Bhasta [cf. Vedic basta] a he-goat Ja III 278.

Bhassara 2. Name of a bird Ja VI 538 (= sata-haɱsa Commentary).

Bhāsa-sakuṇaBhāsa [cf. Epic Sanskrit bhāsa] -sakuṇa a bird of prey, a vulture [Abh 645, 1049]; as one of the lucky omens enumerated (under the so-called maṅgala-kathā) at Pj I 118 (with v.l. cāta° and vāca°, cāba°) = Nidd I 87 (on Snp 790) (Text reads vāta°; v.l. vāpa°, chapa°).

Bhiṅka [cf. Vedic bhr̥ṅga large bee] the young of an animal, especially of an elephant, in its property of being dirty (cf. pigs) Vin II 201 = S II 269 (bhiṅka-cchāpa); Ja V 418 (with reference to young cats: "mahā-biḷārā nelamaṇḍalaɱ vuccati taruṇā bhiṅka-cchāpa-maṇḍalaɱ," Text °cchāca°, vv.ll. bhiñjaka-cchāca; taruṇa-bhiga-cchāpa; bhiṅga-cchāja).

Bhiṅkāra3 [cf. Sanskrit bhr̥ṅga bee, bhr̥ṅgaka and bhr̥ṅga-rājā] a bird: Lanius caerulescens Ja V 416.

Bhisa (neuter) [cf. Vedic bisa, with bh for b: see Geiger, Pāli Grammar §40.1a] the sprout (from the root) of a lotus, the lotus fibres, lotus plant S I 204; II 268; Ja I 100; IV 308. -puppha the lotus flower Snp 2 (= paduma-puppha Pj II 16); -muḷāla fibres and stalk of the lotus Ja V 39; Vism 361.

Bhukka (adjective) [from onomatopoetic root *bhukk, dialectical, cf. Prākrit bhukkai to bark, bhukkiya barking, bhukkana dog (Pischel, Pkt Gr. §209); the root bhukk (bukk) is given by Hemacandra 4, 98 in meaning "garjati" (see Pāli gajjati), cf. also Prākrit bukkaṇa crow] barking, noun a barker, i.e. dog; only in reduplicated intensive formation bho-bhu-kka (cf. English bow-wow), literally bhu-bhu-maker (kka from kr̥?) Ja VI 354 (Commentary: bhuṅ-karaṇa). See also bhussati.

Bhuja3 (adjective) [from bhuj to bend] bending, crooked, in bhuja-laṭṭhi betel-pepper tree Ja VI 456 (Commentary: bhujaṅgalatā, perhaps identical with bhujaka?), also in compound bhuja-ga going crooked, i.e. snake Miln 420 (bhujaginda king of snakes, the cobra); Dāṭh 2, 17; also as bhujaṅga Dāṭh 2, 56, and in derivation bhujaṅga-latā "snake-creeper," i.e. Name of the betel-pepper Ja VI 457; and bhujaṅgama S I 69. — Cf. bhogin2.

Bhujaka [from bhuj, as in bhuñjati2; or does it belong to bhuja3 and equal to bhuja-laṭṭhi?] a fragrant tree, growing (according to Dhpāla) only in the Gandhamādana grove of the Devaloka Vv 355; Vv-a 162.

Bhusa1 [cf. Vedic busa (neuter) and buśa (masculine)] chaff, husks A I 241 (°āgāra chaff-house); Dhp 252 (opuṇāti bhusaɱ to sift husks); Ud 78; Pv III 41; III 107; Vv-a 47 (tiṇa° litter).

Bhūja [cf. late Sanskrit bhūrja, with which related Latin fraxinus ash, Anglo-Saxon beorc = English birch, German birke] the Bhūrja tree, i.e. a kind of willow Ja V 195, 405 (in both places = ābhujī), 420.

Bhūta (6) all beings or specified existence, animal kingdom (sattā) D II 157; (7) the vegetable kingdom, plants, vegetation (rukkhādayo) Vin IV 34 (as bhūta-gāma). Meanings:-gāma vegetation, as trees, plants, grass, etc. Under bhūtagāma Buddhaghosa understands the 5 bīja-jātāni (5 groups of plants springing from a germinative power: see bīja), viz. mūla-bījaɱ, khandha°, phala°, agga°, bīja°. Thus in Comentary on Vin IV 34 (the so-called bhūtagāma-sikkhāpada, quoted at Dhp-a III 302 and Pj II 3); cf. M III 34; Ja V 46; Miln 3, 244;

Bhūtanaka [cf. Sanskrit bhūtr̥ṇa] a fragrant grass; Andropogon schoenanthus Ja VI 36 (= phanijjaka); Vism 543 (so v.l. for Text bhūtinaka).

Bheka [cf. Vedic bheka, onomatopoetic] a frog Thag 310; Ja III 430; IV 247; VI 208.

Bheraṇḍaka [cf. Sanskrit bheruṇḍa] a jackal Ja V 270

Bhoga2 [from bhuj to bend, cf. bhuja3 and Sanskrit bhoga the same Hālayudha 3, 20] the coil of a snake Ja III 58. See also nib°.

Bhogin2 (adjective) [from bhuj, see bhuja3] having coils, of a snake Ja III 57; VI 317.

Bhojjha a good horse, a Sindh horse Ja I 180.

Borassus Flabelliformis Palmyra


-----[ C ]-----

Cakora [Sanskrit cakora to kol (kor), see note on gala] the francolin partridge (Perdix rufa) Ja V 416; Vv 358; Vv-a 163. See also caṅkora.

Cakkavāka [Vedic cakravāka, cf. kr̥kavāku, to sound root kr̥, see note on gala] the ruddy goose (Anas Casarca) Ja III 520; IV 70f. (N. of Ja No. 451); Pv II 123; Miln 364, 401; — feminine cakkavākī Ja III 524; VI 189 = 501.

Caṅkora [cf. cakora] the Greek partridge Vv 358 (cf. Vv-a 163); Ja VI 538.

Candaka = canda Vv-a 278 (maṇi°); Saddh 92 (mayūra° the eye in a peacock's tail).

Candana (masculine and neuter) [derivation unknown. Possibly non-Aryan; but see under canda, Sanskrit candana] sandal (tree, wood or unguent, also perfume) Vin I 203; A I 9, 145, 226; III 237; Dhp 54; Ja V 420 (tree, m.); Miln 382; Dhp-a I 422; IV 189 (°pūjā); Vv-a 158 (agalu° with aloe and sandal); Pv-a 76. — Kāsika° sandal from Kāsī A III 391; IV 281; Miln 243, 348; ratta° red s. Ja IV 442; lohita° the same A V 22; Ja I 37; hari° yellow s. Ja I 146. -ussada covered with sandal perfumes Thag 267; Pv III 91 (= candana-sārānulitto Pv-a 211); -gaṇṭhi (or better gaṇḍi; see the latter) a block of sandalwood Vin II 110; -gandhin having a scent of sandal Ja III 190; -vilepana sandal unguent Ja IV 3. -sāra choice sandal (wood or perfume) Vv 523, Ja I 53, 340.

Camara [derivation unknown, probably non-Aryan. Sanskrit camara]
1. the Yak ox (Bos grunniens) Ja I 149; III 18, 375; V 416; Miln 365. — feminine -ī Ja I 20; Saddh 621. — In compounds camari° Ja IV 256.
2. a kind of antelope (°ī) Ja VI 537.
-vījanī (feminine) a chowry (the bushy tail of the Yak made into a brush to drive away flies) Vin II 130. This is one of the royal ensigns (see kakudhabhaṇḍa and cf. vāla-vījanī).

Campaka the champaka tree (Michelia champaka) A large tree, commonly grown in temples, with fragrant, light yellow flowers. A type of jasmine. Ja V 420; VI 269; Miln 338; Sv I 280; Vism 514 (°rukkha, in simile); Dhp-a I 384; Vv-a 194.


bark: ferbifuge, stimulant, expectorant, astringent; dried root and bark: purgative, in form of infusion useful emmenegogue; flowers and fruts: considered stimulant, antiseptic; mixed with sesame oil forms an external application in vertigo; oil from flowers: useful application in cephalalgia, opthalmia and gout; seeds and fruit: used for healing cracks in feet; essential oil 0.11%; habitat: wild in the eastern sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills up to 3,000 ft., Assam, W. Ghats and S. India; much cultivated in various parts of India.

Cāpa (masculine neuter) [Sanskrit cāpa, from *qēp tremble, cf. capala wavering, quivering] a bow M I 429 (opposed to kodaṇḍa); Dhp 156 (°ātikhīṇa shot from the bow, cf. Dhp-a III 132), 320 (ablative cāpāto metri causā); Ja IV 272; V 400; Miln 105 (daḷha°), 352. -lasuṇa (neuter) a kind of garlic Vin IV 259.

Calanī feminine (quick, + laṅghī) a kind of antelope Ja VI 537.

Carissa carandas A sort of shrub. [SN 5.52.4]

Campaka Michelia Champaka. A large tree, commonly grown in temples, with fragrant, light yellow flowers. A type of jasmine.

Ciṅgulaka (and °ika) (masculine neuter) 1. a kind of plant Snp 239 (= kaṇavīra-pupphasaṇṭhāna-sīsa Pj II 283).

Ciñcā (feminine) [Sanskrit ciñcā and tintiḍikā] the tamarind tree Ja V 38 (°vana); Pj II 78.

Citta1 and Citra (adjective) [to cetati; *(s)qait to shine, to be bright, cf. Sanskrit citra, Sanskrit Pāli ketu, Avesta ciϸro, Latin caelum, Anglo-Saxon hador, Old High German heitar, see also citta2] variegated, manifold, beautiful; tasty, sweet, spiced (of cakes), Ja IV 30 (geṇḍuka); Dhp 171 (rājaratha); Vv 479; Pv II 112 (aneka°); IV 313 (pūvā = madhurā Pv-a 251).
-patta (adjective) having variegated wings Ja VI 540, 590;
-pāṭalī (feminine) name of a plant (the "pied" trumpet-flower) in the world of Asuras Ja I 202; Dhp-a I 280;
-pekhuna having coloured wings Ja I 207; VI 539;
-miga the spotted antelope Ja VI 538;
-latā the plant Rubia Munjista Ja VI 278;
-vana the R.m. grove, one of Indra's gardens [Sanskrit caitraratha] Ja I 52, 104; II 188; VI 590, etc.

Cittaka (neuter) [to citta1] a sectarian mark on the forehead in °dhara-kumma a tortoise bearing this mark, a land-tortoise Miln 364, 408, cf. Q.K.M. II 352.

Cirīṭa [Sanskrit ciri, cf. kīra] a parrot Ja V 202 (in compounds cirīti°).

Cīnaka (masculine neuter) a kind of bean Snp 239 (= aṭavi-pabbatapadesu āropita-jāta-cīna-mugga Pj II 283); Ja V 405.

Cīriḷikā (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit cīrī and jhillikā a cricket, cīrilli a sort of large fish] a cricket A III 397 (v.l. cīrikā).

Cūḷa [Sanskrit cūḍa and cūlikā]
1. swelling, protuberance; root, knot, crest. As kaṇṇa-cūḷa the root of an elephant's ear Ja VI 488.

CetakaCetaka a decoy-bird (Commentary dīpaka-tittira, exciting partridge) Ja III 357.

Cetakedu a kind of bird Ja VI 538. See also cela°.

Cetasa1 name of a tree, perhaps the yellow Myrobalaɱ Ja V 420.

Celāvaka [cf. Sanskrit chilla?] a kind of bird Ja VI 538 (Commentary celabaka; is it celā bakā?); Ja V 416. See also celāpaka.

Coca (neuter) [Both derivation and meaning uncertain. The word is certainly not Aryan. See the note at Vinaya Texts II 132] the cocoa-nut or banana, or cinnamon Ja V 420 (°vana); -°pāna a sweet drink of banana or cocoa-nut milk Vin I 246.

Coraka [cf. Sanskrit coraka] a plant used for the preparation of perfume Ja VI 537.

Chakana and Chakaṇa (neuter) [Vedic śakr̥t and śakan; Greek κόπρος; Sanskrit chagana is later, see Trenckner, "Notes" 62 note 16] the dung of animals Vin I 202; Ja III 386 (ṇ); V 286; VI 392 (-ṇ-).

Chaṇaka [= akkhaṇa? Kern; cf. Sanskrit °ākhaṇa] the Chaṇaka plant Miln 352; cf. akkhaṇa.

Chattaka (masculine neuter) sunshade 2. ahi° "snake's sun-shade," name for a mushroom: toadstool D III 87; Ja II 95; a mushroom, toadstool Ja II 95.

Chadana 3. a leaf, foliage Ja I 87; Thag 527.

Challi [Sanskrit challi] bark, bast Dhp-a II 165; Sp 1135 on MV VIII 29.

Cheta an animal living in mountain cliffs, a sort of leopard S I 198.

Cheppā (feminine) [Sanskrit sépa] tail Vin I 191; III 21.


-----[ D ]-----

Daka (neuter) [= udaka, aphæretic from combinations like sītodaka which was taken for sīto + daka instead of sīt'odaka] Vin III 112; S III 85; A II 33 = Nidd II §420 B 3 (the latter has udaka, but Nidd I 14 daka). -āsaya (adjective) (beings) living in water A II 33;

Daṇḍa [Vedic daṇḍa, dialect = °dal[d]ra; (on ṇ : l cf. guṇa: guḷa etc.) to °del as in Sanskrit dala, dalati. Cf. Latin dolare to cut, split, work in wood; delere to destroy; Greek δαίδαλον work of art; Mhg. zelge twig; zol a stick. Possibly also from °dan[d]ra (r = l frequent, ṇ : l as tulā: tūṇa; veṇu: veḷu, etc. Cf. aṇḍa, caṇḍa), then it would equal Greek δένδρον tree, wood, and be connected with Sanskrit dāru] 1. stem of a tree, wood, wood worked into something, e.g. a handle, etc. Ja II 102; 405 (v.l. dabba); Vism 313; Pv-a 220 (nimbarukkhassa daṇḍena [v.l. dabbena] katasūla). tidaṇḍa a tripod. -paduma name of a plant (cf. Sanskrit daṇḍotphala = sahadevā, Abhidh-r-m) Ja I 51;

Daṇḍaka [deminutive of daṇḍa] -madhu "honey in a branch," a beehive Dhp-a I 59.

Daddara1 [onomatopoetic from the noise, cf. next and cakora, with note on gala] partridge Ja III 541.

Daddula1 a certain kind of rice D I 166; M I 78, 343; A I 241, 295; II 206; Pp 55.

Dadhi (neuter) [Sanskrit dadhi, reduplicated formation from dhayati to suck. Cf. also dhenu cow, dhīta, etc.] sour milk, curds, junket Vin I 244 (in enumeration of 5-fold cow-produce, cf. gorasa); D I 201 (the same); M I 316; A II 95; Ja II 102; IV 140; Miln 41, 48, 63; Dhs 646, 740, 875; Vism 264, 362. -ghaṭa a milk bowl Ja II 102; -maṇḍaka whey S II 111; -vāraka a pot of milk-curds Ja III 52.

Danta1 [Sanskrit danta from accusative dantaɱ of dat, genitive data = Latin dentis. Cf. Avesta dantan, Greek ὀδόντα, Latin dentem, Old-Irish det; Gothic tunpus, Old High German zand, Anglo-Saxon toot (= tooth) and tusc (= tusk); original present participle to °ed in atti to eat = "the biterative" cf. dāṭhā], a tooth, a tusk, fang, especially an elephant's tusk; ivory Vin II 117 (nāga-d. a pin of ivory); Vv-a 104 (īsā° long tusks); Pv-a 90, 152 (fang); Saddh 360. -ajina ivory M II 71 (gloss: dhanadhaññaɱ); -kāra an artisan in ivory ivory-worker D I 78; Ja I 320; Miln 331; Vism 336; -kūta tooth of a maimed bullock (?) (thus taking kūṭa as kūṭa4, and equivalent to kūṭadanta), in phrase asanivicakkaɱ danta-kūṭaɱ D III 44 = 47, which has also puzzled the translators (cf. D.B. III 40: "munching them all up together with that wheel-less thunderbolt of a jawbone," with note: "the sentence is not clear"). -vikati a vessel of ivory D I 78; M II 18; Ja I 320; Vism 336.

Dantaka a pin of tooth or ivory; makara° the tooth of a sword-fish Vin II 113, 117; IV 47. See details under makara.

Dabba2 (adjective/noun) [Sanskrit dravya, of dru wood, see dāru] treelike, wooden; a tree, shrub, wood Ja I 108 (d.-tiṇagaccha a jungle of wood and grass); V 46 (d.-gahana a thicket of shrubs and trees); Vism 353 (°tiṇa).

Dabbī (feminine) [Sanskrit darvī = *dāru-ī made of wood, see dāru] a (wooden) spoon, a ladle; (met.) the hood of a snake (dabbimattā, phaṇapuṭakā Dhp-a IV 132). — Dhp 64; genitive and instrumental davyā Ja III 218; Miln 365. — In compounds dabbi°. -mukha a kind of bird Ja VI 540 (= āṭa);

Dabbha [Sanskrit darbha to dr̥bhati, to plait, interlace, etc. Cf. Lithuanian darbas plaiting, crating] a bunch of kuśa grass (Poa Cynosuroides) D I 141; M I 344; A II 207. -puppha "kuśa-flower," especially of a jackal Ja III 334.

Dala (neuter) [Sanskrit dala, °del (various of °der, see dara) in dalati (q.v.) original a piece chipped off = a chip, piece of wood, cf. daṇḍa, Mhg. zelge (branch); Oir delb (figure, form), deil (staff, rod)] a blade, leaf, petal (usually —°); akkhi-d. eyelid Thig-a 259; Sv I 194; As 378; uppala° As 311; kamala° (lotus-petal) Vv-a 35, 38; muttā° (?) Sv I 252; ratta-pavāḷa° Ja I 75.

Dāṭhā (feminine) [Sanskrit daɱṣṭrā to ḍasati (q.v.), cf. also daṭṭha] a large tooth, fang, tusk; as adjective (-°) having tusks or fangs D II 18 (susukkha°); Ja I 505 (uddhaṭa-dāṭho viya sappo); IV 245 (nikkhanta°); Dhp-a I 215; Pv-a 152 (kaṭhina°); Saddh 286. -āvudha [Sanskrit daɱṣṭrāyudha] using a tusk as his weapon Ja V 172; -danta a canine tooth Pj I 44; -balin one whose strength lies in his teeth (of a lion) Snp 72.

Dāṭhin (adjective) [cf. Sanskrit daɱṣṭrin] having tusks Ja II 245; IV 348; Thag page 1; Saddh 286.

Dālikā and Dālima [Sanskrit dālika the colocynth and dāḍima the pomegranate tree] in °laṭṭhi a kind of creeper; equivalent to takkāri (?) Thig 297 (dālikā) = Thig-a 226 (dālikā and dālima).

Dāsima a species of tree Ja VI 536.

Dindibha [cf. Sanskrit ṭiṭṭibha?] a kind of bird Ja VI 538.

Dīgha(adjective/noun) 1. (adjective) long D I 17; M I 429; S I 104 (°ɱ addhānaɱ); Snp 146, 633 — dīghato lengthways Ja VI 185; dīghaso in length Vin IV 279; 2. (masculine) a snake (cf. Mvu II 45 dīrghaka) Ja I 324; II 145; IV 330. -jāti (feminine) a being of the snake kind, a snake Dhp-a III 322; also as °ka at Ja II 145; III 250; IV 333; V 449; Sv I 252;

Dīpa- and Dīpaka1 -tittira a decoy partridge (cf. dīpaka°) Ja III 64; -kakkara a decoy partridge Ja II 161; -tittira same Ja III 358; -pakkhin a decoy bird Ja V 376; -miga a d. antelope Ja V 376.

Dīpika [from dīpin] a panther Ja III 480.

Dīpin [Sanskrit dvīpin] a panther, leopard, tiger Vin I 186 dīpicamma a leopard skin = Sanskrit dvīpicarman); A III 101; Ja I 342; II 44, 110; IV 475; V 408; VI 538. dīpi-rājā king of the panthers Vism 270. — feminine dīpinī Miln 363, 368; Dhp-a I 48.

Duphasso (adjective), rough. masc. duphasso, name of a plant

Duma [Sanskrit druma = Greek δρυμός, see dāru] tree A III 43; Ja I 87, 272; II 75, 270; VI 249, 528; Vv 8414; Miln 278, 347; Vv-a 161. -agga 1. the top of a tree Ja II 155. 2. a splendid tree Vv 354. 3. a tooth-pick Ja V 156; -inda "king of trees," the Bodhi tree Dīp I 7; -uttama a magnificent tree Vv 393; -phala fruit of a tree M II 74; Vism 231 (in comparison).

Dūhana2 (neuter) [Sanskrit dohana, see dohati] milking (—°), in kumbha° filling the pails with milk, i.e. giving much milk (gāvo; cf. Sanskrit droṇadughā a cow which yields much milk) Snp 309.

Deḍḍubha [Sanskrit duṇḍubha] a water-snake; salamander Ja III 16; VI 194; Saddh 292.

Depiccha (adjective) [= dvepiccha, see dvi B I 5] having two tail-feathers Ja V 339.

Donī1 (feminine) [Sanskrit droṇī, see doṇa] 2. a trough-shaped canoe (cf. Marāthi ḍon "a long flat-bottomed boat made of unḍi wood,"(Calophyllum inophyllum linn), and Kanarese ḍoni "a canoe hallowed from a log"] Ja IV 163 (= gambhīrā mahānāvā page 164); Pv-a 189.

Doṇī2 (feminine) [Sanskrit droṇi?] an oil-giving plant (?)

Dovila (adjective) [Sanskrit?] being in the state of fructification, budding Ja VI 529 (cf. page 530); Miln 334.

Dhaṅka [Sanskrit dhvāṅkṣa, cf. also dhuṅkṣā] a crow S I 207; II 258; Snp 271 = Nidd II §420; Ja II 208; V 107, 270; VI 452; Pv III 52 (= kāka Pv-a 198); Vv-a 334.

Dhañña1 (neuter) [Vedic dhānya, derived from dhana] grain, corn. The usual enumeration comprises 7 sorts of grain, which is however not strictly confined to grain-fruit proper ("corn") but includes, like other enumerations, pulse and seeds. These 7 are sāli and vīhi (rice-sorts), yava (barley), godhuma (wheat), kaṅgu (millet), varaka (beans), kudrūsaka (?) Vin IV 264; Nidd II §314; Sv I 78. — Nidd II §314 distinguishes two oategories of dhañña: the natural (pubbaṇṇa) and the prepared (aparaṇṇa) kinds. To the first belong the 7 sorts, to the second belongs sūpeyya (curry). See also bīja-bīja. — Six sorts are mentioned at M I 57, viz. sāli, vīhi, mugga, māsa, tila, taṇḍula. D I 5 (āmaka°, q.v.); A II 209 (the same); M I 180; A II 32 (+ dhana); Thag 531; Pp 58; Dhp-a I 173; Vv-a 99; Pv-a 29 (dhanaɱ vā dh°ɱ vā), 198 (sāsapa-tela-missitaɱ), 278 (sappi-madhu-tela-dhaññādīhi voharaɱ katvā). — dhaññaɱ ākirati to besprinkle a person with grain (for good luck) Pv III 54 (= maṅgalaɱ karoti Pv-a 198, see also maṅgala). -āgāra a store house for grain Vin I 240; -piṭaka a basket full of grain Dhp-a III 370; -rāsi a heap of g. A IV 163, 170; -samavāpaka grain for sowing, not more and not less than necessary to produce grain M I 451.

Dhanu- (neuter) [Sanskrit dhanus, to Old High German tanna fir-tree, also oak, orig tree in general, cf. dāru] -kārika name of a tree Ja V 420; -kārin = preceding Ja V 422 (= °pāṭali); -takkāri (feminine) a plant Ja VI 535; -pāṭali name of a tree Ja V 422;

Dharaṇa As noun the Earth Ja V 311; VI 526; Miln 34; dharaṇī-ruha name of a tree Ja VI 482, 497; Miln 376.

Dhava1 [Sanskrit dhava = madhuratvaca, Abhidh-r-m] the shrub Grislea Tomentosa A I 202, 204; Ja IV 209; VI 528.

Dhenu (feminine) [Sanskrit dhenu, to dhayati to give suck, see dhātī and dhītar] a milch cow, a female animal in general Ja I 152 (miga° hind); Vv 806; Dhp-a I 170; 396; Pv-a 112. In simile at Vism 313.

Dhenupa [dhenu + pa from pibati] a suckling calf M I 79; Snp 26.

Ḍaɱsa [see ḍasati] a yellow fly, gadfly (originally "the bite") Nidd II §268 (= piṅgala-makkhika, same at Ja III 263 and Pj II 101).

Ḍāka (masculine neuter) [Sanskrit śāka (neuter) on ś < ḍ cf. Sanskrit śākinī < dākinī] green food, eatable herbs, vegetables Vin I 246 (°rasa), 248; Thig 1; Vv 206 (v.l. sāka); Vv-a 99 (= taṇḍuleyyakādi-sākavyañjana).

Dalbergia Sisu or the Asoka tree SN 5.56.31, AN 1.136, DN 2. 316, MilP. 413.

Diospyros embryopieris or the tiṇḍuka AN 3.27

Dumā trees: aṅgārin (burning) like coal, of bright red colour, crimson Thag 527 = Ja I 87 (dumā trees in full bloom).


-----[ E ]-----

Eṇi (feminine) [etymology? dialect] a kind of antelope, only two following compounds: °jaṅgha "limbed like the antelope" (one of the physical characteristics of the superman) D II 17; III 143, 156; M II 136; S I 16; Snp 165; °miga the eṇi deer Ja V 416; Pj II 207, 217.

Eraka2 (neuter) [from ereti] Typha-grass Ja IV 88. As eragu (?) a kind of grass used for making coverlets Vin I 196; Sv 356.

Eraṇḍa [dialect?] the castor oil plant Nidd II §680 II; Ja II 440. Cf. elaṇḍa.

erythinia indica SN 5.48.70

Elambaraka [?] Name of a creeping vine Ja VI 536.

Elāluka (Eḷāluka) (neuter) a kind of cucumber (?) Vv 3329; Ja I 205; V 37; Dhp-a I 278.

eḷamūga Eḷa (neuter) [Sanskrit enas] A rather strange use and explanation of eḷamūga (with reference to a snake "spitting") we find at Ja III 347, where it is explained as "eḷa-paggharantena mukhena eḷamūgaɱ" i.e. called eḷamūga because of the saliva (foam°) dripping from its mouth, v.l. elamukha. — Cf. neḷa and aneḷa. [BD]: there are a number of species of cobras that can project venom from their fangs.

Eḷaka2 [Sanskrit eḍaka] a ram, a wild goat Snp 309; Vism 500 (in simile); Ja I 166; Pp-a 233 (= urabbha). — feminine eḷakā S II 228, eḷakī Thig 438, eḷikī Ja III 481.

Eḷagalā (feminine) [dialect?] the plant Cassia Tora (cf. Sanskrit eḍagaja the ringworm-shrub, Cassia Alata, after Abhidh-r-m), Ja III 222 (= kambojī Commentary).

Oṭṭha2 [Vedic uṣṭra, feminine uṣṭrī, buffalo = Old High German Anglo-Saxon ur, Latin urus bison, aurochs. In classical Sanskrit it means a camel]. It is mentioned in two lists of domestic animals, Vin III 52; Miln 32. At Ja III 385 a story is told of an oṭṭhī-vyādhi who fought gallantly in the wars, and was afterwards used to drag a dung-cart Morris, JPTS 1887, 150 suggests elephant.


-----[ F ]-----


-----[ G ]-----

[from gaggara] a sort of fish Ja V 405; according to Kern Toev. s.v. (Sanskrit gargaraka, Pimelodus Gagora); as gaggalaka at Miln 197.

[Sanskrit gaccha, grassland. The passage Ja III 287 stands with gaccha, v.l. kaccha for gaccha at A IV 74; g° for k° at Snp 20] a shrub, a bush, usually together with latā, creeper and rukkha, tree, e.g. Nidd II §235, the same; Ja I 73; Miln 268; Vism 182 (described on page 183). With dāya, wood A IV 74. puppha° a flowering shrub Ja I 120; khuddaka°-vana a wood of small shrubs Ja V 37. — Pv-a 274; Vv-a 301 (-gumba, brushwood, underwood); Dhp-a I 171 (-pothana-ṭṭhāna); IV 78 (-mūla).

Gaja [Sanskrit gaja] an elephant Ja IV 494; Miln 2, 346; As 295 (applied to a kind of thought).
-potaka the young of an elephant Pv-a 152;
-rājā the king of the elephants Miln 346.

Gaṇa [Vedic gaṇa; °ger to comprise, hold, or come together, cf. Greek ἀγείρω to collective ἀγορά meeting, Latin grex, flock, Sanskrit jarante "conveniunt" (see Wackernagel, Altind. Gr. I 193). Another form of this root is grem in Sanskrit grāma, Latin gremium; see under gāma]
2. as —°: a collection of, viz., of gods, men, animals or things; a multitude, mass; flock, herd; host, group, cluster
(c) dvija° Ja I 152; dija° Pv II 124; sakuṇa°, of birds Ja I 207; II 352; go°, of cows A I 229; V 347, 359; Ja II 128; kākola°, of ravens Snp 675; bhamarā°, of bees Ja I 52; miga° of beasts Ja I 150.
(d) taru° a cluster of trees Pv-a 154; tāra°, a host of stars A I 215; Pv II 967; with reference to the books of the Canon: Suttantika° and Ābhidhammika° Vism 93.

Gaṇin2 a large species of deer Ja V 406 (= gokaṇṇa).

Gaṇṭhi (masculine) [Vedic granthi, to grem to comprise, hold together, cf. Latin gremium, Sanskrit gaṇa and grāma, see also gantha]
1. a knot, a tie, a knot or joint in a stalk (of a plant) Ja I 172; Sv I 163;

Gaṇṭhikā (feminine) (frequently spelled gaṇḍikā, q.v.) = gaṇṭhi, viz.
3. name of a plant Pv-a 127. — ucchugaṇṭhikā sugar cane: see ucchu.

Gaṇḍa [a variation of gaṇṭha (-i), in both meanings of
(1) swelling, knot, protuberance, and (2) the interstice between two knots or the whole of the knotty object, i.e. stem, stalk]
2. a stalk, a shaft, in name of a plant -°tindu-rukkha Ja V 99, and in derivatives gaṇḍikā and gaṇḍī, cf. also Avś II 13312.
-uppāda (literally producing upheavals, cf. a mole) an earth-worm, classed as a very low creature with kīṭā and puḷavā at M III 168; Ja V 210 (°pāṇa); Dhp-a III 361 (°yoni); Pj II 317.

Gaṇḍamba name of the tree, under which Gotama Buddha performed the double miracle; with reference to this frequently in phrase gaṇḍamba-rukkha-mūle yamakapāṭihāriyaɱ katvā Ja I 77; IV 263f.; Sv I 57; Pv-a 137; Miln 349; Dāṭh V 54. Also at Dhp-a III 207 in play of words with amba-rukkha.

Gaṇḍikā (feminine) [adjective/noun formation from gaṇḍa or gaṇṭha, see also gaṇṭhikā] 1. a stalk, a shaft (cf. gaṇḍī) Ja I 474; As 319 (of the branches of trees: g°-ākoṭana-sadda).
3. name of a plant Vv 354 (= bandhujīvaka Vv-a 161).

Gaddha [Vedic gr̥dha; see gijjha] a vulture; in gaddhabādhipubbo, of the bhikkhu Ariṭṭha, who had been a vulture trainer in a former life Vin II 25 = IV 218 = M I 130; see also Vinaya Texts II 377.

Gadrabha [Vedic gardabha., Latin burdo, a mule; see Walde Latin Wtb., s.v.] an ass, donkey Vin V 129; M I 334; A I 229; Ja II 109, 110; V 453; Sv I 163. — feminine gadrabhī Ja II 340.
-bhāraka a donkey load Ja II 109; Dhp-a I 123;
-bhāva the fact of being an ass Ja II 110;
-rava (and -rāva) the braying of an ass ibid. and Vism 415.

Gandhabba [Vedic gandharva]
2. a gandharva or heavenly musician, as a class (see °kāyika) belonging to the demigods who inhabit the Cātummahārājika realm D II 212; A II 39 (as birds); IV 200 (with asurā and nāgā), 204, 207; cf. S III 250f.; also said to preside over child-conception: M I 265f.; Miln 123f.
[BD:] (as birds ... presiding over child-conception) origin of the stork delivering babies?

Gaḷa [same as gala]
2. a swelling, a boil (= gaṇḍa) Ja IV 494 (mattā gajā bhinnagaḷā elephants in rut; explained on page 497 by madaɱ gaḷantā); Snp 61 (? v.l. gaṇḍa).

Gaḷocī (feminine). Name of a shrub (Cocculus cordifolius); in gaḷocilatā Dhp-a III 110; a creeper. Cf. pūtilatā.

Gava°Gava° base of the noun go, a bull, cow, used in compounds See gāv°, go.
-āghātana slaughtering of cows Vin I 182;
-āssa cows and horses Vin V 350; D I 5; Snp 769;
-caṇḍa fierce towards cows Pp 47;
-pāna milky rice pudding Ja I 33;
-(°m)pati "lord of cows," a bull Snp 26, 27 (usabha).

Gavaya (and gavaja) a species of ox, the gayal [Sanskrit gavaya, cf. gavala, buffalo] Ja V 406.

Gavi a tree-like creeper, in -pphala the fruit of a g. Snp 239 (= rukkhavalliphala Pj II).

Gāma-sūkara a village pig Ja III 393.

Gāvī (feminine) [see go] genitive singular gāviyā (Pp 56 = A II 207); nominative plural gāviyo (Pj II 323; Vv-a 308); genitive plural gāvīnaɱ Dhp-a I 396; Pj II 323; Vv-a 308). — A cow Vin I 193; A IV 418; Ja I 50; Ud 8, 49; Vism 525 (in simile); Dhp-a II 35; Vv-a 200.

Gijjha [Vedic gr̥dhra, cf. gijjhati]
1. (masculine) a vulture. Classed with kāka, crow and kulala, hawk M I 88; (kākā + g.), 364 (in simile, with kaṅkā and kulatā) 429 (the same); Snp 201 (kākā + g.); Pv-a 198 (+ kulalā). It occurs also in the form gaddha.
-kūṭa "Vulture's Peak" name of a hill near Rājagaha Vin II 193; Dhp-a I 140; Pv-a 10 and passim.
-potaka the young of a vulture Vism 537 (in simile).

Guñjā (feminine) a plant (Abrus precatorius); the redness of its berries is referred to in similes; Dhp-a IV 133 (°vaṇṇāni akkhīni). See also jiñjuka.

Guṇa3 [derivation unknown. Cf. Sanskrit ghuna] a woodworm Ja III 431 (°pāṇaka).

Go3Go (masculine-feminine) [Vedic go, Latin bos, Greek βοῦς, Old High German chuo, Anglo-Saxon cū = English cow] a cow, an ox, bull, plural cattle. For feminine cf. gāvī; see also gava° for compounds — Singular nominative go (Sn 580, also in composition, cf. aja-go-mahisādi Pv-a 80 = pasū); genitive gavassa (M I 429); instrumental gavena, gāvena; accusative gavaɱ, gāvan; ablative gavamhā, gavā (D I 201 = A II 95 = Pp 69); locative gavamhi, gāvimhi (Pj II 323), gave (Sn 310). — Plural nominative gāvo (D I 141; M I 225; A I 205; II 42f.; Snp 20, 296, 307; Ja I 295); genitive gonaɱ A II 75 (cf. Vedic gonām), gavaɱ (Ja IV 172, cf. gavaɱpati), gunnaɱ (A I 229, II 75; V 271; Ja I 194; III 112; IV 223); instrumental gohi (Sn 33); accusative gāvo (M I 225; A I 205; Snp 304; Dhp 19, 135); ablative gohi; locative gosu, gavesu. — See also gava, gavesati, goṇa. -kaṇṭaka the hoof of an ox, in °haṭā bhūmi, trampled by the feet of cattle Vin I 195; A I 136 (cf. Vinaya Texts II 34); -kaṇṇa a large species of deer Ja V 406 (= gaṇin), 416 (khagga + g.); As 331 (gavaya + g.); cf. next; -kula (neuter) a cow pen, a station of cattle S IV 289; -gaṇa a herd of cattle M I 220; A I 229; Ja II 127; Dhp-a I 175; Vv-a 311; -ghātaka one who kills cows, a butcher D II 294 (in simile); M I 58, 244, 364 (°sūnā, slaughterhouse); S II 255; IV 56; A III 302, 380; Ja V 270; Vism 348 (in simile). -cara I. Literal A. (masculine noun) pasture, literally "a cow's grazing," search after food; fodder, food, subsistence (a) of animals: Ja I 221; III 26; Dhp 135 (daṇḍena gopālo gāvo pāceti gocaraɱ: with a stick the cowherd drives the cattle to pasture). Sīho gocarāya pakkamati "the lion goes forth for his hunt" A II 33 = III 121; gocarāya gacchati to go feeding, to graze Snp 39; Ja I 243; gocare carati to go feeding, to feed Ja I 242. II. Applied. B. (adjective) —°: -caraṇa pasturing Ja VI 335; -ṭ-ṭha (neuter) [Sanskrit goṣṭha to sthā to stand; cf. Latin stabulum, stable; super-stes; Gothic awistr] a cow-stable, cow-pen M I 79; Ja IV 223; -pa [Sanskrit gopa, cf. gopati] a cowherd, herdsman Snp 18; Dhp 19; Ja IV 364 (a robber); Vism 166 (in simile); Dhp-a 157, feminine gopī Snp 22, 32; -pada a cow's footprint, a puddle A III 188; IV 102; Miln 287; also °padaka A III 188 v.l.; Sv I 283; -pariṇāyaka leader of the cows, especially of a bull (gopitā + g.) M I 220, 225; -pāla a cowherd (usually as °ka) Dhp 135; -pālaka = preceding Vin I 152, 243f.; M I 79, 115f., 220 = A V 347; M I 333; S IV 181; A I 205 (-°uposatha); Miln 18, 48; Vism 279 (in comparison); Dhp-a III 59; -pitā "father (protector) of the cows" = gavaɱ pati, especially of a bull M I 220 (+ °pariṇāyaka); -balivadda in °nayena; in the expression gobalivadda (black-cattle-bull) i.e. by an accumulation of words Vv-a 258; -bhatta cows' fodder Ja IV 67; -maṇḍala ox-beat, ox-round, Cp. III 15, 1 (as gā°), quoted Ja I 47 (cf. assa-m°); Pj II 39; also in phrase °paribbūḷha Snp 301 (explained by Pj II 320 as goyūthehi parikiṇṇa); Ja VI 27; at M I 79 however it means the cowherds or peasants (see note M I 536: gopāladārakā or gāmadārakā to v.l. gāmaṇḍala) cf. gāmaṇḍala; -maya (masculine neuter) cowdung M I 79; A I 209, 295; V 234, 250, 263f.; Nett 23; Dhp-a I 377. -°pāṇaka a coprophagan, dor-beetle Anoplotrupes stercorosus Ja II 156; -°piṇda a lump of cowdung Ja I 242; -°bhakkha eating cowdung D I 166; -māyu a jackal Pañca-g 49; -medha a cow sacrifice, in °yañña Pj II 323; -yūtha a herd of cows Pj II 322; Dhp-a I 323; -rakkhā (feminine) cow-keeping, tending cattle, usually combined with kasī, cultivation M I 85; Pv I 56; Ja I 338; II 128; given as a superior profession (ukkaṭṭha-kamma) Vin IV 6. -ravaka the bellowing of a cow M I 225; -rasa (usually plural) produce of the cow, enumerated in set of five, viz. khīra, dadhi, takka, navanīta, sappi (milk, cream, buttermilk, butter, ghee) Vin I 244; Dhp-a I 158, 323, 397; Vv-a 147; Pj II 322; -rūpa (collective) cattle Ja I 194; IV 173; Miln 396 (bull); -lakkhaṇa fortune telling from cows D I 9; -vatika [Sanskrit govratin] one who lives after the mode of cows, of bovine practices M I 387; Nett 99 (cf. govata As 355, and BMPE 240, note 1); -vittaka one whose wealth is cattle Ja I 191; -vinda the superintendent of cowherds A III 373; -sappi ghee from cow's milk Vin III 251; As 320; -sālā cow-stable A I 188; -siṅga a cow's horn Vism 254. -sita mixed with milk Vv-a 179; -sīsa (neuter) an excellent kind of sandalwood Pv-a 215 (cf. Avś I 67, 68, 109); -hanuka the jaw bone of a cow, in °ena koṭṭāpeti (koṭṭh° Ja) to massage with a cow's jaw bone Vin II 266, Ja IV 188; V 303.

Goṭhaphala a medicinal seed [Sanskrit gotravr̥kāṣa? Kern] Vin I 201.

Goṇa1 [Sanskrit goṇa, according to BR, is derived from the Pāli] an ox, a bullock S IV 195f.; Ja I 194; IV 67; Pv I 82; Pv-a 39, 40; Vv-a 63 (for ploughing); Sv I 163; Dhp-a III 60. — °sira wild ox Ja VI 538(= araññagoṇaka).

Goṇaka1 [goṇa1] a kind of ox, a wild bull Ja VI 538 (arañña°).

Goṇisādika an ox-stall Vin I 240; cf. Vinaya Texts II 121. As gonisādi Vin III 46.

Godhaka a kind of bird Ja VI 358.

Godharaṇī (feminine-adjective) being able to be paired (of a young cow), or being with calf (?) Snp 26.

Godhā1 (feminine) [Sanskrit godhā] iguana, a large kind of lizard, vavan, ZDMG 96 (1942), 23f. Vin I 215-16 (°mukha); D I 9 (°lakkhaṇa, cf. Sv I 94); Ja II 118; III 52; 538; Dhp-a III 420. As godha (masculine) at Ja V 489. Diminutive golikā at Ja II 147.

Godhūma wheat (usually mentioned with yava, spelt) Miln 267; Sv I 163; Pj II 323. See dhañña.

Grislea tomentosa AN 3.69

Ghaɱsikā in go°, cowhide (?) see go.

Ghara1 (neuter; plural °ā Dhp 241, 302) [cf. gaha and geha] a house A II 68; Snp 43 -kapoṭa [Sanskrit gr̥hakapota] the house-pigeon Miln 364, 403; -golikā house or domestic lizard Ja II 147. -sūkara a tame, domestic pig Dhp-a IV 16.

Ghara2 [a drink (cf. gala) and garala poison] (-°); -sappa a poisonous snake Dhp-a II 256.

Ghoṭaka [cf. Sanskrit ghoṭaka, Abhidh-r-m 2, 281] a (bad) horse Ja VI 452.


-----[ H ]-----

Haɱsa2 [cf. Sanskrit haɱsa = Latin (h)anser "goose," Greek χήν = Anglo-Saxon gōs = English goose, German gans] 1. a water-bird, swan S I 148; Snp 221, 350, 1134; Dhp 91, 175; Dhp-a II 170; Ja II 176f.; Pj II 277; Pv II 123; III 34. Considered as (suvaṇṇa-) rāja-haɱsa ("golden royal swan") to be king of the birds: Ja I 207; II 353; Vism 650. — At Pj II 277 Buddhaghosa gives various kinds of haɱsa's, viz. harita°, tamba°, khīra°, kāḷa°, pāka°, suvaṇṇa°. — pāka° a species of water bird Ja V 356; VI 539; Pj II 277. — feminine haɱsī Dāṭh V 24 (rāja°). -potaka a young swan Vism 153 (in simile); -rāja the king of swans Vv 358; Vin IV 259.

Haṭa2 [cf. Sanskrit haṭha and haṭa] a kind of water-plant, Pistia stratiotes D I 166; M I 78, 156; Pp 55 (text sāta-); A I 241, 295 (v.l. sāta; cf. hāṭaka).

Hatthin [Vedic hastin, literally endowed with a hand, i.e. having a trunk] an elephant Vin I 218, 352; II 194f. (Nālāgiri) = Ja V 335 (nominative singular hatthī; genitive hatthissa); D I 5; A II 209; Ja I 358; II 102; Dhp-a I 59 (correct haṭṭhi!), 80 (accusative plural hatthī); size of an elephant Miln 312; one of the seven treasures D I 89; II 174; often mentioned together with horses (°assādayo), e.g. A IV 107; M III 104; Vism 269; Dhp-a I 392. ekacārika-h., an elephant who wanders alone, a royal elephant Ja III 175; caṇḍa h. rogue elephant M I 519; Sv I 37. — hatthinī (feminine) a she-elephant Dhp 105. hatthinikā (feminine) the same Vin I 277; D I 49; Sv I 147. -atthara elephant rug Vin I 192; D I 7; A I 181; -ācariya elephant trainer Vin I 345; Ja II 94, 221, 411; IV 91; Miln 201; -āroha mounted on an elephant, an elephant-driver D I 51; S IV 310; -ālaṅkāra elephant's trappings Ja II 46; -kanta = manta el. charm Dhp-a I 163; -kantavīṇā lute enticing an elephant Dhp-a I 163; -kalabha the young of an elephant A IV 435; -kumbha the frontal globe of an elephant Ja II 245; -kula elephant species, ten enumerated at Vibh-a 397; -kkhandha the shoulder or back of an elephant Ja I 313; Mhv 6, 24. Pv-a 75. 178; -gopaka an elephant's groom or keeper Ja I 187; -damaka elephant tamer M III 132, 136; Pj II 161; -damma an elephant in training M III 222; -nakha a sort of turrent projecting over the approach to a gate; °ka provided with such turrets, or supported on pillars with capitals of elephant heads Vin II 169; -pada an elephant's foot M I 176, 184; S V 43; Ja I 94; -pākāra "elephant-wall," wall of the upper storey with figures of elephants in relief Mhv 33, 5. See Mhv translation 228, note 2; -ppabhinna a furious elephant Dhp 326; M I 236; -bandha Ja I 135 = hatthibhaṇḍa; -bhaṇḍa an elephant keeper Vin I 85; II 194; -magga elephant track Ja II 102; -maṅgala an elephant festival Ja II 46; -matta only as big as an elephant Ja I 303; -māraka elephant hunter Dhp-a I 80; -meṇḍa an elephant's groom Ja III 431; V 287; VI 498; -yāna an elephant carriage, a riding elephant D I 49; Sv I 147; Pv-a 55; -yuddha combat of elephants (as a theatrical show) D I 6; -rūpaka elephant image or picture, toy elephant (+ assa°) Dhp-a II 69; -laṇḍa elephant dung Dhp-a IV 156; -liṅgasakuṇa a vulture with a bill like an elephant's trunk Dhp-a I 164; -vatta elephant habit Nidd I 92; -sālā elephant stable Vin I 277; II 194; Dhp-a I 393; -sippa the elephant lore, the professional knowledge of elephant-training Ja II 221f. -sutta an elephant-trainer's manual Ja II 46 (cf. Mallinātha on Raghuv. VI 27); -soṇḍaka "elephant trunk," an under-garment arranged with appendages like elephant trunks Vin II 137.

Hari-pada gold foot, yellow leg, a deer Ja III 184.

Hariṇa [from hari] a deer Ja II 26.

Haritaka (neuter) [harita + ka] a pot-herb D II 342.

Harītaka [cf. Epic Sanskrit harītaka] yellow myrobalaɱ (Terminalia citrina or chebula) Vin I 201, 206; Ja I 80; IV 363; Miln 11; As 320 (Text harīṭaka); Vv-a 5 (ṭ); -kī (feminine) the myrobalan tree Vin I 30; M III 127. pūtiharīṭakī Vism 40; -paṇṇika all kinds of greens Vin II 267.

Hareṇukā (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit hareṇukā] a pea M I 245; Ja V 405 (= aparaṇṇajā ti 406); VI 537; hareṇuka-yūsa pea-soup M I 245 (one of the 4 kinds of soup).

Haliddā and Haliddī (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit haridrā] turmeric. 1. haliddā: Vin I 201; Ja V 89.

Hiṅgu (neuter) [Sanskrit hiṅgu] the plant asafetida Vin I 201; Vv-a 186. -cuṇṇa powder of asafetida Dhp-a IV 171; -rāja a sort of bird Ja VI 539.

Hintāla [hiɱ + tāla] a kind of palm, Phoenix paludosa Vin I 190; Dhp-a III 451.

Hīraka [hīra + ka, cf. lexicografic Sanskrit hīraka "diamond"] a splinter; tāla° "palm-splinter," a name for a class of worms Vism 258.

Hukku the sound uttered by a jackal Ja III 113.

Hesati [both heṣ (Vedic) and hreṣ (Epic Sanskrit); in Pāli confused with hr̥ṣ (hasati): see hasati2] to neigh Ja I 51, 62 (here hasati); V 304 (Text siɱsati for hiɱsati; commentary explains hiɱsati as "hessati," cf. abhihiɱsanā for °hesanā).


-----[ I ]-----

Inda-sāla Name of tree Ja IV 92.

Indagopaka [inda + gopaka, cf. Vedic indragopā having Indra as protector] — a sort of insect ("cochineal, a red beetle", BR), observed to come out of the ground after rain Thag 13; Vin III 42; Ja IV 258; V 168; Dhp-a I 20; Ps.B page 18, n.

Indavāruṇī (feminine) [inda + vāruṇa] the Coloquintida plant Ja IV 8 (°ka-rukkha).

Indīvara Indīvara (neuter) [etymology?] the blue water lily, Nymphaea Stellata or Cassia Fistula Ja V 92 (°ī-samā ratti); VI 536; Vv 451 (= uddālaka-puppha Vv-a 197).

Isikā (isīkā) (feminine) [Sanskrit iṣīkā] a reed D I 77, cf. Sv I 222; Ja VI 67 (isikā).

Issā2 (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit r̥śya-mr̥ga] in issammiga (= issāmiga) Ja V 410, and issāmiga Ja V 431, a species of antelope, cf. Ja V 425 issāsiṅga the antlers of this antelope.


-----[ J ]-----

The Judas Tree Butea Fondosa

Jagatī (feminine) [see jagat] only in compounds as jagati°: -ruha earth grown, i.e. a tree Ja I 216.

Jaṭā (b) the tangled branches of trees Ja I 64.

Jantu2 a grass Vin I 196.

JambuJambu (feminine) [Sanskrit jambu] the rose-apple tree, Eugenia Jambolana Ja II 160; V 6; Vv 67; 4413. — As adjective feminine jambī sarcastically "rose-apple-maid," applied to a gardener's daughter Ja III 22. -dīpa the country of the rose-apples i.e. India Ja I 263; Vv-a 18; Miln 27; -nada see jambonada; -pakka the fruit of Eugenia jambolana, the rose-apple (of black or dark colour) Vism 409; -pesī the rind of the r̥-a. fruit Ja V 465; -rukka the r̥-a. tree Dhp-a III 211; -saṇḍa rose-apple grove (= -dīpa, name for India) Snp 552 = Thag 822.

Jambuka [Sanskrit jambuka, to jambh?] a jackal Ja II 107; III 223.

Jaya [see jayati] vanquishing, overcoming, victory D I 10; Snp 681; Ja II 406; opposite parājaya Vism 401. -sumana "victory's joy," name of a plant (cf. jātisumana) Vism 174; Dhp-a I 17, 383.

Jayā feminine [Vedic jāyā] wife only in compound jayampatikā, the lady of the house and her husband, the two heads of the household. husband and wife, a married couple S II 98; Ja I 347; IV 70, of birds.

Jara (adjective) (-°) old, decayed (in disparaging sense), wretched, miserable; -goṇa [cf. Sanskrit jaradgava] a decrepit, old bull Ja II 135;

Jalūkā leech Sv I 117.

Jalūpikā (feminine) [Sanskrit jalūkikā = jalūkā and (popular etymology) jalaṅkā (sprung from water), borrowed from name personal Salū (? Uhlenbeck); cf. Greek βδέλλα leech, Celt. gel; perhaps to gal in the sense of such (?)] a leech Miln 407.

Jalogi (neuter°) toddy (i.e. juice extracted from the palmyra, the date or the cocoa palm) Vin II 294 (pātuɱ the drinking of j.), 301, 307; Mhv 4, 10.

Jāta- 4. -āmaṇḍa the (wild) castor oil plant Vv-a 10

Jāti- -puppha nutmeg Ja VI 367; -sindhava a well-bred horse Ja II 97;

Jāla1 (neuter) [Vedic jāla, probably from jaṭ to plait, make a tangle cf. jaṭita and jaṭā; on l:ṭ cf. phulla: sphuṭa; cāru: cāṭu; cela: ceṭa] a net; netting, entanglement (literal or figurative): snare, deceptīon (= māyā). A. Literal. a spider's web Dhp 347;

Jālaka (neuter) [jāla1 + ka] 2. a bud A IV 117f. (°jāta in bud).

Jiñjuka the gunja shrub (Abrus precatorius) Ja IV 333 (akkhīni j.°phalasadisāni, cf. in same application guñjā); V 156 (j.°phalasannibha); Dhp-a I 177 (°gumba).

Jīraka2 cummin-seed Miln 63; Ja I 244; II 363; Vv-a 186.

Jīva2 (neuter) the note of the jīvaka bird Sv on D III 201.

Jīvaɱ-jīvaka (masculine onomatopoetic) name of a bird, a sort of pheasant (or partridge?), which utters a note sounding like jīvaɱ jīva D III 201; Ja V 406, 416; VI 276, 538 [Fausbøll reads jīvajīvaka in all the Jātaka passages. Speyer Avś II 227 has jīvañjīvaka]. With this cf. the Jain phrase jīvaɱjīveṇa gacchaï jīvaɱjīveṇaɱ ciṭṭhaï, Weber Bhagavatī pages 289, 290, with doubtful interpretation ("living he goes with life"? or "he goes like the j. bird"?).

Jīvaka (adjective) = jīva, in bandhu° name of a plant Vv-a 43. — feminine -ikā q.v.

Jhāmaka name of a plant Ja VI 537.


-----[ K ]-----

Kakaṇṭaka the chameleon Ja I 442, 487; II 63; VI 346; Vv-a 258.

Kakudha [cf. Sanskrit kakuda
4. a tree, the Terminalia Arjuna, Vin I 28; Ja VI 519; kakudha-rukkha Dhp-a IV 153.
-phala the fruit of the kakudha tree.

Kakka 1 [cf. Sanskrit kalka, also kalaṅka and kalusa] a sediment deposited by oily substances, when ground; a paste Vin I 205 (tila°), 255. Three kinds enumerated at Ja VI 232: sāsapa° (mustard paste), mattika° (fragrant earth paste, cf. Fuller's earth), tila° (sesamum paste). At Sv I 88, a fourth paste is given as haliddi°, used before the application of face powder (poudre de riz, mukha-cuṇṇa). Cf. kakku.

Kakkaṭa a large deer (?) Ja VI 538 (explained as mahāmiga).

Kakkaṭaka [cf. Sanskrit karkaṭa, karkara "hard," kaṅkata "mail"; cf. Greek καρκίνος and Latin cancer; also BHS kakkaṭaka hook] a crab S I 123; M I 234; Ja I 222; Vv 546 (Vv-a 243, 245).
-nala a kind of sea-reed of reddish colour, Ja IV 141; also a name for coral, ibid.
-magga fissures in canals; frequented by crabs, As 270.
-rasa a flavour made from crabs, crab-curry, Vv-a 243.

Kakkara [onomat, cf. Sanskrit kr̥kavāku cock, Greek κέρκαξ, κερκίς, Latin querquedula, partridge;] — a jungle cock used as a decoy Ja II 162, purāṇa°, II 161; cf. dīpaka1 and see Kern, Toev. page 118: K°-Jātaka, N° 209.

Kakkaru a kind of creeper (°jātāni = valliphalāni) Ja VI 536.

Kakkārika (and °uka) [from karkaru] a kind of cucumber Vv 3328 = eḷāluka Vv-a 147.

Kakkāru (Sanskrit karkāru, connected with karkaṭaka
1. a pumpkin-gourd, the Beninkāsa Cerifera Ja VI 536: kakkārujātāni = valliphalāni.
2. a heavenly flower Ja III 87, 88 = dibbapuppha

Kakku [cf. kakka = kalka] a powder for the face, slightly adhesive, used by ladies, Ja V 302 where 5 kinds are enumd: sāsapa°, loṇa°, mattika°, tila°, haliddi°.

Kaṅka [Sanskrit kaṅka, to sound-root kr̥, cf. kiṅkiṇika and see note on gala] a heron M I 364, 429; Ja V 475.
-patta a heron's plume Ja V 475.

Kaṅkata [= kaɱ or kiɱ + kr̥ta, to kiṇi, "the tinklings"] elephant's trappings Vv-a 104 (= kappa).

Kaṅgu (feminine) [derivation unknown, probably non-Aryan, cf. Sanskrit kaṅgu] the panic seed, Panicum Italicum; millet, used as food by the poor (cf. piyaṅgu); mentioned as one of the seven kinds of grains (see dhañña) at Vin IV 264; Sv I 78. — Miln 267; Mhv 32, 30.
-piṭṭha millet flour, in °maya made of m. meal Ja VI 581.
-bhatta a dish of (boiled) millet meal Vism 418 (in simile).

Kaccikāra a kind of large shrub, the Caesalpina Digyna Ja VI 535.

Kaccha1 (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit kaccha, probably dialect
1. marshy land, marshes; long grass, rush, reed S I 52 (te hi sotthiɱ gamissanti kacche vāmakase magā), 78

1. a kind of fig-tree Sv I 81.
2. the tree Cedrela Toona Vin IV 35; S V 96; Vism 183.

Kacchapa [Sanskrit kacchapa, dialect from °kaśyapa, original epithet of kumma, like magga of paṭipadā] a tortoise, turtle S IV 177 (kummo kacchapo); in simile of the blind turtle (kāṇo k.) M III 169 = S V 455; Thig 500 (cf. JPTS 1907, 73, 174). — feminine kacchapinī a female t. Miln 67.
-lakkhaṇa "tortoise-sign," i.e. fortune-telling on the ground of a tortoise being found in a painting or an ornament; a superstition included in the list of tiracchāna-vijjā D I 9; Sv I 94.
-loma "tortoise-hair," i.e. an impossibility, absurdity Ja III 477, cf. sasavisāṇa;
-maya made of t. hair Ja III 478.

kacchu, [derivation uncertain, cf. Sanskrit kacchu, dialect for kharju: perhaps connected with khajjati, eating, biting
1. the plant Carpopogon pruriens, the fruit of which causes itch when applied to the skin Dhp-a III 297 (mahā°-phalāni).
-cuṇṇa the powdered fruit of Carpopogon pruriens, causing itch Dhp-a III 297.

Kañcaka, a kind of tree (dāsima°) Ja VI 536 (explained as "dve rukkha-jātiyo"). B mss have koñcaka.

Kañcana, (neuter) [derivation uncertain, cf. Sanskrit kāñeana, either from khacati (shine = the shining metal, cf. kāca (glass) and Sanskrit kāś), or from kanaka gold, cf. Greek κνηκός (yellow). Pāli kañcana is poetical] — gold A III 346 = Thag 691 (muttaɱ selā va k.); Thig 266 (k°ssa phalakaɱ va); Vv-a 4, 9 (= jātarūpa). Especially frequent in compounds = of or like gold. -kadalikkhaṇḍa a g. bunch of bananas Ja VI 13. -bimba the golden bimba fruit Vv 366

Kañcuka, [from kañc (kac) to bind, cf. Greek κάκαλα fetter, Sanskrit kañcuka]
2. the slough of a snake (cf. 1) Sv I 222.

Kañjiya, (neuter) = kañjika; Ja III 145 (ambila°); VI 365 (°āpaṇa); Dhp-a II 3; IV 164.
-teḷa a thick substance rising as a scum on rice-gruel, used in straightening arrows Dhp-a I 288.

Kaṭa1, [Sanskrit kaṭa from kr̥ṇatti: to do wicker-work, roll up, plait; °gert, cf. Greek κάρταλος, Latin cratis = English crate, Gothic haurds, English hurdle] a mat: see compounds and kaṭallaka.
-sara a reed: Saccharum Sara, used as medicine As 78.
-sāra (Dhp-a I 268) and sāraka a mat for sitting or lying on, made of the stalks of the screw-pine, Pandanus Furcatus Ja VI 474; V 97; Sv I 137; Dhp-a II 183

Kaṭuka, (adjective) [Sanskrit kaṭu(ka), from °(s)qṷer to cut; cf. Sanskrit krṇoti (krṇtati), Latin caro "cutlet." — k. is almost exclusively poetical; usually explained in prose by aniṭṭha, tikhiṇa, ghora (of Niraya); often combined with khara, past participle madhura, e.g. Pv-a 119] — sharp, bitter, acid, severe. 2. (neuter) pungency, acidity, bitterness D II 349 = Ja I 380; Thig 503 (pañca°); Ja VI 509.
-pabhedana (adjective) having a pungent juice exuding from the temples, said of an elephant in rut Dhp 324 (= tikhiṇamada Dhp-a IV 13).
-pphala a kind of perfume made of the berry of an aromatic plant Ja II 416 = Dhp-a III 475 (kappūra-k.-ādīni), cf. Sanskrit kakkolaka. — (adjective) of bitter fruit Ja II 106 (of the mango); S I 57 = Ja III 291 = Dhp 66 (of kamma); Pv I 1110 (the same).
-bhaṇḍa (singular and plural) spices. There are 4 enumerated at Ja III 86: hiṅgujīraka, siṅgiveraka, marica, pipphali; 3 at Vv-a 186 (as tikaṭuka, cf. kaṭula): ajamoja, hiṅgujīraka, lasuṇa; Pv-a 135; Dhp-a II 131.
-rohiṇī the black hellebore Vin I 201 (as medicine).

Kaṭerukkha, a kind of creeper Ja VI 536 (perhaps read as next).

Kaṭeruha, a flowering plant Ja VI 537 (= pupphagaccha). Cf. kaseruka.

Kaṭṭha2, (adjective) [Sanskrit kaṣṭa] bad, useless: see kaṭṭhaka2. Only in compounds; perhaps also in pakaṭṭhaka.
-aṅga pithless, sapless, of no value (of trees) Ja II 163 = Dhp-a I 144.
-mukha "with the injurious mouth," a kind of snake As 300.

Kaṭṭhaka1, (masculine neuter) [to kaṭṭha3] a kind of reed Dhp 164; Dhp-a III 156 (= velu-saṅkhāta-kaṭṭha).

Kaṇa, derivation uncertain, possibly connected with kana; positive of kanīyān = small; Vedic kaṇa] the fine red powder between the husk and the grain of rice, husk powder D I 9 (°homa), explained at Sv I 93 by kuṇḍaka. (adjective) made of husk powder or of finely broken rice, of cakes Ja I 423 (k.-pūva = kuṇḍakena pakka-pūva). — akaṇa (adjective) free from the coating of red powder. characteristic of the best rice Mhv 5, 30; Anāg 27 (akaṇaɱ karoti to whiten the rice). Cf. kākaṇa.

Kaṇavīra, [Sanskrit karavīra] Nerium odorum, oleander, the flower of which is frequently used in the garland worn by criminals when led to the place of execution (cf. J.S. IV 119 and Mr̥cchakaṭika X. beginning: diṇṇa-kalavīla-dāme. See also under kaṇṭha) Vism 183 (-n-); As 317; Pj II 283; Vv-a 177; cf. next. — Bhānu light, bright-red Ja III 62 (of the kaṇavera flower); Vv-a 175 (°raɱsi).

Kaṇikāra, (masculine neuter) and kaṇṇikāra Ja IV 440; V 420; the difference stated at Ja V 422 is kaṇi° = mahāpupphā kaṇṇi° = khuddakapupphā) [Sanskrit karṇikāra]
1. (masculine) the tree Pterospermum acerifolium Ja I 40; V 295; VI 269, 537.
2. (neuter) its (yellow) flower (k-puppha), taken metaphorically as typical emblem of yellow and of brightness. Thus in similes at D II 111 (= pīta) = M II 14 (-ṇṇ-) = A V 61 (-ṇṇ-); Dhp-a I 388; of the yellow robes (kāsāyāni) Ja II 25; with reference to the blood of the heart Vism 256; = golden Vv-a 65; Dhp-a II 250 (v.l. -ṇṇ-).
-makula a k. bud Ja II 83.

Kaṇeru, (masculine feminine) [derivation uncertain, just possibly connected with kara, trunk. Sanskrit has kareṇu, but the medieval vocabularies give also kaṇeru] a young elephant Ja II 342; IV 49; V 39, 50, 416; VI 497; Dhp-a I 196 (v.l.) kareṇukā) — feminine °kā M I 178. — See also kareṇu.

Kaṇṭa, (cf. next) a thorn Miln 351.

Kaṇṭaka, [From kantati2 to cut. Sanskrit kaṇṭaka. Spelt also kaṇṭhaka]
1. a thorn Snp 845; Vin I 188; Ja V 102; VI 105 (in description of the Vetaraṇī); cf. kusa°. — akaṇṭaka 1. free from thorns Ja II 118; V 260.
-āpacita covered with thorns Ja VI 249 (cf. -ācita)
-ācita covered with thorns Ja V 167.
-ādhāna a thorny brake, a thorny hedge M I 10 (k-dhāna; for dhāna = ṭhāna see dhāna and cf. rāja-dhānī); A I 35; Miln 220.
-gahana a thorny thicket or jungle S II 228.
-gumba a th. bush Ja I 208.
-latā a th. creeper, the Capparis Zeilanica Ja V 175.
-vaṭṭa a thorny brake or hedge M I 448.

Kaṇṭhaka1, thorn, see kaṇṭaka.

Kaṇḍu1, (feminine) [perhaps from °kanad to bite, scratch; cf. Sanskrit kandara, Greek κναδάλλω to bite, κνώδων, κνώδαλον, etc., Sanskrit kaṇḍu masculine and f.] the itch, itching, itchy feeling, desire to scratch Vin I 202, 296; Ja V 198; Vism 345. kaṇḍuɱ karoti to make or cause to itch Ja V 198; vineti to allay the itch, to scratch Ja V 199. — (figurative) worldly attachment, irritation caused by the lusts, in "kaṇḍuɱ saɱhanti" (as result of jhāna) A IV 437.
-uppala a kind of lotus-blossom Dāṭh IV 48;

Kaṇṇikā, (feminine) [cf. kaṇṇaka and Sanskrit karṇikā]
2. the pericarp of a lotus Ja I 152, 183; V 416; Miln 361; Vism 124 (paduma°); Vv-a 43.

Kadamba, (cf. Sanskrit kadamba] the kadamba tree, Nauclea cordifolia (with orange-coloured, fragrant blossoms) Ja VI 535, 539; Vism 206; Dhp-a I 309 (°puppha); Mhv 25, 48 (the same).

Kadala, (neuter) the plantain tree Kacc 335.

Kadalī1, (feminine) [Sanskrit kadalī]
1. the plantain, Musa sapientium. Owing to the softness and unsubstantiality of its trunk it is used as a frequent symbol of unsubstantiality, transitoriness and worthlessness. As the plantain or banana plant always dies down after producing fruit, is destroyed as it were by its own fruit, it is used as a simile for a bad man destroyed by the fruit of his own deeds: S I 154 = Vin II 188 = S II 241 = A II 73 = Dhp-a III 156; cf. Miln 166; — as an image of unsubstantiality, Cp. III 2, 4. The tree is used as ornament on great festivals: Ja I 11; VI 590 (in simile), 592; Vv-a 31.
2. a flag, banner, i.e. plantain leaves having the appearance of banners (-dhaja) Ja V 195; VI 412. In compounds kadali°.
-khandha the trunk of the plantain tree, often in similes as symbol of worthlessness, e.g. M I 233 = S III 141 = IV 167; Vism 479; Nidd II §680 A (II)4n; Ja VI 442; as symbol of smoothness and beauty of limbs Vv-a 280;
-taru the plantain tree Dāṭh V 49;
-toraṇa a triumphal arch made of pl. stems and leaves Mhbv 169;
-patta a pl. leaf used as an improvised plate to eat from Ja V 4; Dhp-a I 59;
-phala the fruit of the plantain Ja V 37.

Kadalī2, (feminine) a kind of deer, an antelope only in °miga Ja V 406, 416; VI 539; Sv I 87; and °pavara-paccattharaṇa (neuter) the hide of the k. deer, used as a rug or cover D I 7 = A I 181 = Vin I 192 = II 163, 169; cf. D. II 187; (adjective) (of pallaṅka) A I 137 = III 50 = IV 394.

Kanda, [Sanskrit kanda] a tuberous root, a bulb, tuber, as radish, etc. Ja I 273; IV 373; VI 516; Vv-a 335; °mūla bulbs and roots (°phala) D I 101; a bulbous root Ja V 202.

Kandala, Name of a plant with white flowers Ja IV 442. -makuḷa knob (?) of k. plant Vism 253 (as in description of sinews).

Kandaḷa, Name of esculent water lily, having an enormous bulb D I 264.

Kapiñjala, [derivation unknown. Sanskrit kapiñjala] a wild bird, possibly the francolin partridge Kv 268; Ja VI 538 (B.B. kapiñjara).

Kapiṭṭha, and °ttha
1. the tree Feronia elephantum, the wood-apple tree Ja VI 534; Vism 183 (°ka); Mhv 29, 11;
2. °ɱ (neuter) the wood apple Miln 189;

Kapiṭhana, the tree Thespesia populneoides Vin IV 35.

Kapila, (adjective) [Sanskrit kapila, cf. kapi] brown, tawny, reddish, of hair and beard Vv-a 222; °ā feminine a brown cow Dhp-a IV 153.

Kapota, [Sanskrit kapota, greyish blue, cf. kapi) 1. (masculine) a pigeon, a dove Ja I 243; Miln 403;
2. (feminine) °i a female pigeon Pv-a 47; — °ka (feminine °ikā Miln 365) a small pigeon Ja I 244.

Kappa-, 2. (temporal) a "fixed" time, time with reference to individual and cosmic life. As āyu at Sv I 103 (cf. kappaɱ); as a cycle of time = saɱsāra at Snp 521, 535, 860 (na eti kappaɱ); as a measure of time: an age of the world Vin III 109; Miln 108; Saddh 256, 257; Pv-a 21; It 17 = Abhidh-av 87 = S II 185.
-rukkha the tree that lasts for a kappa, reference to the cittapāṭalī, the pied trumpet-tree in the abode of the Asuras Ja I 202;
-rukkha a wishing tree, magical tree, fulfilling all wishes; sometimes figurative Ja VI 117, 594; Vism 206; Pv-a 75, 176, 121; Vv-a 32 (where combined with cintāmaṇi); Dhp-a IV 208;
-latā a creeper like the kapparukkha Vv-a 12;

Kappāsa, [cf. Sanskrit karpāsa]
1. the silk-cotton tree Ja III 286; VI 336.
2. cotton D II 141; A III 295; S V 284; Ja I 350; VI 41; combined with uṇṇa A III 37 = IV 265 = 268.
-aṭṭhi a cotton seed Dhp-a III 71;
-paṭala the film of the cotton seed Vism 446; Abhidh-av 66;
-picu cotton S V 284; Ja V 110, 343; VI 184:
-maya made of cotton Pv-a 77.

Kappāsika, (adjective) made of cotton D II 188, cf. A IV 394; D II 351; Vin I 58 = 97 = 281; Ja VI 590; Pv II 117. (neuter) cotton stuff Miln 267.
-paṇṇa the leaf of the cotton tree, used medicinally Vin I 201;
-sukhuma fine, delicate cotton stuff D II 188; A IV 394; Miln 105.

Kappāsī, (feminine) [= kappāsa] cotton Ja VI 537; Pv-a 146.

Kamala, (neuter) a lotus, frequently combined with kuvalaya; or with uppala Ja I 146; Sv I 40, explained as vārikiñjakkha Pv-a 77.
1. lotus, the lotus flower, Nelumbium Ja I 146; Sv I 40; Mhbv 3; Saddh 325; Vv-a 43, 181, 191; Pv-a 23, 77; — At Ja I 119, 149 a better reading is obtained by correcting kambala to kamala, at Ja I 178 however kamb° should be retained.
2. a kind of grass, of which sandals were made Vin. I 190 (see Vinaya Texts II 23 note)
-dala a lotus leaf Vism 465; Mhbv 3; Abhidh-av 19; As 127; Vv-a 35, 38.

Kamboji, (masculine, neuter) [meaning and etymology unexplained] the plant Cassia tora or alata Ja III 223 (°gumba = elagalāgumba; vv.ll. kammoja° and tampo° [for kambo°]).

Karañja, [cf. Sanskrit karañja, according to Abhidh-r-m page 176 the Dalbergia arborea] the tree Pongamia glabra, used medicinally Vin I 201; Ja VI 518, 519.

Karati2, (°tī) (feminine) a superior kind of bean, the Dolichos catjang Ja VI 536 (= rājamāsa).

Karamanda, [etymology?] a shrub Vism 183 (+ kanavīra).

Karavī, [cf. Sanskrit kala-kaṇṭha cuckoo, and kalaviṅka sparrow] the Indian cuckoo Ja VI 539.

Karavīra, Karavīra [cf. Sanskrit karavīra]
1. the oleander, Nerium odorum. Its flower was used especially in garlands worn by delinquents (see kaṇṭha)
2. a kind of grass Ja IV 92.

Karin, Karin (adjective) [from kara] "one who has a hand," an elephant (cf. hatthin) Mhv 24, 34; 25, 68; Dāṭh IV 2. In compounds kari.
-gajjita the cry of the elephant, an elephant's trumpeting Dāṭh V 56;

Karumbhaka, a species of rice plant of a ruddy colour Miln 252 (see Q.K.M. II 73).

Kareri, in Childers the tree Capparis trifoliata, but see Ps.B, page 363, note 2: musk-rose tree or "karer"; Thag 1062; Ud 31; Ja V 405; VI 534.

Kalandaka, 1. a squirrel Miln 368;

Kalabha, [cf. Sanskrit kalabha] the young of an elephant: see hatthi° and cf. kalāra.

Kalamba, (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit kalamba menispermum calumba, kalambī convolvulus repens] Name of a certain herb or plant (Convolverse repens?); may be a bulb or radish Ja IV 46 (= tālakanda), cf. pages 371, 373 (where Commentary explaines by tāla-kanda; gloss B mss, however, gives latā-tanta); VI 578. See also kaḍamba and kaḷimba.
-rukkha the Cadamba tree Ja VI 290.

Kalambaka, = kalamba, the Cadamba tree Ja VI 535.

Kalambukā, (feminine) = kalambaka D III 87 (vv.ll. kaladukā, kalabakā) the translation (D.B. III 84) has "bamboo."

Kalāya, a kind of pea, the chick-pea M I 245 (kaḷāya); S I 150; A V 170; Snp page 124; Ja II 75 (= varaka, the bean Phaseolus trilobus, and kālarāja-māsa); Ja III 370; Dhp-a I,319. Its size may be gathered from its relation to other fruits in ascending scale at A V 170 = S I 150 = Snp page 124 (where the size of an ever-increasing boil is described). It is larger than a kidney bean (mugga) and smaller than the kernel of the jujube (kolaṭṭhi).

Kalingu, (masculine neuter) [cf. Sanskrit kaliṅga and kaliṅgaka] the Laurus camphora, the Indian laurel Ja VI 537.

Kallahāra, [cf. Sanskrit kahlāra, the Pāli form to be explained as a diæretic inversion kalhāra > kallahāra] the white esculent water lily Ja V 37; Dīp XVI 19.

Kaḷārikā, (feminine) [from last, literally with protruding teeth] a kind of large (female) elephant M 1. 178 (so read with v.l. for kāḷ°). Cf. kalāra.

Kaḷīra, the top sprout of a plant or tree, especially of the bamboo and certain palm trees (e.g. coconut tree) which is edible Snp 38 (vaɱsa° = veḷugumba Nidd II §556 and page 58); Thag 72; Ja I 74, cf. III 179; VI 26; Miln 201 (vaɱsa°); Vism 255 (vaɱsa°-cakkalaka, so read for kalira°; Pj I 50 at the same passage reads kaḷīra-daṇḍa).

Kaviṭṭha, [cf. kapittha] the elephant-apple tree, Feronia elephantum Ja V 38 (°vana).

Kaseruka, [etymology connected with Sanskrit kaseru backbone?] a plant, shrub Pj II 284 (v.l. kaɱsīruka for kiɱsuka?). See also kaṭeruha.

Kāka, [onomatopoeia, cf. Sanskrit kāka; for other onomatopoetic relatives see note on gala] the crow; frequent in similes: S I 124 = Snp 448; Ja I 164. Its thievish ways are described at Dhp-a III 352; said to have ten bad qualities A V 149; Ja I 342; III 126; kākā vā kulalā vā Vin IV 40. — As bird (of the dead) frequenting places of interment and cremation, often with other carcass-eating animals (sigāla, gijjha) Snp 201; Pv-a 198 (= dhaṅka); cf. kākoḷa. — In compounds often used derisively. — feminine kākī Ja II 39, 150; III 431.
-āmasaka "touching as much as a crow," attribute of a person not enjoying his meals Dhp-a IV 16; As 404;
-uṭṭepaka a crow-scarer, a boy under fifteen, employed as such in the monastery grounds Vin I 79 cf. 371.
-opamā the simile of the crow Dhp-a II 75.
-olūka crows and owls Ja II 351; Dhp-a I 50; Mhbv 15;
-nīḷa a crow's nest Ja II 365;
-paṭṭanaka a deserted village, inhabited only by crows Ja VI 456;
-pāda crow's foot or footmark Vism 179 (as pattern);
-peyya "(so full) that a crow can easily drink of it," full to the brim, overflowing, of a pond: samatittika k° "with even banks and drinkable for crows" (i.e. with the water on a level with the land) D I 244; S II 134 (the same); D II 89; M I 435; A III 27; Ja II 174; Ud 90; cf. note to J.S. II 122; Pv-a 202. See also peyya.
-bhatta "a crow's meal," i.e. remnants left from a meal thrown out for the crows Ja II 149;
-vassa the cry of a crow Vin II 17;
-sīsa the head of a crow Ja II 351; as adjective: having a crow's head, applied to a fabulous flying horse D II 174; cf. Ja II 129;
-sūra a "crow-hero," applied to a shameless, unconscientious fellow Dhp 244; Dhp-a III 352;
-ssaraka (having a voice) sounding like a crow Vin I 115.

Kākola, and Kākoḷa [onomatopoetic Sanskrit has the same form] a raven, especially in his quality as bird of prey, feeding on carrion (cf. kāka) Ja III 246 (= vanakāka); V 268, 270 (gijjha k°ā ca ayomukhā ... khādanti naraɱ kibbisakārinaɱ); VI 566.
-gaṇā (plural) flocks of ravens Snp 675; Vv 5215 (= Vv-a 227).

Kādamba, [cf. Sanskrit kādamba] a kind of goose with grey wings Ja V 420; Vv-a 163.

kāḷa-kokila, the black (brown) cuckoo Vv-a 57;

kāḷa-meyya, a sort of bird Ja VI 539;

kāḷa-valli, a kind of creeper Vism 36, 183.

kāḷa-sīha, a special kind of lion Ja IV 208.

Kāsa1, [cf. Sanskrit kāśa] a kind of reed, Saccharum spontaneum S III 137.

Kiɱsuka, [kiɱ + su + ka] Name of a tree (creeper), literally "whatever-like," or "what do you call it," i.e. strange tree (see kiɱ su and kiɱ 3), popular name for the Butea frondosa S IV 193 (parable of the k.); Ja II 265 (°opama-jātaka); V 405; VI 536. Perhaps. v.l. at Pj II 284.
-puppha the (red) flower of the k. tree Vism 252.

Kikī, [Onomatopoeia to sound-root kr̥ (see note on gala), cf. Sanskrit kr̥ka-vāku cock, after the cry of the bird]
1. (masculine) the blue jay (Ja II 350 k. sakuṇo).
2. (feminine) a hen (or the female of the jay°), in simile from the Ap of a hen watching her egg Vism 36 (aṇḍaɱ anurakkhamānā); Ja III 375 (rakkhati); cf. Pj II 317 (kikī sakuṇikā aṇḍassa upari seti).

Kiṭṭha, [cf. Sanskrit kr̥ṣṭa kr̥ṣ] growing corn, the crop on the ground, a cornfield A III 393 (in simile), cf. S IV 195.
-āda eating corn A III 393.
-ārakkha the guardian of the cornfield S IV 196.
-sambādha "when the corn is thick," in °samaye near harvest-time M I 115 (in simile); Ja I 143 (sassa-samaye + k.), 338.

Kimi, masculine [Vedic kr̥mi] a worm, vermin: setā kimī kaṇhasīsā A III 241; Miln 272; Sv I 199; — As animal of death and putrefaction M I 507; Ja I 146; Snp 201; especially with reference to the punishment of petas: Pv I 31; Thig 439; Pv-a 192; Saddh 603. As glow-worm M II 34; 41 (with khajjopanaka); sālaka° a very minute insect Miln 312. In similes: Thag 1175 (kimī va mīḷhasallitto); Vism 500, 598. In compound kimi-kula the worm kind (genus worm) Miln 100; Vism 235; °gaṇa crowd of worms Vism 314.

Kīṭa, (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit kīṭa] a general term for insect Dhp-a I 187; usually in combination with paṭaṅga, beetle (moth?) M III 168 (with puḷava); Snp 602; Ja VI 208; Miln 272 (°vaṇṇa); Pv-a 67; Vism 115. kīṭa at Ja V 373 means a kind of shield (= cāṭipāla?), the reading should probably be kheṭa.

Kīra, [cf. Sanskrit kīra] a parrot Abh 640 (cf. cirīṭi).

Kukutthaka, (v.l.. kukkuṭhaka) a kind of bird Ja VI 539. Kern (Toev. s.v.) takes it to be Sanskrit kukkuṭaka, Phasianus gallus.

Kukkuṭa, (Sanskrit kurkuṭa and kukkuṭa; Onomatopoetic = Latin cucurio, German kikeriki) a cock Miln 363; Ja IV 58; Vv-a 163; feminine kukkuṭī a hen Dhp-a I 48; Thig-a 255; in simile M I 104 = 357 = A IV 125f., 176f. (cf. °potako).
-aṇḍa (kukkuṭ°) a hen's egg Vism 261.
-patta the wing of a cock A IV 47. -potaka a chicken, in simile M I 104 = 357 = A IV 126 = 176.
-yuddha a cock fight D I 6; -lakkhaṇa divining by means of a cock D I 9;
-sampātika a shower of hot ashes (cock as symbol of fire) A I 159 = D III 75, cf. Divy 316 and see Morris, JPTS 1885, 38;
-sūkarā (plural) cocks and pigs D I 5 = A II 209 = Pp 58; D I 141; A II 42f.; It 36.

Kukkura, [Sanskrit kurkura, Bolée 2006) a dog, usually of a fierce character, a hound A III 389; V 271; Ja I 175f.; 189; Pv III 79; Saddh 90. In similes: S IV 198; M I 364; A IV 377. — feminine kukkurinī Miln 67.
-vatika (adjective) imitating a dog, cynic M I 387 (+ dukkara kāraka; also as k°-vata, °sīla, °citta, °ākappa); D III 6, 7; Nett 99 (+ govatika);
-saṅgha a pack of hounds A III 75.

Kuṅkuma, (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit kuṅkuma] saffron Miln 382; Vism 241.

Kuñca, (neuter) [kruñc, cf. Sanskrit krośati, Pāli koñca, Latin crocio, cornix, corvus; Greek κρώξω, κρανγή; all of crowing noise; from sound-root kr̥, see note on gala] a crowing or trumpeting noise (in compounds only).
-kāra cackling (of a hen) Thig-a 255;
-nāda trumpeting (of an elephant) Ja III 114.

Kuñjara, (masculine) [derivation unknown. The sound is not unlike an elephant's trumpeting and need not be Aryan, which has hasti. The Sanskrit of the epics and fables uses both h° and k°] an elephant Vin II 195; M I 229, 375; S I 157; Dhp 322, 324, 327; Ja V 336; Vv 51; Pv I 113; Dhp-a IV 4; Thig-a 252; Miln 245. -deva° chief of the gods, especially of Sakka Vv 477; Ja V 158.
-vara a state elephant Vv-a 181.
-sālā an elephant's stable Dhp-a IV 203.

Kuṭaja, a kind of root (Wrightia antidysenterica or Nericum antidysentericum), used as a medicine Vin I 201 (cf. Vinaya Texts II 45).

Kuṭava, (v.l. kū°; comentary kulāvaka) a nest Ja III 74; v.l. at Dhp-a II 23 (for kuṭikā).

Kuṭṭa,1 [cf. koṭṭeti, kuṭ to crush, which is explained by Dhātup (90, 555) and Dhātum (115, 781) together with koṭṭ by chedana; it is there taken together with kuṭ of kūṭa1, which is explained as koṭilla] powder. Sāsapa° mustard powder Vin I 205; II 151 (at the latter passage to be read for °kuḍḍa, cf. Vinaya Texts III 171), 205.

Kuṭṭha2, a kind of fragrant plant (Costus speciosus) or spice Ja VI 537.

Kuṭṭhilikā, the pericarp or envelope of a seed (phala°) Vv-a 344 (= sipāṭikā).

Kuḍumalaka, [for kusuma°] an opening bud A IV 117, 119.

Kuḍḍa-mūla, a sort of root Vin III 15.

Kuṇāla, name of a bird (the Indian cuckoo) Ja V 214f. (Kuṇāla-jātaka). Kuṇāla-daha "cuckoo-lake," name of one of the seven great lakes in the Himavant Vism 416. W.B. Bollée, Kuṇāla-Jātaka, PTS, 1970.

Kuṇālaka, [from kuṇāla] the cuckoo Ja V 406 (= kokila).

Kuṇṭha, [cf. kuṇa and kuṇḍa]
1. bent, lame; blunt (of a sword) Dhp-a I 311 (°kuddāla); Pp-a I 34 (of asi, opposite tikkhina); °tiṇa a kind of grass Vism 353.

Kuṇḍaka, the red powder of rice husks (cf. kukkusa) Vin II 151; 280; Ja II 289 (text has kuṇḍadaka) = Dhp-a III 325 (ibid. as ācāma°). Also used as toilet powder: Dhp-a II 261 (kuṇḍakena sarīraɱ makkhetvā). — sakuṇḍaka (-bhatta) (a meal) with husk powder-cake Ja V 383.
-aṅgārapūva pancake of rice powder Dhp-a III 324;
-khādaka eating rice-powder Ja II 288; (cf. Dhp-a III 325); -dhūma, literally smoke of red rice powder, especially of the blood Ja III 542;
-pūva cake of husk-powder Ja I 422f.;
-muṭṭhi a handful of rice-powder Vv-a 5; Dhp-a I 425;
-yāgu husk-powder gruel Ja II 288.

Kutumbaka, (-puppha) name of a flower Ja I 60.

Kudrūsa, a kind of grain Miln 267; also as kudrūsaka Vin IV 264; D III 71; Nidd II §314; Sv I 78; As 331.

Kunta,Kunta [cf. Sanskrit kunta lance?] a kind of bird, otherwise called adāsa Ja IV 466.

Kuntanī, (feminine) a curlew (koñca), used as homing bird Ja III 134.

Kuntha, only in combination kuntha-kipillaka (or °ikā) a sort of ant Ja I 439; IV 142; Snp 602 (°ika); Vism 408; Pj I 189. Cf. kimi.

Kunda, (neuter) the jasmine Dāṭh V 28.

Kuppila, [?] a kind of flower Ja VI 218 (Commentary: mantālakamakula).

Kubbanaka, [from kuɱ-vana] brushwood or a small, and therefore unproductive, wood Snp 1134 (explained Nidd II §212 by rittavanaka appabhakkha appodaka).

Kumuda, (neuter)
1. the white lotus Dhp 285; Vv 354 (= Vv-a 161); Ja V 37 (seta°); Vism 174; Sv I 139.
-naḷa a lotus-stalk Ja I 223;
-bhaṇḍikā a kind of corn Miln 292;
-vana a mass of white lotuses Ja V 37.

Kumbha, [for etymology see kūpa and cf. Low German kump or kumme, a round pot]
2. one of the frontal globes of an elephant Vin II 195 (hatthissa); Vv-a 182 (°ālaṅkārā ornaments for these).
2. a bird (Phasianus gallus? Hardy) Vv-a 163.

Kumbhaṇḍa, 2. neuter a kind of gourd Ja I 411 (lābu°); V 37; (elāḷuka-lābuka°); Sv I 73 = Dhp-a I 309 (placed on the back of a horse, as symbol of instability); the same as feminine kumbhaṇḍī Vism 183 (lābu + k.).

Kumbhīla, (kuɱ + bhīra?) a crocodile (of the Ganges) Ja I 216, 278; Dhp-a I 201; III 362.

Kumbhīlaka, [from kumbhīla] a kind of bird ("little crocodile") Ja IV 347.

Kumma, [Vedic kūrma] a tortoise S IV 177 (+ kacchapa); M I 143; Ja V 489; Miln 363, 408 (here as land-tortoise: cittaka-dhara°).

Kuyyaka, a kind of flower Ja I 60 (°puppha).

Kuraṇḍaka, [cf. Sanskrit kuraṇṭaka blossom of a species of Amaranth] a shrub and its flower Vism 183 (see also kuravaka and koraṇḍaka). °leṇa name of place Vism 38.

Kurara, an osprey Ja IV 295, 397 (= ukkāsa); V 416; VI 539 (= seta°).

Kuravaka, [= Sanskrit kuraṇṭaka Abhidh-r-m, cf. kuraṇḍaka] name of a tree, in ratta° Ja I 39 (= bimbijāla the red Amaranth tree).

Kurunga, [derivation unknown. The corresponding Sanskrit forms are kuluṅga and kulaṅga] a kind of antelope, in -miga the antelope deer Ja I 173 (k°-jatāka); II 153 (the same).

Kulattha, a kind of vetch M I 245 (°yūsa): Miln 267; Vism 256 (°yūsa).

Kulala, a vulture, hawk, falcon, either in combination with kāka or gijjha, or both. Kāka + k° Vin IV 40; Snp 675 (= Pj II 250); gijjha + k° Pv-a 198; gijjhā kākā k° Vin III 106; kākā k° gijjhā M I 58; cf. gijjho kaṅko kulalo M I 364, 429.

Kulāva, 2. a certain bird Ja VI 538.

Kulāvaka, (neuter) a nest D I 91 (= Sv I 257 nivāsaṭṭhanaɱ); S I 8; 224 = Ja I 203 (a brood of birds = supaṇṇapotakā); Ja III 74 (v.l.), 431; VI 344; Dhp-a II 22.

Kuliṅka, a bird Ja III 541 (= sakuṇika 542). Cf. kuluṅka.

Kulīra, a crab.

Kulīraka, a crab Ja VI 539 (= kakkaṭaka 540).

Kulunka, a certain small bird Ja III 478. Cf. kuliṅka.

Kuvalaya, the (blue) water-lily, lotus, usually combined with kamala, q.v. Vv 354; Sv I 50; Vv-a 161, 181; Pv-a 23, 77.

Kusa 1. the kusa grass (Poa cynosuroides) Dhp-a III 484: tikhiṇadhāraɱ tiṇaɱ antamaso tālapaṇṇam pi; Dhp 311; Ja I 190 (= tiṇa); IV 140.

Kusuma (neuter) any flower Ja III 394 (°dāma); V 37; Pv-a 157 (= puppha); Vv-a 42; Dīp I 4; Saddh 246, 595; Dāṭh V 51 (°agghika), figurative vimutti° the flower of emancipation Thag 100; Miln 399.

Kusumita (adjective) in flower, blooming Vv-a 160, 162.

Kusumbha (neuter) the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius, used for dying red Ja V 211 (°rattavattha); VI 264 (the same); Khuddas IV 2.

Kuhilikā (plural) kuhali flowers Attanugaluvaɱsa 216.

Kūjati [kuj, explained with guj at Dhātup 78 by "avyatte sadde"] to sing (of birds; cf. vikūjati) Ja II 439; IV 296; Dāṭh V 51. — past participle kūjita see abhi°, upa°.

Keka [?] name of a tree Ja V 405. Kern, Toev. s.v. suggests misreading for koka Phoenix sylvestris.

Ketaka [etymology uncertain] name of a flower Ja IV 482.

Kesarin a mane, in -sīha a maned lion Ja II 244; Pj II 127. — kesarin having a mane, of a lion.

Kesara1 [from kesa] filament of flowers, hairy structures of plants especially of the lotus; usually of kiñjakkha Pv-a 77; Vv-a 12; 111; — sa-kesarehi padumapattehi lotus leaves with their hairs Vv-a 32; nicula-k° fibres of the Nicula tree Vv-a 134.

Kesara2Koka1 [not = Sanskrit koka, cuckoo] a wolf Ja VI 525; Nidd I 13 = Nidd II §420; Miln 267 = Ja V 416. °vighāsa remainder of a wolf's meal Vin III 58.

Koka2 [cf. Sanskrit koka] name of a tree, Phoenix sylvestris: see keka.

Kokanada (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit kokanada] the (red) lotus A III 239 = Ja I 116.

Kokāsika the red lotus in °jāta "like the red lotus," said of the flower of the Pāricchattaka tree A IV 118.

Kokila [cf. Sanskrit koka a kind of goose, also cuckoo, with derivation kokila cuckoo; cf. Greek κόκκυξ, Latin cuculus, English cuckoo] the Indian cuckoo. Two kinds mentioned at Vv-a 57: kāḷa° and phussa° black and speckled k. As citra° at Ja V 416. — Vv 111, 588; Vv-a 132, 163.

Koñca1 [cf. Sanskrit krauñca and kruñc] the heron, often in combination with mayūra (peacock): Thag 1113; Vv 111, 358; Ja V 304; VI 272; or with haɱsa Pv II 123. — Explained as sārasa Vv-a 57; jiṇṇa° an old heron Dhp 155.

Koñca2 = abbreviation of koñca-nāda, trumpeting, in koñcaɱ karoti to trumpet (of elephants) Vin III 109; Ja VI 497.
-nāda the trumpeting of an elephant ("the heron's cry") [not with Morris, JPTS 1887, 163f. to kruñc. (meaning to bend, cf. Latin crux, English ridge), but probably a contamination of krośa, from krus to crow, and kuñja = kuñjara, elephant (q.v.). Partly suggested at Divy 251; see also explanation at Vv-a 35, where this connection is quite evident] Ja I 50; Miln 76 (in etymological play with koñca); Vv-a 35.
-rāva = preceding Dhp-a IV 70.
-vādikā a kind of bird Ja VI 538.

Koṭi, (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit koṭi and kūṭa2] the end
-simbalī name of a tree (in Avīci) Saddh 194.

Koṭṭha2, a bird Ja VI 539 (woodpecker°).

Koṭṭha3, [cf. Sanskrit kuṭṭha] name of a plant, Costus speciosus (?) Ja V 420.

Koṭṭhaka2, [cf. Sanskrit koyaṣṭika] the paddy-bird, as rukkha° Ja III 25; II 163 (v.l. ṭṭ).

Kotthu [koṭṭhu Ja only: cf. Sanskrit kroṣṭu, of kruś] a jackal D III 25, 26; M I 334; Nidd I 149 (spelt koṭṭhu); Ja VI 537 (°sunā: explained by sigāla-sunakhā, katthu-soṇā ti pi pāṭho).

Komāraka (and °ika) juvenile of a young tree S IV 160.

Koraka (masculine neuter) [cf. Sanskrit koraka]
1. a bud Ja II 265.

Korakita (adjective) [from koraka] full of buds Vv-a 288.
[BD:] In bloom.

Koriyā (feminine) a hen v.l. (ti vā pāḷi) at Thig 381 for turiyā. See also Thig-a 255 (= kuñcakārakukkuṭī).

Koraṇḍaka [= kuraṇḍaka] a shrub and its flower Ja V 473

Kola, (masculine neuter) [Abhidh-r-m II 71 gives kola in meaning of "hog," corrupted from kroḍa] the jujube fruit M I 80; A III 49 (sampanna-kolakaɱ sūkaramaɱsa "pork with jujube"); Ja III 22 (= badara); VI 578.
-rukkha the j. tree Pj II 356; Sv I 262;
-sampāka cooked with (the juice of) jujube Vv 435 (= Vv-a 186).

Kolaṭṭhi, the kernel of the jujube, only in compound °mattiyo (plural) S I 150 = A V 170 = Snp 125 (with kolamattiyo), and °mattā Thig 498 = Thig-a 289; Dhp-a I 319.

Koliya, (adjective) [from kola] of the fruit of the jujube tree Ja III 22

Koleyyaka, (adjective) of good breed, noble, applied to dogs Ja I 175; IV 437. Cf. kolīniyā, and Divy 165: kolikagadrabha a donkey of good breed.

Koḷāpa, (and kolāpa) (adjective) 1. dry, sapless; always applied to wood, frequent in similes S IV 161, 185; M I 242; III 95; Ja III 495; Miln 151; Dhp-a II 51; IV 166.
2. hollow tree Nidd II §40; Pj II 355

Koviḷāra, [cf. Sanskrit kovidāra] Bauhinia variegata; a tree in the devaloka (pāricchattaka koviḷāra: k-blossom, called p. Vv-a 174) A IV 117f.; Snp 44; Ja IV 29; Vv 381; Dhp-a I 270.
-puppha the flower of the K. tree Pj II 354 (where the limbs of one afflicted with leprosy are compared with this flower).

Kosa1, (masculine neuter) [cf. Sanskrit kośa and koṣa, cavity, box, vessel, cf. Gothic hūs, English house; related also kukśi = Pāli kucchi] any cavity or enclosure containing anything, viz.
4. a cocoon, see —°kāraka;
-kāraka the "cocoon-maker," i.e. the silk-worm, Vin III 224; Vism 251.

Kosātakī, (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit kośātakī] a kind of creeper Vv 474; Vism 256, 260, 359; Vv-a 200;
-bīja the seed of the k. A I 32 = V 212.

Kosika, = kosiya, an owl Ja V 120.

Khagga, [Sanskrit khaḍga; perhaps to Latin clades and gladius; cf. also kūṭa3]
2. a rhinoceros Ja V 406 (= gavaja), 416; VI 277 (°miga), 538. In compound °visāṇā (cf. BHS khaḍgaviṣāṇa Divy 294 = Snp 36) the horn of a rh. (khagga-visāṇaɱ nāma khagga-miga-siṅgaɱ Pj II 65) Snp 35f. (N. of Sutta); Nidd II §217 (khagga-visāṇa-kappa "like the horn of the rh." Especially of a paccekabuddha, (cf. Divy 294, 582), also at Vism 234.

Khajjara, caterpillar Pañca-g 48.

Khajjopanaka, [cf. Sanskrit khadyota] the firefly M II 34 = 41; Ja II 415; VI 330, 441; Dhp-a III 178; also khajjūpanaka Vism 412 (in simile). See Trenckner JPTS 1908, 59 and 79.

Khadira, [Sanskrit khadira; Greek κίσσρος, ivy; Latin hedera, ivy] the tree Acacia catechu, in compounds
-aṅgārā (plural) embers of (burnt) acacia-wood Ja I 232; Pv-a 152;
-ghaṭikā a piece of a.-wood Ja IV 88;
-tthambha a post of a.-wood Dhp-a III 206;
-patta a bowl made of a.-wood Ja V 389;
-vana a forest of acacias Ja II 162;
-sūla an impaling stake of a.-wood Ja IV 29.

Khandha, [Sanskrit skandha]
I. Crude meaning: bulk, massiveness (gross) substance.sweetness" S IV 94.
-bīja "trunk seed" as one kind of various seeds, with mūla° phaḷu° agga° bīja° at Vin V 132, and D I 5, explained Sv I 81: nāma assattho nigrodho pilakkho udumbaro kacchako kapitthano ti evam-ādi.

Khandhiman, (adjective) having a (big) trunk, of a tree A III 43.

Khara1, [cf. Sanskrit khara]
2. (masculine) a donkey, a mule, in -putta, son of a donkey — donkey Ja III 278.

Khala, [cf. Sanskrit khala]
1. corn ready for threshing, the threshing floor Nidd II §587; Vism 120; Sv I 203 (khalaɱ sodheti).
2. threshing, mash, in eka-maɱsa-khalaɱ karoti "to reduce to one mash of flesh" D I 52 = M I 377 (+ maɱsa-puñja; Sv I 160 = maɱsa-rāsi).
-agga the best corn for threshing Dhp-a I 98; IV 98;
-kāla the time for threshing Dhp-a IV 98;
-bhaṇḍagga the best agricultural implement for threshing Dhp-a I 98; IV 98;

Khaluṅka, [adjective from khala in causative sense of khaleti, to shake. In formation = khalaṅga > khalaṅka > khaluṅka, cf. kulūpaka for kulūpaga] only applied to a horse = shaking, a shaker, racer (especially as java A I 287), figurative of purisa at Aṅguttara passages. Described as bold and hard to manage A IV 190f.; as a horse which cannot be trusted and is inferior to an ājānīya (a thoroughbred) A V 166. Three kinds at A I 287f. = IV 397f. In explanation of vaḷavā (mare) at Ja I 180 = sindhavakule ajāto khaluṅkasso; as vaḷavā khaḷuṅkā Ja I 184. — derived khaluṅkatā in a°, not shaking, steadiness Vv-a 278.

Khāraka, (adjective) [from khāra] sharp or dry, said of the buds of the Pāricchattaka A IV 117f.

Khīra-, (neuter) [Sanskrit kṣīra] milk, milky fluid, milky juice Vin I 243; II 301; M I 343f. = A II 207 = Pp 56; A II 95 (in simile with dadhi, navanīta, sappi, sappi-maṇḍa) = D I 201; Dhp-a I 98; -paka drinking milk; sucking (of a calf: vaccho mātari kh°) Dhp 284 (v.l. khīra-pāna); Dhp-a III 424; -paṇṇin (masculine) name of a tree the leaves of which contain a milky sap, Calotropis gigantea M I 429;

Khīranikā, (feminine) a milk-giving cow S I 174.

Khuddaka, (masculine) the little one, Miln 40 (mātā °assa).
-vaggulī (feminine) a small singing bird Dhp-a III 223;

Khura1, [Vedic khura] the hoof of an animal Vv 6410 (of a horse = turagānaɱ khuranipāta, the clattering of a horse's hoof Vv-a 279), cf. Sanskrit kṣura, a monkey's claw Avś I 236.
khura-kāse M I 446, read (with Neumann, M.S.) for khura-kāye, "in the manner of dragging (kr̥ṣ) the hoofs."

Khīrapaṇṇiɱ, Eulotropis gigantea, a tree whose leaves contain milky sap, as the Pāḷi name indicates. [MN 63]


-----[ L ]-----

Laṅgula (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit lāṅgula and lāṅgūla; also the ordinary Pāli forms naṅgula and naṅguṭṭha, to lag] the tail of an animal Mhv 6, 6 (lāḷento laṅgulaṃ; v.l. naṅgulaṃ). See also naṅgula and (concerning l > n) landhati (= nandhati); nalāṭa (for laḷāta).

Laṅghi, (Laṅghī) (feminine) [from laṅgh] 1. a kind of deer (?) Ja VI 537. 2. doubtful of meaning and origin in phrase laṅghī-pitāmahā at Ja II 363 = III 226: "whose grandfather was a deer, or a jumper" (?); used in disparagingly addressing a crane. The commentary to Ja II 363 explains rather strangely as follows: laṅghī vuccati ākāse laṅghanato megho "(a) jumping deer is called the cloud because of its jumping in the air," balākā ca nāma megha-saddena gabbhaṃ gaṇhantī ti "the cranes conceive by the sound of the cloud," meghasaddo

balākānaṃ pitā megho pitāmaho ti "the sound of the cloud is the father of the cranes and the cloud the grandfather."

Laṭukikā, (feminine) [diminutive from laṭvāka; dialect] the Indian quail, Perdix chinensis D I 91; M I 449 (l. sakuṇikā); Ja III 44, 174f. (quoted at Pj II 358 and Dhp-a I 55); V 121; Miln 202; Sv I 257. — Cf. Cunningham, Bharhut Tope, page 58.

Laṭṭhi, (feminine) [Sanskrit yaṣṭi, with l for y; also in Prākrit see Pischel, Pkt Gr. §255 and cf. Geiger, Pāli Grammar §46.3. The doublet yaṭṭhi also in Pāli] 1. a staff, stick D I 105 (patoda° goad), 126 (the same); Vv-a 64 (the same); Ja IV 310 (laṭṭhī hata = laṭṭhiyā hata commentary); V 280; Miln 27. 2. stick of sugar cane (ucchu°) Pv-a 257. 3. sprout of a plant, offshoot Ja III 161 (in simile); usually —°, as in aṅga° sprout Thig-a 226; dālika° of the d. creeper Thig 297; beḷuva° of the Vilva tree Pj I 118; sala° of the Sal tree A II 200. -madhu(ka) "cane-honey," i.e. liquorice Ja IV 537; Dhp-a IV 171 (°ka).

Laṇḍa, (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit laṇḍa (dialect). Dhātum under No. 155 gives a root laḍ in meaning "jigucchana," i.e. disgust] excrement, dung of animals, dirt; mostly used with reference to elephants (haṭṭhi°), e.g. at Ja II 19; Dhp-a I 163, 192; IV 156 (here also as assa° horse dung.) cf. laṇḍikā.

Laṇḍikā, (feminine) [from laṇḍa], only in aja° goat's dirt, pellet of goat's dung Ja I 419; Pv-a 283.

Latā, (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit latā, connected with Latin lentus flexible; Old High German lindi soft, English lithe; also Old High German lintea lime tree; Greek ἐλάτη fir tree] 1. a slender tree, a creeping plant, creeper A I 202 (māluvā°); Vv 355 (= vallī Vv-a 162); 474 (kosātakī l.); Ja I 464 (rukkha°, here perhaps better "branch"); Dhp-a I 392 (°pasādhana: see under mahā°); Miln 253, 351; Vv-a 12 (kappa°); Pv-a 51, 121; Vism 183 (where the following kinds are given: lābu, kumbhaṇḍī, sāmā, kāḷavallī, pūtilatā). — nāga° the iron wood tree: see under nāga; pūti° a sort of creeper (q.v.). On latā in similes see JPTS 1907, 130. -kamma creeper-work (combined with mālā-kamma) Vin II 117, 152.

Labuja, [cf. Sanskrit labuja] the breadfruit tree, Artocarpus lacucha or incisa D I 53; Ja IV 363; V 6, 417; Pv-a 153 (sa°, read as salaḷa°, like Vv 355, explained at Vv-a 162).

Lāja, and Lājā (feminine) [cf. Vedic lāja: Zimmer, Altind. Leben 269] 1. fried grain, parched corn: occurring only in combination madhu-lāja fried grain with honey, sweet corn Ja III 538; IV 214, 281. 2. the flower of Dalbergia arborea, used for scattering in bunches (with other flowers making 5 kinds or colours) as a sign of welcome and greeting, usually in phrase lāja-pañcamāni pupphāni ("a cluster of flowers with lāja as the fifth") Dhp-a I 112; Vv-a 31; Ja I 55 (°pañcamakāni p.); cf. Ja II 240 (vippakiṇṇa-lāja-kusuma-maṇḍita-talā); VI 42 (vippakiṇṇa-lāja-kusuma-vāsa-dhūpandhakāra); Dhp-a I 140 (vippakiṇṇa-valikaṃ pañcavaṇṇa-kusuma-lāja-puṇṇaghaṭa-paṭimaṇḍita).

Lāpa2, [also from lap, literally "talker," cf. similar semantics of English quail > German quaken, quicken; English quack. The Pāli form rests on popular etymology, as in Sanskrit we find corresponding name as lāba] a sort of quail, Perdix chinensis S V 146 = Ja II 59. As lāpaka-sakuṇa also at Ja II 59. — Another name for quail is vaṭṭaka.

Lāpu, (feminine) [short for alāpu or alābu, cf. Geiger, P.Gram §39.6] a kind of cucumber Ja I 336, 341. See also lābuka. -latā the cucumber creeper or plant Miln 374.

Lābu, (feminine) and Lābuka = lāpu (alābu) gourd or pumpkin, often used as receptacle Ja I 158 (°ka), 411 (°kumbhaṇḍa vesseḷ made of the gourd); V 37 (°ka), 155 (addha-lābu-samā thanā); Dhp-a II 59 (°ka); Pj II 227 (lābumhi catumadhuraṃ pūretukāmo). -kaṭāha a gourd as receptacle Vism 255, 359; Vibh-a 63.

Lāmajjaka, (lāmañjaka) (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit lāmajjaka] the root of Andropogon muricatus Vv 436 (v.l. °añc°); Vv-a 186, (°añj°) 187.

Likkhā, (feminine) [Sanskrit likṣā egg of a louse, as measure equal to 8 trasareṇu (BR). — Connected with Latin ricinus a kind of vermin (see Walde, Latin Wtb. sub voce)] a kind of measure Vibh-a 343 (36 rattareṇus equal to one likkhā, 7 likkhās equal to 1 ūkā); Pj I 43 (°matta).

Liṅgāla, [cf. Sanskrit liṅgālikā a kind of mouse] antelope (?) Pañca-g 10.

Līlā, and Līḷā (feminine) [cf. Epic Sanskrit līlā or *līḍā] play, sport, dalliance; probably for līḷhā at Ja V 5 and 157, both times combined with vilāsa. -aravinda a lotus serviceable for sport Vv-a 43 (līḷ°).

Luñcita, [past participle of luñcati] plucked, pulled Miln 240 (i.e. combed, of wool; Rh.D. translates "pressed"; Nyānatiloka "cut"); Pv-a 47 (vilūna-kesa + l.).

Lūka, [apocope form of ulūka, arisen through wrong syllable-division] owl Ja VI 497 (= ulūka commentary).

Lūtā, (feminine) [Sanskrit lūtā] spider Abh 621.

Lodda, [cf. Sanskrit rodhra; on sound changes see Geiger, Pāli Grammar 44, 62.2] name of a tree Ja V 405; VI 497.

Loma-padmaka, a kind of plant Ja VI 497 (reading uncertain; v.l. lodda°)

Lomasa, (adjective) [cf. Vedic romaśa] hairy, covered with hair, downy, soft M I 305; Pv I 92. At Ja IV 296 lomasā is explained as pakkhino, i.e. birds; reading however doubtful (vv.ll. lomahaṃsa and lomassā).

Lolupā, As name of a plant at Ja VI 537.

Lohitaka-sāli, red rice Miln 252.


-----[ M ]-----

Maɱsi (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit māɱsī] a certain plant Nardostychus jatamansi Ja VI 535.

Makara [cf. Epic Sanskrit makara] a mythical fish or sea monster Leviathan (cf. Zimmer, Altind. Leben 97) Ja II 442; III 188; Miln 131, 377; Thig-a 204. — feminine makarinī Miln 67. -dantaka the tooth of a sword fish, used as a pin Vin II 113, cf. Sp 1200. — as a design in painting or carving Vin II 117. 121, 152; IV 47. In these latter passages it occurs combined with latākamma and pañcapaṭṭhika (q.v.). The meaning is not quite clear.

Makaranda [cf. Classical Sanskrit makaranda] the nectar of a flower Ja VI 530.

Makāsa [from Vedic maśaka via° *masaka > makasa: see Geiger, Pāli Grammar §47.2] mosquito Vin II 119; S I 52 (a° free from m.); A II 117; Snp 20; Ja I 246; Saddh 50. See also compound ḍaɱsa°. -kuṭikā mosquito net or curtain Vin II 119, 130; -vījanī mosquito fan Vin II 130.

Makula -ḷa [cf. Sanskrit makula] 1. a bud (Hardy in index to Vv-a gives Mimusops elengi after BR) Thig 260; Vv 4526; Ja I 273; II 33; IV 333; V 207 (makuḷa), 416; Vism 230 (ḷ); 256 (paduma°); Vv-a 177 (kaṇavīra°), 194 (makuḷa), 197 (the same); Vibh-a 228, 239 (where Vism 256 has makulita, and Pj I 53 mukulita).

Makkaṭa [cf. Epic Sanskrit markaṭa] 1. a monkey Ja I 385; II 267; Dhp-a II 22; Vibh-a 408 (°niddā, a m.'s sleep, said to be quickly changing); Pj I 73 (in simile); Pj II 522 (cf. Snp 791). Names of monkeys famous in Jātaka tales: Sālaka Ja II 268; Kālabāhu Ja III 98f.; on the monkey as a figure in similes see JPTS 1907, 119, to which additional Vibh-a 228 and 259 (tālavana°), cf. Vism 245. 2. a spider: see °sutta. -chāpaka the young of a monkey M I 385; Ja I 218; -sutta spider's thread Ja V 47; Vism 136 (in simile); Dhp-a I 304.

Makkaṭaka [cf. Sanskrit markaṭaka; derived from markaṭa = makkaṭa] a spider (see on similes JPTS 1907, 119) Dhp 347 (cf. Dhp-a IV 58); Ja II 147 (= uṇṇanābhi); IV 484 (aptly called Uṇṇanābhi); V 47, 469; Miln 364, 407 (pantha° road spider, at both passages). -°sutta spider's thread Vism 285.

Makkaṭī (feminine) [of makkaṭa] a female monkey Vin III 33, 34; Ja I 385; Dhp-a I 119.

Makkhikā (feminine) [cf. Vedic makṣika and makṣikā] a fly M III 148; Nidd I 484; Ja II 275 (nīla°); III 263 (piṅgala° gadfly), 402; Pj II 33 (piṅgala°), 572 (the same); Dhp-a IV 58; Saddh 396, 529.

Maga [another form of miga = Sanskrit mr̥ga, cf. Geiger, Pāli Grammar 12.4] 1. animal for hunting, deer, antelope M I 173 (in simile); S I 199 (the same); A I 70; II 23; Thag 958, 989; Snp 275, 763, 880; Ja V 267.

Maṅkuna (and °ṇa) [cf. late Sanskrit matkuṇa, see Geiger, Pāli Grammar §63] an insect, bug or flea Ja I 10; III 423; Vism 109 (where kīla-maṅkula ought to be read as kīṭamaṅkuna); Dhp-a II 12.

Maṅgala (adjective) [cf. Vedic maṅgala. Explained by Dhātup 24 with root maṅg, i.e. lucky; see also mañju] auspicious, prosperous, lucky, festive Nidd I 87, 88; Pj I 118f.; Pj II 273, 595; Saddh 551. -usabha an auspicious bull Pj II 323; -sindhava state horse Ja I 59; -hatthi state elephant Mhv 35, 21; Dhp-a I 389.

Macchī (feminine) [of maccha] a female fish Ja II 178.

Majjāra [cf. Epic Sanskrit mārjāra; dialectical] a cat Miln 23. — feminine majjārī (majjāri°) Vin I 186 (°camma cat's skin); Dhp-a I 48; Pañca-g 49.

Majjhāru [etymology doubtful] a certain kind of plant Vin I 196 (v.l. majjāru); doubtful whether designation (like Sanskrit mārjāra) of Plumbago rosea.

Mañjari (feminine) [cf. Epic and Classical Sanskrit mañjarī] a branching flower-stalk, a sprout Ja V 400, 416
Mañjarikā (feminine) = mañjari, Vin III 180.

Mañjarita (adjective) [from mañjari] with (full-grown) pedicles, i.e. in open flower Miln 308 (°patta in full bloom).

Mañjūsaka (-rukkha) [from mañjūsa] name of a celestial tree, famed for its fragrancy Vv 386; Pj II 52, 66, 95, 98; Vv-a 175.

Mañjeṭṭhaka (adjective) [from mañjeṭṭha, after lohita + ka] crimson, bright red, figurative shining Vv 391 (cf. definition at Vv-a 177: like the tree Vitex negundo, sindhavāra, or the colour of the Kaṇavīra-bud; same definition at As 317, with Sinduvāra for Sindha°); usually in sequence nīla, pīta, mañjeṭṭhaka, lohitaka, odāta as the 5 fundamental colours: M I 509 (has °eṭṭhika in Text but v.l. °eṭṭhaka); Ja VI 185; Dhs 617. — feminine mañjeṭṭhikā a disease of sugar cane Vin II 256.

Maṇi-sappa a kind of poisonous snake (i.e. a mysterous, magic snake) Sv I 197.

Maṇila [cf. Sanskrit maṇila dewlap?] a kind of tree Vism 313.

Maṇḍūka [Vedic maṇḍūka] a frog Vv 512; Ja IV 247; V 307; VI 164; Pj I 46; Vv-a 217, 218; Saddh 292. feminine mandūkī Ja I 341. — Maṅdūka is the name of an angel (devaputta) at Vism 208. -chāpī a young (female) frog Ja VI 192; -bhakkha eating frogs, frog eater (i.e. a snake) Ja III 16.

Maddarī (feminine) [?] a species of bird, in compound ambaka° A I 188.

Maddālaka [etymology?] a kind of bird Ja VI 538.

Madhu [cf. Vedic madhu, Greek μθέυ wine, Lithuanian medùs honey, midùs wine, Old High German metu = German met wine. Most likely to root °med to be full of juice: see under madati] honey Ja I 157f.; IV 117; Dhp 69 (madhū vā read as madhuvā); Mhv 5, 53; As 330; Dhp-a II 197 (alla° fresh honey). — plural madhūni Mhv 5, 31. — The Abh (533) also gives "wine from the blossom of Bassia latifolia" as meaning. — On madhu in similes see JPTS 1907, 121. -atthika (madh°) at Ja III 493 is with v.l. to be read madhu-tthika (q.v. below). The Comentary explains rightly by "madhura-phalesu pakkhitta-madhu viya, madhura-phalo hutvā." -atthika (madhu°) desirous of honey, seeking honey Ja IV 205; Mhv 5, 50; -āpaṇa (madhv°) honey shop Mhv 5, 52; -āsava (madhv°) honey extract, wine from the flower of Bassia latifolia Vv-a 73 (as one of the 5 kinds of intoxicating liquors); -kara "honey-maker," bee Ja IV 265; Vism 136 (in simile); Dhp-a I 374; -gaṇḍa honey-comb Mhv 22, 42; 34, 52; -tthika [madhu + thika, which latter stands for thīya, from styā to congeal, drip; see thika, thīna, and theva] dripping with honey, full of honey Ja III 493 (so read for madh-atthika); VI 529 (= madhuɱ paggharanto Commentary); -paṭala honey-comb Ja I 262; Dhp-a I 59; III 323; -piṇḍikā a ball of honey (to eat), honey-food, a meal with honey Vin I 4; M I 114; -pīta having drunk honey, drunk with honey S I 212; -(b)bata "courting honey," a bee Dāṭh III 65; -bindu a drop of honey Vism 531; Vibh-a 146 (°giddha, in comparison); -makkhitā smeared with honey Ja I 158; -madhuka dripping with honey, full of honey Ja VI 529; -mehika referring to a particular disease madhumeha ("honey-urine," diabetes?) Vin IV 8; -laṭṭhikā liquorice (no reference?); cf. Laṭṭhi-madhukavana Ja I 68; -lāja sweet corn Ja IV 214, 281; -vāṇija honey seller Mhv 5, 49; -ssava flowing with honey Pv II 911.

Madhuka (adjective/noun) [from madhu] connected with honey. 1. (noun) the tree Bassia latifolia (literal honey tree) Vin I 246; Ja V 324, 405; VI 529; Miln 165. 2. the fruit of that tree Ja IV 434. 3. (adjective) (—°) full of honey Ja VI 529 (madhu° containing honey). 4. connected with an intoxicating drink, given to the drink of (—°) Ja IV 117 (surā-meraya°). -aṭṭhika the kernel (of the fruit) of Bassia latifolia Vism 353 = Pj I 43 (which latter reads madhukaphalaṭṭhi; in the description of the finger nails); -puppha the flower of Bassia latifolia from which honey is extracted for liquor Vin I 246 (°rasa liquorice juice); Ja I 430.

Manda 4. In compound picu (or puci°) manda the Nimb tree, it means "tree" (?) see picu-manda and puci-manda.

Mandārava [cf. Sanskrit mandāra] the coral tree, Erythrina fulgens (considered also as one of the 5 celestial trees). The blossoms mentioned D II 137 fall from the next world. — D II 137; Vv 222 (cf. Vv-a 111); Ja I 13, 39; Miln 13, 18 (dibbāni m.-pupphāni abhippavassiɱsu).

Mandālaka [etymology?] a water-plant (kind of lotus) Ja IV 539; VI 47, 279, 564.

Marica (neuter) [cf. scientific Sanskrit marica] black pepper Vin I 201 (allowed as medicine to the bhikkhus); Miln 63. -gaccha the M.-shrub Ja V 12; -cuṇṇa powdered pepper, fine pepper Ja I 455.

Malya (neuter) [for *mālya, from māla] flower, garland of flowers Vv 11 (°dhara); 21; Ja V 188 (puppha°), 420. The reading at Pv III 33 (pahūta°, adjective having many rows of flowers) is mālya.

Mallikā (feminine) [cf. Epic Sanskrit mallikā, Abhidh-r-m 2, 51; Daṇḍin 2, 214] Arabian jasmine Dhp 54 (tagara°); Ja I 62; III 291; V 420; Miln 333, 338; As 14; Pj I 44. mallika-makula opening bud of the jasmine Vism 251 = Vibh-a 234 (°saṇṭhāna, in description, of shape of the 4 canine teeth). — See also mālikā.

Mahā-rukkha a great tree Vism 413 (literally); Miln 254 (the same), otherwise the plant Euphorbia tortilis (cf. Zimmer, Altind. Leben 129)

Mahisa, Mahīsa, Mahiɱsa [cf. Vedic mahiṣa, an enlarged form of mahā; the Pāli etymology evidently to be connected with mahā + īś, because of mahīsa > mahiɱsa] a buffalo. — mahisa: D I 6 (°yuddha b.-fight), 9; Ja III 26 (vana° wild b.); Mhv 25, 36 (Text māhisaɱ). — mahīsa Ja VI 110. — mahiɱsa Vism 191, and in proper name mahiɱsaka-maṇḍala the Andhra country Ja I 356, cf. Mahiɱsaka-raṭṭha Vibh-a 4; as Mahisa-maṇḍala at Mhv 12, 29. Note: The Pāli popular etymology is propounded by Buddhaghosa as "mahiyaɱ setī ti mahiso" (he lies on the ground, that is why he is a buffalo) As 62.

Māgadhaka (neuter) [Māgadha + ka, literally "from Magadha"] garlic Vin IV 259 (lasuṇaɱ nāma māgadhakaɱ vuccati).

Māṇavaka [from māṇava] a young man, youth a brahmin Miln 101; in general: young, e.g. nāga° a young serpent Ja III 276; feminine °ikā a brahmin girl Ja I 290; Miln 101; nāga° a young female serpent Ja III 275; Dhp-a III 232.

Mātaṅga [cf. Epic Sanskrit mātaṅga, dialect] 1. an elephant Dhp 329, 330 (here as epithet of nāga); Ja III 389; VI 47; Vv 439; Miln 368.

Mātuluṅga (neuter) [cf. Classical Sanskrit mātuluṅga; dialectical?] a citron Ja III 319 (= mella; v.l. bella).

Mālatī (feminine) [from mālā] the great-flowered jasmine Abh 576. Cf. mālikā.

Mālā-vaccha [vaccha here = vr̥kṣa] a small flowering tree or plant, an ornamental plant Vin II 12; III 179; Vism 172 (v.l; °gaccha); Dhp-a II 109 (q.v. for explanation: taruṇarukkha-puppha).

Mālikā (feminine) [from mālā] double jasmine Dāṭh 5, 49.

Māluvā (feminine) [cf. BHS mālu] a (long) creeper M I 306; S I 207; A I 202f.; Snp 272; Dhp 162, 334; Ja III 389; V 205, 215, 389; VI 528 (phandana°); Dhp-a III 152; IV 43. — On maluvā in similes see JPTS 1907, 123.

Mālūra [late Sanskrit] the tree Aegle marmelos Abh 556.

Māsa2 [Vedic māṣa, Phaseolus indica, closely related to another species: mudga Phaseolus mungo] a bean (Phaseolus indica or radiata); usually combined with mugga, e.g. Vin III 64; Miln 267, 341; Sv I 83. Also used as a weight (or measure?) in dhañña-māsa, which is said to be equal to 7 likkhās: Vibh-a 343. — plural māse Vv 806 (= māsa-sassāni Vv-a 310). -odaka bean-water Pj I 237; -khetta a field of beans Vv-a 808; Vv-a 308; -bīja bean-seed Dhp-a III 212;

Miga [Vedic mr̥ga, to mr̥j, cf. magga, meaning, when characterised by another attribute "wild animal" in general, animal of the forest; when uncharacterised usually antelope] 1. a wild animal, an animal in its natural state (see compounds). 2. a deer, antelope, gazelle. Various kinds are mentioned at Ja V 416; two are given at Nidd II §509, viz. eṇi (antelope) and sarabha (red deer): see under eṇi and sarabha. — Snp 39, 72; Ja I 154; III 270 (called Nandiya); Pv-a 62, 157. On miga in similes see JPTS 1907, 123, where more references are given. -ādhibhū king of beasts (i.e. the lion) Snp 684; -inda king of beasts (the same) Saddh 593; -chāpaka young of a deer Vv-a 279; -dāya deer park Ja IV 430 (Maddakucchi); Vv-a 86 (Isipatana); -dhenu a hind Ja I 152; Dhp-a III 148; -bhūta (having become) like a wild animal, M I 450 (°bhūtena cetasā); -mandalocana the soft eye of the deer Vv 6411; Pv I 115. See under manda; -rājā king of the beasts (the lion) D III 23 sq. -luddaka deer hunter Ja I 372; III 49, 184; Dhp-a II 82; Vibh-a 266 (in simile); -vadha deer-slaying Ja I 149. -vittaka, amateur of hunting Ja IV 267; -visāna a deer's horn Pp 56; -vīthi deer road Ja I 372.
Migī (feminine) [feminine of miga, cf. Epic Sanskrit mr̥gī] a doe Thag 109; Ja V 215; VI 549; Dhp-a I 48.

Miñja (neuter) and Miñjā (feminine) [Vedic majjan (from majj?); on form see Geiger P.Gram §91, and cf. Pischel, Pkt Gr. §§ 74, 101] marrow, pith, kernel Vin I 25 (in sequence chavi, camma, maɱsa, nahāru, aṭṭhi-miñjā); Vism 235 (the same); Khp III (aṭṭhi°, feminine cf. Pj I 52, neuter); Ja IV 402 (tāla° pith of the palm); Mhv 28, 28 (panasa°,f., kernels of the seeds of the jak-fruit). -rāsi heap of marrow Vism 260 (= matthaluṅga).

Miñjaka = miñja, only in tela° inner kernels of tila-seed, made into a cake Pv-a 51. See doṇī2.

Mīḷhakā (feminine) [from mīḷha; cf. BHS mīḍha-ghaṭa] cesspool S II 228 (so read for Text piḷhakā; v.l. miḷhakā). See also piḷhakā. The translation (K.S. II 155) gives "dung beetle."

Mukula [cf. Sanskrit mukula] a bud; see makula (where also see mukulita). — Abh 811, 1116.

Mugga [Vedic mudga, cf. Zimmer, Altind. Leben 240] a kind of kidney-bean, Phaseolus mungo, frequently combined with māsa2 (q.v.). On its size (larger than sāsapa, smaller than kalāya) see A V 170 and cf. kalāya. — D II 293; M I 57 (+ māsa); S I 150; Ja I 274, 429; III 55; VI 355 (°māsā); Miln 267, 341; Pj II 283. -sūpa bean-soup Vism 27;

Muggatiya (neuter°) [from mugga?] a plant, according to comentary a species of bean Ja VI 536.

Mucala occurs as simplex only in proper name Mahā-mucala-mālaka Mhv 15, 36. It refers to the tree mucalinda, of which it may be a short formation On the other hand mucal-inda appears to the speaker of Pāli a compound noun, viz. king of the mucala(s) (trees). Its (late°) Sanskrit correspondent is mucilinda, of which the Pāli form may be the regular representative (cf. Geiger P.Gram §34). 1. the tree Barringtonia acutangula (Nicula*, of which it may be a dialectical distortion: *Abh 563 nicula > *mucula > *mucala) Vin I 3; Ja V 405 (°ketakā, dvandva); VI 269 (the same).

Muñja [Vedic muñja, cf. Zimmer, Altind. Leben 72] 1. a sort of grass (reed) Saccharum munja Roxb. Snp 440. °kesa having a dark mane (like m. grass) D II 174. °pādukā slipper made of m. grass Dhp-a III 451; °maya made of m. grass Snp 28. — The reed itself is called isīkā (q.v.). 2. a sort of fish Ja IV 70 (+ rohita, taken as dvandva by commentary); VI 278 (the same).

Mudayantī (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit modayantī] a certain plant, perhaps Ptychotis ajowan Ja VI 536.

Muddikā2 (feminine) [from mudu, cf. Sanskrit mr̥dvīkā] a vine or bunch of grapes, grape, grape wine Vin I 246 (°pāna); Ja IV 529; Dhp-a II 155.

Muḷāla and Muḷālī (feminine) [cf. Vedic mulālin. Zimmer, Altind Leben 70 mentions Bisa, Śāluka and Mulālin as edible roots of lotus kinds. — Geiger, Pāli Grammar 12 and 43 puts muḷāla = Sanskrit mr̥ṇāla] the stalk of the lotus: muḷālī Vin I 215 (bhisa + m.); muḷāli Ja VI 530 (= muḷālaka commentary); muḷālikā Vin I 215 (bhisa + m.); bhisa-muḷālaɱ (neuter) (collective compound) fibre and stalks Vin II 201 = S II 269; IV 94; V 39; Vism 361; Vibh-a 66. — muḷāli-puppha a lotus Thag 1089.

Mūla (neuter) [Vedic mūra and mūla. The root is given as mūl in 2 meanings, viz. literally "rohane" Dhātum 859, and figurative "patiṭṭhāyaɱ" Dhātum 391] 1. (literal) root A II 200 = M I 233; Dhp-a I 270; IV 200 (opposite patti); Vism 270 (rukkha° = rukkha-samīpaɱ); Pv II 96 (sa° with the root); Pv-a 43 (rukkhassa mūle at the foot of).-kanda eatable tuber Dhp-a III 130; IV 78 (mūlaka°). See also kanda;-phala (eatable) fruit, consisting of roots; roots as fruit Snp 239;-bīja having seeds in roots, i.e. propagated by roots, one of the classes of plants enumerated under bījagāma (q.v.); -rasa taste of roots, or juice made from roots Vibh-a 69; see under rasa.

Mūlaka (adjective neuter) [from mūla]2. (neuter) = mūla, i.e. root, bulb, radish, only in compound mūlaka-kanda radish (°root) Ja IV 88, 491; Dhp-a IV 78. — See also pulaka.

Mūsika (masculine) and Mūsikā (feminine) [Vedic mūṣikā, from mūṣ] a mouse D II 107 = Pp 43 (feminine); Vism 109 (masculine), 252 = Pj I 46 (masculine); Mhv 5, 30 (masculine); Vibh-a 235. -cchinna (auguries from the marks on cloth (gnawed by mice) D I 9 (mūsikā°; Sv I 92 mūsika° = undurakhāyitaɱ; cf. D.B. I 17); -darī a mouse-hole Ja I 462 (mūsikā°, so read for musikā°); -potikā the young of a mouse Ja IV 188 (mūsika°); -vijjā mouse craft D I 9 (cf. Sv I 93).

Mūsī (feminine) [Vedic mūṣ and mūḥ mouse or rat; cf. Latin mūs Greek μῦς, Old High German mūs = English mouse. Not to muṣ to steal, but to same root as Latin moveo, to move] a mouse S II 270 (mudu° a tender, little m.).

Meṇḍa [dialect, cf. Prākrit mÏṇṭha and miṇṭha: Pischel, Pkt Gr. §293. Dhātum (156) gives a root meṇḍ (meḍ) in meaning of "koṭilla," i.e. crookedness. The Vedic (Sanskrit) word for ram is meṣa] 1. a ram D I 9; Ja IV 250, 353 (°visāṇa-dhanu, a bow consisting of a ram's horn).

Mella [dialect or uncertain reading?] citron (= mātuluṅga) Ja III 319 (gloss bella).

Moca1 [cf. Sanskrit moca and mocā] the plantain or banana tree' Musa sapientum Vin I 246 (°pāna drink made from M. s.; one of the 8 permitted drinks); Ja IV 181; V 405, 465.

Mora [the contracted, regular Pāli form of Sanskrit mayūra, via *ma-ūra > mora. See also Geiger, Pāli Grammar §27 and Pischel, Pkt Gr. §166. — Vedic only mayūrī feminine peahen] a peacock Ja II 275 (°upasevin, see comentary on this passage); VI 218, 497; Pv-a 142; Dhp-a I 394. A peacock's tail (sometimes used as a fan) is denoted in various terms in compounds, as mora-kalāpa Dhp-a I 387; -piccha Vin I 186; -piñcha Vin II 130; -pīñja Pv-a 142, 176; Vv-a 147; -sikali (?) Pj I 49; -hattha Vv 3344 (= mayūra-piñjehi kataɱ makāsa-vījaniɱ); Pv III 117.

Moragu [cf. (scientific) Sanskrit mayūraka] a tender grass (Achyranthes aspera) Vin I 196.

Morinī (feminine) [from mora] a peahen Miln 67.

-----[ N ]-----

Nakula [Vedic nakula, cf. nakra crocodile] a mungoose, Viverra ichneumon A V 289f.; Ja II 53; VI 538; Miln 118, 394.

Najjuha, [Sanskrit dātyūha] a kind of cock or hen Ja VI 528, 538.

nard: the Himalayan spikenard. Spikenard, also called nard, nardin, and muskroot, is a class of aromatic amber-colored essential oil derived from Nardostachys jatamansi, a flowering plant in the honeysuckle family which grows in the Himalayas of Nepal, China, and India. —Wikipedia.

Nala: and Naḷa [Vedic naḍa and Sanskrit naḷa, with dialect ḍ (ḷ)] a species of reed; reed in general Vin IV 35; A II 73; Dhp 337; Nidd II §680 II; Ja I 223; IV 141, 396 (n. va chinno); Pv I 116 (the same); Dhp-a III 156; IV 43. See also nāḷa, nāḷī and nāḷikā. -āgāra a house built of reeds S I 156; IV 185 (+ tiṇāgāra); A I 101 (+ tiṇāgāra); Nidd II §40 d (the same), Miln 245; cf. Avś Index II 228 (naḍāgāra); -aggi a fire of reeds Ja VI 100 (°vaṇṇaɱ pabbataɱ); -kalāpī a bundle of r. S II 114; -kāra a worker in reeds, basket-maker; D I 51 (+ pesakāra and kumbhakāra); Ja V 291; Thig-a 28; Pv-a 175 (+ vilīvakāra); Dhp-a I 177; -daṇḍaka a shaft of r. Ja I 170; -maya made of r. Vin II 115; -vana a thicket of reeds Ja IV 140; Miln 342; -sannibha reed-coloured Ja VI 537 (Commentary: naḷa-puppha-vaṇṇa rukkha-sunakha); -setu a bridge of reeds Snp 4.

Naḷapin: a water-animal Ja VI 537.

Nāga: [Vedic nāga; etymology of 1. perhaps from °snagh = Anglo-Saxon snaca (snake) and *snaegl (snail)] 1. a serpent or Nāga demon, playing a prominent part in Buddhist fairy-tales, gifted with miraculous powers and great strength. They often act as fairies and are classed with other divinities (see devatā), with whom they are sometimes friendly, sometimes at enmity (as with the Garuḷas) D I 54; S III 240f.; V 47, 63; Bv I 30 (dīghāyukā mahiddhikā); Miln 23. Often with supaṇṇā (Garuḷas); Ja I 64; Dhp-a II 4; Pv-a 272. Descriptions e.g. at Dhp-a III 231, 242f.; see also compounds 2. an elephant, especially a strong, stately animal (thus in combination hatthi-nāga characterising "a Nāga elephant") and frequent as symbol of strength and endurance ("heroic"). Thus epithet of the Buddha and of arahants. Popular etymologies of n. are based on the excellency of this animal (āguɱ na karoti = he is faultless, etc.): see Nidd I 201 = Nidd II §337; Thag 693; Pv-a 57. (a) the animal D I 49; S I 16; II 217, 222; III 85; V 351; A II 116; III 156f.; Snp 543; Vv 55 (= hatthi-nāga Vv-a 37); Pv I 113. mahā° A IV 107, 110. 3. The Nāga-tree (now called "iron-wood tree," the Pāli meaning "fairy tree"), noted for its hard wood and great masses of red flowers (= Sanskrit nāgakesara, Mesua ferrea Lin.): see compounds °rukkha, °puppha, °latā. -puppha iron-wood flower Miln 283; -bala the strength of an elephant Ja I 265; II 158; -bhavana the world of snakes Nidd I 448; Ja III 275; Dhp-a IV 14; -māṇavaka a young serpent Ja III 276; feminine °ikā ibid. 275; Dhp-a III 232; -rājā king of the Nāgas, i.e. serpents Ja II 111; III 275; Snp 379 (Erāvaṇa, see detail Pj II 368); Dhp-a I 359; III 231, 242f. (Ahicchatta); IV 129f. (Paṇṇaka); -rukkha the iron-wood tree Ja I 35 (cf. Mvu II 249); -latā = rukkha Ja I 80 (the Buddha's toothpick made of its wood), 232; Dhp-a II 211 (°dantakaṭṭha toothpick); -vatta habits of serpents Nidd I 92, also adjective °ika ibid. 89; -vana elephant-grove Dhp 324; Dhp-a IV 15.

Nāla and Nāḷa (neuter) [Sanskrit nāla, see nala] a hollow stalk, especially that of the water lily A IV 169; Ja I 392 (°pana v.l. °vana); Vv-a 43. See also nāḷikā and nālī.

Nāḷikā (feminine) [Sanskrit nāḍikā and nālikā] a stalk, shaft; a tube, pipe or cylinder for holding anything; a small measure of capacity Vin II 116 (sūci°, cf. sūcighara, needle-case); D I 7 (= bhesajja- Sv I 89); A I 210; Ja I 123 (taṇḍula° a nāḷi full of rice); VI 366 (aḍḍha-n-matta); Nidd II §229. Cf. pa°. -odana a nāḷi measure of boiled rice S I 82; Dhp-a IV 17.

Nāḷikera [Sanskrit nārikera, nārikela, nalikera, nālikela: dialect, of uncertain etymology] the coconut tree Vv 4413; Ja IV 159; V 384; Sv I 83; Vv-a 162.

Nāsā (feminine) [Vedic nāsā (du.); Latin nāris, Old High German nasa, Anglo-Saxon nasu] 2. the trunk (of an elephant) Ja V 297 (nāga°-uru); Saddh 153.

Nigguṇḍi (feminine) [Sanskrit nirguṇḍī, of obscure etymology] a shrub (Vitex Negundo) Miln 223 (°phala); Vism 257 (°puppha).

Niggumba (adjective) [Sanskrit nirgulma, nis + gumba] free from bushes, clear Ja I 187; Miln 3.

Nigrodha [Sanskrit nyagrodha; Non-Aryan?] the banyan or Indian fig-tree, Ficus Indica, usually as compound °rukkha Vin IV 35; D II 4; Snp 272; Ja III 188 (r.) Dhp-a II 14 (r.); Pv-a 5 (r.) 112, 244; Saddh 270; -pakka the fruit of the fig-tree Vism 409. -parimaṇḍala the round or circumference of the banyan D II 18; III 144, 162.

Niḍḍāyati and Niddāyati1 [Sanskrit nirdāti, nis + dāyati, cf. Sanskrit nirdātar weeder] to cut out, to weed D I 231 (niddāyit°); It 56 (as v.l. niddāta for niṇhāta, q.v.); Ja I 215. causative niḍḍāpeti to cause to weed, to have weeds dug up Vin II 180.

Nippatta (adjective) [nis + patta] 1. without wings, plucked (of a bird) Vin IV 259. 2. without leaves Ja III 496 (= patita-patta); Pj II 117 (°puppha). — Note nippatta at Dhs 1035 is to be read as nibbatta.

Nimba [Sanskrit nimba, non-Aryan] the Nimb tree (Azadirachta Indica), bearing a bitter leaf, and noted for its hard wood Vin I 152 (°kosa), 284 (the same), 201 (°kasāva); A I 32; V 212; Vv 3336 (°muṭṭhi, a handful of n. leaves); Ja II 105, 106; Dhp-a I 52 (°kosa); As 320 (°paṇṇa, the leaf of the n. as example of tittaka, bitter taste); Vv-a 142 (°palāsa); Pv-a 220 (°rukkhassa daṇḍena katasūla).

Nimmoka [Sanskrit nirmoka from nis + moceti] the slough or castoff skin of a snake Pv-a 63.

Niyyāsa [cf. Sanskrit niryāsa, Abhidh-r-m 5, 75] any exudation (of plants or trees), as gum, resin, juice, etc. Vism 74 (°rukkha, one of the 8 kinds of trees), 360 (paggharitaniyyāsa-rukkha). Cf. nivāyāsa.

Nivāyāsa (?) oozing of trees; Buddhaghosa's explanation of ikkāsa at Vin II 321. See niyyāsa.

Nisātaka in koka° Ja VI 538, a certain wild animal; the meaning is not clear, etymologically it is to be derived from Sanskrit niśātayati to strike, to fell. See Kern, Toev. 1. page 152, sub voce koka. The v.l. is °nisādaka, evidently influenced by nisāda.

Nīka [Sanskrit nyaṅku? Doubtful reading] a kind of deer (or pig) Ja V 406 (Vv.ll. nika, niṅga).

Nīpa (adjective) [Vedic nīpa, contraction from ni + āpa "low water"] literally lying low, deep, name of the tree Nauclea cadamba, a species of Asoka tree Ja I 13 (verse 61) = Bv II 51; Ja V 6 (so read for nipa).

Nīla dark-blue, blue-black, blue-green. -uppala blue lotus Ja III 394; Vv 454 (= kuvalaya); Dhp-a I 384; -gīva "blue neck," a peacock Snp 221 = maṇi-daṇḍa-sadisāya gīvāya n. ti Pj II 277); -pupphī name of plant ("blue-blossom") Ja VI 53; -bījaka a waterplant ("blue-seed") Buddhaghosa at Vin III 276;

Nīlī (feminine) [Sanskrit nīlī] the indigo plant, indigo colour A III 230, 233.

Nīvāra [Sanskrit nīvāra, unexplained] raw rice, paddy D I 166; A I 241, 295; II 206; Pp 55; Ja III 144 (°yāgu).

Neḷa (and Nela) (adjective) [na + eḷa = Sanskrit anenas, of enas fault, sin. 2. (somewhat doubtful) "clean," with reference to big cats (mahā-biḷārā nelamaṇḍalaɱ vuccati), whereas young ones are called "elephants, cubs" (something like "pigs") (taruṇā bhiṅka-cchāpamaṇḍalaɱ) Ja V 418.

Nevāpika (adjective/noun) [from nivāpa] a deer-feeder M I 150f.


-----[ O ]-----

Odumbara (adjective) [from udumbara] belonging to the Udumbara tree Vv 5016; cf. Vv-a 213.

Opatta (adjective) [o + patta, Sanskrit ava + pat] with leaves fallen off, leafless (of trees) Ja III 495 (opatta = avapatta nippatta patita-patta Commentary).

Opuppha [o + puppha] bud, young flower Ja VI 497 (vv.ll. page 498 opaṇṇa and opatta).

Orabbhika [from urabbha. The Sanskrit aurabhrika is later and differs in meaning] — one who kills sheep, a butcher (of sheep) M I 343, 412; S II 256; A I 251; II 207 = Pp 56; III 303; Thig 242 (= urabbhaghātaka Thig-a 204); Ja V 270; VI 111 (and their punishment in Niraya); Pp-a 244 (urabbhā vuccanti eḷakā; urabbhe hanatī ti orabbhiko).


-----[ P ]-----

Pakka (adjective) [Vedic pakva, a past participle formation of pac to cook, Indo-Germanic °pequo = Latin coquo "cook," Avesta pac-, Old-bulgarian peka°, Lithuanian kepū, Greek πέσσω, ἀρτοκύπος baker, πέπων ripe; also past participle of pacati pakta = Greek πεπτός, Latin coctus] 1. ripe (as opposed to āma raw, as Vedic,; and apakka) and also "cooked, boiled, baked" S I 97 (opposite āmaka); IV 324 (°bhikkhā); Snp 576; Ja V 286. — neuter pakkaɱ that which is ripe, i.e. a fruit, ripe fruit Pp 44, 45; often in connection with amba° i.e. a (ripe) mango fruit Ja II 104, 394; Pv IV 123; Dhp-a III 207; Pv-a 187. — apakka unripe Pp-a 225; Saddh 102. -pakka ripe fruit Pj I 59. -vaṇṇin of ripe appearance Pp 44, 45, cf. Pp-a 225. -sadisa ripe-like, appearing ripe Pp-a 225.

Pakkava [etymology?] a kind of medicinal plant Vin I 201 (cf. paggava).

Pakkhima [= pakkhin] a bird Thag 139 (read °me for °maɱ); Ja V 339.

Pagumba [pa + gumba] a thicket, bush, clump of trees Snp 233.

Paggava [etym?] a medicinal plant with bitter fruit Ja II 105 (v.l. pakkava).

Pañca-nakha with 5 claws, name of a five-toed animal Ja V 489 (so read for pañca na khā, misunderstood by Commentary).

Paṭaṅga [cf. °Sanskrit phaḍiṅgā, but influenced by Sanskrit pataga a winged animal, bird] a grasshopper Snp 602; Ja VI 234, 506; Miln 272, 407; Dhp-a IV 58; Pv-a 67; Pañca-g 59.

Paṭala (neuter) [connected with paṭa, cf. Sanskrit paṭala in meaning "section" Vedic, in all other meanings later Sanskrit] 1. a covering, membrane, lining, envelope, skin, film Vism 257 (eka° upāhanā, single-lined, cf. paṭalika and palāsika and see Morris JPTS 1887, 165); Vism 446 (kappāsa° film of cotton seed); Abhidh-av 66 (the same). — madhu° honeycomb Ja I 262; Dhp-a I 59; III 323.

Paṭikuttaka [of uncertain etymology; paṭi + kuttaka?] a sort of bird Ja VI 538.

Paṭola [dialect?] a kind of cucumber, Trichosanthes Dioeca Vin I 201 (°paṇṇa).

Paṇḍu- (adjective) [cf. Vedic pāṇḍu, palita, pāṭala (pale-red); Greek πελιτνός, πελλός, πόλιος (grey); Latin palleo (to be pale), pullus (grey); Lithuanian patvas (pale-yellow), pilkas (grey); Old High German falo (pale, yellowish, withered); English pale] pale red or yellow, reddish, light yellow, grey; -sīha yellow lion, one of the 4 kinds Pj II 125 (cf. Mp III 65 on A II 33).

Paṇṇa (neuter) [Vedic parṇa cf. Anglo-Saxon fearn. English fern] 1. a leaf (especially betel leaf) Vin I 201 (5 kinds of leaves recommended for medicinal purposes, viz. nimba° Azadirachta Indica, kuṭaja° Wrightia antidysenterica, paṭola° Trichosanthes dioeca, sulasi° or tulasi° basil, kappāsika° cotton, see Vinaya Texts II 46) A I 183 (tiṇa + p.) Snp 811 (p. vuccati paduma-pattaɱ Nidd I 135): Ja I 167; II 105 (nimba)°; Pj I 46 (khitta-p.-kosa-saṇṭhāna): Pv-a 115 (= patta) tālapaṇṇa a fan of palm leaves Vv 3343 (= tālapattehi kata-maṇḍala-vījanī Vv-a 147); haritapaṇṇa greens, vegetable Pj II 283; sūpeyyapaṇṇa curry leaf Ja I 98. 3. a feather, wing see su°.-kuṭi a hut of leaves D III 94; S I 226; Ja II 44; Pv III 220; Sv I 318. -chatta a fan of leaves Ja II 277. -chattaka a leaf-awning S I 90, 92. -dhāra a holder made of leaves Ja V 205. -pacchi leaf-basket, a b. for greens Ja VI 369. -puṭa a palm-leaf basket Pv-a 168. -saññā a mark of leaves (tied up to mark the boundary of a field) Ja I 153. -santhāra a spreading leaf, leaf cover, adjective spread with leaves A I 136; Ja VI 24. -sālā a hut of leaves, a hermitage Ja I 6, 7, 138; II 101f.; VI 30, 318 (nala-bhittikaɱ °ɱ katvā); VI 24. -susa (and sosa) drying the leaves (said of the wind) Pj I 15.

Paṇṇaka [paṇṇa + ka] 1. green leaves (collectively), vegetables, greens Ja VI 24 (kāra° vegetable as homage or oblation); Pv III 33 (paṅko paṇṇako ca, explained as "kaddamo vā udakacchikkhalo vā" Pv-a 189, but evidently misunderstood for "withered leaves"); Pv-a 256 (tiṇakaṭṭha-paṇṇaka-sala, is reading correct?). 2. Name of a water plant, most likely a kind of fern (see Kern, Toev. II 16 q.v.) Often combined with sevāla (Blyxa Octandra), e.g. at Ja II 324; V 37. The spelling is also paṇaka, even more frequent than paṇṇaka and also combined with sevāla, e.g. Vin III 177 (in combination saṅkha-sevāla°, where Sp 612 explains "saṅkho ti sīghamūlako paṇṇasevālo vuccati, sevālo ti nīlasevālo, avaseso udaka-pappaṭaka-tīla-bījakādi sabbo ti paṇako ti saṅkhyaɱ gacchati"); S V 122; A III 187, 232, 235; Ja IV 71 (sevāla°); Miln 35 (saṅkha-sevāla-p. which Mp III 295 explains by udaka-pappaṭaka, and also at Mp III 311 as "nīla-maṇḍūkapiṭṭhivaṇṇena udakapiṭṭhim chādetvā nibattapaṇakaɱ" see Trenckner, Miln 421 and cf. Q.K.M. I 302), 210 (suvaṇṇa°), 401 (cakkavāko sevāla paṇaka-bhakkho); Pj I 61 (sevāla°; cf. Schubring's Kalpasūtra page 46f.).

Paṇṇi (feminine) [= paṇṇa] a leaf Vin I 202 (taka°).

Paṇṇika [paṇṇa + ika] one who deals with greens, a florist or greengrocer Ja I 411; II 180; III 21 (°dhītā); Miln 331.

PaṇṇikāPaṇṇikā (feminine) [to paṇṇaka; cf. Sanskrit parṇikā; meaning uncertain, cf. Kern, Toev. page 17 sub voce] greens, green leaves, vegetable Vin II 267 (na harītaka °ɱ pakiṇitabbaɱ, translated at Vinaya Texts III 343 by "carry on the business of florist and seedsman," thus taken as paṇṇika, cf. also Vinaya Texts III 112); Ja I 445 (paṇṇikāya saññaɱ adāsi is faulty; reading should be saṇṇikāya "with the goad," of saṇ(ṇ)ikā = Sanskrit sr̥ṇi elephant-driver's hook).

Patta1 (neuter) [Vedic patra, to °pet as in patati (q.v. and see also paṇṇa); cf. Greek πτερόν wing, πτέρυξ the same; Latin penna feather = German fittig.; acci-piter; Old High German fedara = English feather etc.] 1. the wing of a bird, a feather Vin IV 259; D I 71. kukkuṭa° a hen's quill (for sewing) Vin II 215. 2. a leaf M I 429; Snp 44 = 64 (sañchinna°, see Nidd II §625); 625 (pokkhara° lotus l.); Dhp 401 (the same); Nidd I 135 (paduma°); Pv II 95 (= paṇṇa Pv-a 15); Vv-a 147 (tāla°); Thig-a 71; Pv-a 283 (nigrodha°). asi-patta-vana "sword-leaf-forest" (a forest in Niraya) Snp 673; Pv-a 221. -gandha odour of leaves Dhs 625. -nāḷī rib of a feather Dhp-a I 394. -phala leaf-fruit, a leaf and fruit, vegetables Snp 239 (= yaɱ kiñci harita-pannaɱ Pj II 283); Pv-a 86. -yāna having wings as vehicle, "wing-goer," i.e. a bird Snp 606 (= pattehi yantī ti pattayānā Pj II 465); Ja II 443. -rasa taste of leaves Dhs 629; juice of leaves Vin I 246 (+ puppharasa and ucchurasa).

Patti3 (feminine) [for patta1?] leaf, leafy part of a plant Vin I 201 (taka, taka-patti, taka-paṇṇi).

Pattikā (feminine) [from patta1 or patti3] a leaf, in tāla° palm-leaf S II 217, 222.

Paduma (neuter) [cf. Epic Sanskrit padma, not in R̥V] the lotus Nelumbium speciosum. It is usually mentioned in two varieties, viz. ratta° and seta°, i.e. red and white lotus, so at Ja V 37; Pj II 125; as ratta° at Vv-a 191; Pv-a 157. The latter seems to be the more prominent variety; but paduma also includes the 3 other colours (blue, yellow, pink), since it frequently has the designation of pañcavaṇṇa-paduma (the 5 colours however are nowhere specified), e.g. at Ja I 222; V 337; VI 341; Vv-a 41. It is further classified as satapatta and sahassapatta-p., viz. lotus with 100 and with 1,000 leaves: Vv-a 191. Compared with other species at Ja V 37, where 7 kinds are enumerated as uppala (blue, red and white), paduma (red and white), kumuda (white) and kallahāra. See further kamala and kuvalaya. 1. the lotus or lotus flower M III 93; S I 138, 204; A I 145; II 86f.; III 26, 239; Snp 71, 213; Ja I 51 (daṇḍa° name of a plant, cf. Sanskrit daṇḍotphala), 76 (khandha°, latā°, daṇḍaka°, olambaka°); IV 3; VI 564; Dhp 458; Nidd I 135; Vv 354 (= puṇḍarīka Vv-a 161); 4412 (nānā-paduma-sañchanna); Pv II 120 (the same); II 122 (the same); Pp 63; Vism 256 (ratta°); Sv I 219; Pj I 53; Pj II 97; Saddh 359. -acchara (heavenly) lotus-maiden Pj II 469; -kalāpa a bunch of lotuses Vv-a 191; -gabbha the calyx of a l. Thig-a 68 (°vaṇṇa); -patta a l. leaf Nidd I 135 (= pokkhara); Dhp-a IV 166 (= pokkhara-patta); -puñja a l. cluster Ja III 55;-puppha a lotus flower Nidd II §393; Pj II 78; -sara a lotus pond Ja I 221; V 337; Pj II 141.

Padumin (adjective/noun) [cf. Sanskrit padmin, spotted elephant] having a lotus, belonging to a lotus, lotus-like; name of (the spotted) elephant Snp 53 (explained at Pj II 103 as "padumasadisa-gattatāya vā Padumakule uppannatāya vā padumī," cf. Nidd II page 164). — feminine paduminī [cf. Sanskrit padminī lotus plant] 1. a lotus pond or pool of lotuses D I 75; II 38; M III 93; S I 138; A III 26. 2. the lotus plant Nelumbium speciosum Ja I 128 (°paṇṇa); IV 419 (°patta); Pj II 369; Pj I 67 (°patta); Pv-a 189.

Padmaka (masculine and neuter) [Sanskrit padmaka] name of a tree, Costus speciosus or arabicus Ja V 405, 420; VI 497 (reading uncertain), 537.

Panasa [cf. late Sanskrit panasa, Latin penus stores, Lithuanian p~enas fodder, perhaps Gothic fenea] the Jackfruit or bread-fruit tree (Artocarpus integrifolia) and its fruit Ja I 450; II 160; V 205, 465; Vv 4413; Pj I 49, 50, 58 (°phala, where Vism 258 reads panasa-taca); Pj II 475; Vv-a 147.

Pantha a road, roadway, path S I 18 (genitive plural panthānaɱ = kantāramagga Commentary; "jungle road" translation); Snp 121 (locative panthasmiɱ); Nidd II §485 B (+ patha in explanation of magga), Miln 157 (see panthaɱ) -makkaṭaka a (road) spider Miln 364, 407;

Papaṭikā (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit prapāṭikā (lexic. and grammatical) young shoot, sprout; and parpharīka (R̥V) one who tears to pieces; also Sanskrit parpaṭa name of a plant] 1. a splinter, piece, fragment, chip Vin II 193 (read tato pap.°); A IV 70f. (of ayophāla); Ja V 333 (same as Vin passage); Miln 179. 2. the outer dry bark or crust of a tree, falling off in shreads; also shoots, sprouts M I 78, 192f., 488; A I 152; III 19f., 44, 200, 360; IV 99, 336; V 4f., 314f.; Ja III 491. Cf. pheggu.

Pappaṭaka [etymology uncertain] 2. a water plant: see paṇṇaka 2; cp, also papaṭikā 2 and Sanskrit parpaṭa name of medicinal plant.

Pabba (neuter) [Vedic parvan] 1. a knot (of a stalk), joint, section Vin IV 35; M I 80; Ja I 245 (veḷu°); Vism 358 (the same; but nāḷika page 260); Vibh-a 63 (the same); Thag 243. -valli a species of grass Ja V 69;

Pabbaja [Sanskrit balbaja, cf. Geiger P.Gram §39.6] a species of reed. bulrush Vin I 190 (Text reads babbaja); S I 77; II 92; III 137 (v.l. babbaja), 155 (°lāyaka); Thag 27; Ja II 140, 141; V 202; VI 508. For further references. see babbaja.

Pabhinna [past participle of pabhindati] 1. to burst open, broken (like a flower or fruit), flowing with juice; usually applied to an elephant in rut, mad, furious M I 236 (hatthi°); Dhp 326 (hatthi° = mattahatthi Dhp-a IV 24) = Thag 77; Ja IV 494; VI 488; Pv I 112 (read chinnapabhinna-gatta); Miln 261, 312 (hatthināgaɱ tidhāpabhinnaɱ); Sv I 37 (°madaɱ caṇḍa-hatthiɱ).

Pampaka [etym? cf. Sanskrit pampā name of a river (or lake), but cf. reference in BR under pampā varaṇ-ādi] a loris (Abh. 618) i.e. an ape; but probably meant for a kind of bird (cf. Kern, Toev. sub voce) Ja VI 538 (Commentary reads pampuka and explaines by pampaṭaka).

Para-bhuta [Sanskrit parabhr̥ta] the Indian cuckoo (literally brought up by another) Ja V 416 (so read for parābhūta)

Paribhaṇḍa 4. slough of a serpent (?) Ja VI 339.

Pariyā (feminine) [from pari + yā] winding round, turning round; of a tree, branch Ja VI 528 (duma°; read °pariyāsu with v.l. instead of Text pariyāyesu; Comentary explaines by sākhā).

Parillaka [cf. Sanskrit pirilī, pirillī Br̥h. Saɱh. 86, 44] name of a bird (Thag-a 129).

Parivadentikā at Ja VI 540 (Commentary reading for Text °vadantikā, with v.l. °devantikā) denoting a kind of bird (ekā sakuṇajāti).

Palaka [cf. late Sanskrit pala, flesh, meat] a species of plant Ja VI 564.

Palaṇḍuka [cf. Epic Sanskrit palāṇḍu, pala (white) + aṇḍu (= aṇḍa? egg)] an onion Vin IV 259.

Palasata [according to Trenckner, "Notes" page 59, possibly from Sanskrit parasvant] a rhinoceros Ja VI 277 (v.l. phalasata; explained as "khagga-miga," with gloss "balasata"); as phalasata at Ja VI 454 (explained as phalasata-camma Commentary). See palāsata.

Palāpa1 [Vedic palāva, cf. Latin palea, Russ peleva; see also Geiger, Pāli Grammar §39.6, where pralāva is to be corrected to palāva] chaff of corn, pollard A IV 169 (yava°); Ja I 467, 468; IV 34; Pj II 165 (in exegesis of palāpa2; v.l. palāsa), 312 (the same); Ja IV 34, 35 (perhaps better to read kula-palāso and palāsa-bhūta for palāpa).

Palāla (masculine and neuter) [cf. Vedic and Epic Sanskrit palāla] straw Ja I 488; Dhp-a I 69.

Palāsa1 (masculine and neuter) [Vedic palāśa] 1. the tree Butea frondosa or Judas tree Ja III 23 (in Palāsa Jātaka). 2. a leaf; collectively (neuter) foliage, plural (neuter) leaves S II 178; Ja I 120 (neuter); III 210, 344; Pv-a 63 (°antare; so read for pāsantare), 113 (ghana°), 191 (sāli°). puppha° blossoms and leaves Dhp-a I 75; sākhā° branches and leaves M I 111; Ja I 164; Miln 254; paṇḍu° a sear leaf Vin I 96; III 47; IV 217; bahala° (adjective) thick with leaves Ja I 57. — palāsāni (plural) leaves Ja III 185 (= palāsapaṇṇāni Commentary); Pv-a 192 (= bhūsāni).

Palāsata [so read for palasata and palasada; cf. Vedic parasvant given by BR in meaning "a certain large animal, perhaps the wild ass"] a rhinoceros Ja V 206, 408; VI 277.

Pallava (neuter) [cf. Classical Sanskrit pallaka] a sprout Ja I 250; II 161. See also phallava.

Pallavita (adjective) [from pallava] having sprouts, burgeoning, budding Miln 151; Vv-a 288 (sa° full of sprouts).

Palmyra (Borassus Flabelliformis)

Pavana1 (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit pavana and pāvana, of pū] winnowing of grain Miln 201 (read pavanena ṭṭhāyiko who earned his living by winnowing grain).

Pavīhi [pa + vīhi] in plural different kinds of rice Ja V 405 (= nānappakārā vīhayo).

Pavutta2 [past participle of pa + vap] scattered forth, strewn, sown S I 227.

Pasannā (feminine) [late Sanskrit prasannā] a kind of spirituous liquor (made from rice) Ja I 360.

Pasākha (masculine and neuter) [pa + sākhā; Epic Sanskrit praśākhā branch] 1. a smaller branch Ja VI 324 (sākha°). 2. branch-like wood, i.e. hard wood Thag 72.

Pasādiyā at Ja VI 530 is doubtful; it is explained in Comentary together with śaɱsādiyā (a certain kind of rice: sūkara-sāli), yet the Comentary seems to take it as "bhūmiyaɱ patita"; v.l. pasāriya. Kern, Toev. sub voce takes it as rice plant and compares Sanskrit prasātikā.

Pasu [Vedic paśu, cf. Latin pecu and pecunia, Greek πέκος fleece, Gothic vieh, English fee] cattle M I 79; Ja V 105; Pv II 1312 (p. yoni); Miln 100; Pv-a 166 (°bhāva); noun plural pasavo S I 69; Snp 858; genitive plural pasūnaɱ Snp 311; Pv II 25. — dupasu bad cattle Thag 446.

Pāka-haɱsa a species of water bird Ja V 356; VI 539; Pj II 277.

Pāgusa [cf. Sanskrit vāgusa, a sort of large fish Abhidh-r-m 3, 37] a certain kind of fish Ja IV 70 (as gloss, Text reads pāvusa, vv.ll. puṭusa, pātusa and pāvuma; Comentary explains as mahā-mukha-maccha).

Pāṭalī (feminine) [cf. Classical Sanskrit pāṭalī, to pāṭala] the trumpet flower, Bignonia Suaveolens D II 4 (Vipassī pāṭaliyā mūle abhisambuddho); Vv 359; Ja I 41 (°rukkha as the Bodhi tree); II 162 (pāṭali-bhaddaka sic v.l. for phālibhaddaka); IV 440; V 189; VI 537; Miln 338; Vv-a 42, 164; Thig-a 211, 226.

Pāṭhīna [cf. Sanskrit pāṭhīna Manu 5, 16; Abhidh-r-m 3, 36] the fish Silurus Boalis, a kind of shad Ja IV 70 (Commentary: pāṭhīna-nāmakaɱ pāsāṇa-macchaɱ); V 405; VI 449.

Pāda-pa "drinking with the foot," name for tree Pv IV 39 (cf. Pv-a 251); Miln 117, 376; Vism 533; Vv-a 212; Saddh 270;

Pānīya-māḷaka (?) Ja VI 85 (Hardy: Flacourtia cataphracta) Flacourtia jangomas, Indian coffee plum, Scramberry is a lowland and mountain rain forest tree in the Salicaceae or Willow Family. It is widely cultivated in Southeast and East Asia, and has escaped cultivation in a number of places. Its wild origin is unknown but is speculated to be tropical Asia, most perhaps India. Wikipedia

Pāyāsa [cf. Classical Sanskrit pāyāsa] rice boiled in milk, milk-rice, rice porridge S I 166; Snp page 15; Ja I 50, 68; IV 391; V 211; Vism 41; Pj II 151; Dhp-a I 171; II 88; Vv-a 32.

Pārāpata [Epic Sanskrit pārāvata] a dove, pigeon Ja I 242; V 215; Vv-a 167 (°akkhi); Pañca-g 45. See the doublet pārevata.

Pāricchattaka [Epic Sanskrit pārijāta, but Pāli from pari + chatta + ka, in popular etymology "shading all round"] the coral tree Erythmia Indica, a tree in Indra's heaven Vin I 30; A IV 117f.; Vv 381 (explained as Māgadhism at Vv-a 174 for pārijāta, which is also the BHS form); Ja I 40; II 20; Pj I I 122; Pj II 485; Dhp-a I 273; III 211; As 1; Vv-a 12, 110; Pv-a 137.

Pārevata [the Prākrit form (cf. Māgadhi pārevaya) of the Sanskrit pārāpata, which appears also as such in Pāli] 1. a dove, pigeon A I 162 (dove-coloured); Vv 363 (°akkhi = pārāpatakkhi Vv-a 167); Ja VI 456. 2. a species of tree, Diospyros embryopteris Ja VI 529, 539.

Pāroha [from pra + ruh, cf. Sanskrit prāroha] 1. a small (side) branch, new twig (of a Nigrodha tree) Ja V 8, 38, 472; VI 199; Pj II 304; Pv-a 113. 2. a shoot, sprout (from the root of a tree, tillering) S I 69 (see Commentarial explaination at K.S. 320); Ja VI 15; Dhp-a II 70; Vibh-a 475; 476.

Pālibhaddaka [from palibhadda = pari + bhadda, very auspicious] the tree Butea frondosa Ja IV 205; Nidd II §680 A 4n;; Vism 256 (°aṭṭhi); Vibh-a 239 (the same); Pj I 46, 53; As 14; Dhp-a I 383. As phālibhaddaka (°vana) at Ja II 162 (v.l. pātali°).

Pāvāra [from pa + vr̥] 2. the mango tree Pj I 58 (°puppha; Vism 258 at the same passage has pāvāraka°).

Pāvusa [pa + vr̥ṣ, cf. Vedic prāvr̥ṣa and pravarṣa]2. a sort of fish Ja IV 70 (gloss pāgusa, q.v.).

Pāsa3 (a stone?) at Pv-a 63 (pāsantare) is probably a misreading and to be corrected to palāsa (palāsantare, similarly to rukkhantare, kaṭṭh'- and mūlantare), foliage.

Pāsāṇa [Epic Sanskrit pāṣāṇa] a rock, stone A I 283; Snp 447; Ja I 109, 199; V 295; Vism 28, 182, 183; Vibh-a 64 (its size as compound with pabbata); Dhp-a III 151; As 389; Vv-a 157; Saddh 328. -macchaka a kind of fish (stonefish) Ja IV 70; VI 450;


Peyote The peyote, scientific name Lophophora williamsii, is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline. Peyote is a Spanish word derived from the Nahuatl peyōtl, meaning "caterpillar cocoon", from a root peyōni, "to glisten". Peyote is native to Mexico and southwestern Texas. — Wikipedia
Scientific name: Lophophora williamsii Conservation status: Vulnerable (Population decreasing) — Encyclopedia of Life Higher classification: Lophophora Rank: Species Family: Cactaceae Kingdom: Plantae

Piṅka [for piṅga yellow, brownish, tawny] a young shoot, sprout Ja III 389 (v.l. siṅga, which also points to piṅga; explained by pavāla).

Piṅgala -kipillaka the red ant Dhp-a III 206;-makkhikā the gadfly Ja III 263 (= ḍaɱsa) Nidd II §268 = Pj II 101 (the same); Pj II 33 (where a distinction is made between kāṇa-makkhikā and piṅgala°), 572 (= ḍaɱsa).

Piṅgulā (feminine) [a variation of Sanskrit piṅgalā, a kind of owl] a species of bird Ja VI 538.

Picu1Picu1 [cf. Classical Sanskrit picu] cotton Vin I 271; usually in compounds, either as kappāsa° S V 284, 443, or tūla° S V 284, 351 (Text thula°), 443; Ja V 480 (Text tula°). -paṭala membrane or film of cotton Vism 445; -manda the Neem tree Azadizachta Indica Pv IV 16 (cf. Pv-a 220); the usual Pāli form is pucimanda (q.v.).

Picu2 [etymology unknown, probably Non-Aryan] a wild animal, said to be a kind of monkey Ja VI 537.

Piccha (neuter) [cf. Epic Sanskrit piccha and puccha tail, to Latin pinna, English fin. German finne] tail-feather, especially of the peacock Vin I 186 (mora°). — dve° (and de°) having two tail-feathers Ja V 339, 341 (perhaps to be taken as "wing" here, cf. Abhidh-r-m 2, 84 = pakṣa). Cf. piñcha and piñja.

Piñcha = piccha, i.e. tail-feather, tail Vin II 130 (mora°). Cf. piñja.

Piñja (neuter) [= piccha] a (peacock's) tail-feather Ja I 38 (mora° kalāpa), 207 (= pekkhuṇa); III 226 (vv.ll. piccha and miccha); Sv I 41 (mora°); Dhp-a I 394 (the same); Vv-a 147 (mayūra°; vv.ll. piñcha, pakkha); Pv-a 142 (mora° kalāpa).

Piñjara [cf. Classical Sanskrit piñjara; for etymology see piɱsati1] of a reddish colour, tawny Ja I 93; Sv I 245; Vv-a 165, 288. -odaka fruit of the esculent water plant Trapa Bispinosa Ja VI 563 (v.l. ciñcarodaka), explained by siṅghāṭaka.

Piññāka (neuter) [to piɱsati2, cf. Classical Sanskrit piṇyāka] ground sesamum, flour of oil-seeds M I 78, 342; Vin IV 341. (p. nāma tilapiṭṭhaɱ vuccati); Vv-a 142 (tila° seed cake); Pv-a 48.

PiṇḍakaPiṇḍaka — in ukka-piṇḍaka meaning a cluster of insects or vermin Vin I 211 = 239 (v.l. piṇḍuka).

Pipīlikā (feminine) and Pipillika [cf. Vedic pipīlikā, pipīlaka and pipīlika; BHS pipīlaka Avś II 130 (kunta°). See also kipillikā] ant Ja III 276 (v.l. kipillikā); Saddh 23; as pipillikā at Ja I 202.

Pippala [for the usual Pāli pipphalī, Sanskrit pippalī] pepper Vin I 201, cf. Vinaya Texts II 46.

Pipphala [cf. Epic Sanskrit pippala, on ph for p see pipphalī] the fruit of Ficus religiosa, the holy fig tree Ja VI 518 (Kern's reading, Toev. sub voce for Text maddhu-vipphala, Comentary reads madhuvipphala and explaines by madhuraphala).

Piyaka [cf. Classical Sanskrit priyaka] a plant going under various names, viz. Nauclea cadamba; Terminalia tomentosa; Vitex trifolia Ja V 420 (= setapuppha Commentary); VI 269.

Piyaṅgu (feminine) [cf. Vedic priyaṅgu] 1. panic seed, Panicum Italicum Vv 537; Ja I 39; Pv-a 283. Mixed with water and made into a kind of gruel (piyaṅgūdaka) it is used as an emetic Ja I 419. See also kaṅgu. 2. a medicinal plant, priyaṅgu Ja V 420.

Pilakkha [cf. Vedic plakṣa] the wave-leaved fig tree, Ficus infectoria Vin IV 35; Sv I 81. As pilakkhu [cf. Prākrit pilakkhu Pischel, Grammatik der Prākrit-Sprachen §105] at S V 96; Ja III 24, 398.

Pilava and Plava [from plu, cf. Vedic plava boat] 2. a kind of duck [so Epic Sanskrit] Vv 35 (cf. Vv-a 163); Ja V 420.

Piḷhaka (v.l. miḷhakā) at S II 228 is to be read as mīḷhakā "cesspool" (q.v.). The Comentary quoted on page 228 explanation incorrectly by "kaɱsalakādi gūthapāṇakā," which would mean "a low insect breeding in excrements" (thus perhaps = paṭaṅga°). The translation (K.S. II 155) has "dung-beetle."

Pītaka (adjective) [from pīta] yellow Vin IV 159; Thig 260; Ja II 274; Pv III 13 (= suvaṇṇavaṇṇa Pv-a 170); Dhs 617 (nīla p. lohitaka odāta kāḷaka mañjeṭṭhaka); Thig-a 211. — pītakā (feminine) saffron, turmeric M I 36.

Puṅgava [puɱ + gava (see go), cf. Classical Sanskrit puṅgava in both meanings] a bull, literal "male-cow," A I 162; II 75f.; Snp 690; Ja III 81, 111; V 222, 242, 259, 433; Pj II 323. As —° in meaning "best, chief" Vism 78 (muni°); Thig-a 69 (Ap V. 5) (nara°).

Pucimanda [from picumanda] the Neem tree, Azadirachta Indica Ja III 34; IV 205; VI 269 (°thanī, of a woman = nimba-phala-saṇṭhāna-thana-yuggalā Commentary).

Puccha (neuter) [cf. Vedic puccha (belonging with punar to Latin puppis) and Pāli piccha] a tail As 365 (dog's tail). See puñcikata.

Puṭa° -bheda the breaking of the container (i.e. seed boxes of the Sirīs plant Sanskrit śirīṣa)) Vv-a 344 (in vatthu where sirīsa refers to Pāṭaliputta, cf. Vv 8452, 53); -bhedana breaking of the (seed°) boxes of the trumpet-flower plant

Puthu-loma, having broad hair or fins, name of a fish Ja IV 466; Vv 4411.

Puṇḍarīka -bheda (neuter) [Non-Aryan (?). Cf. Vedic puṇḍarīka] the white lotus D I 75 = A III 26 (in sequence uppala, padūma, p.); D II 4 (Sikhī puṇḍarīkassa mūle abhisambuddho); M III 93; S I 138, 204 = Ja III 309; A I 145 (uppala paduma p.); II 86f. (samaṇa° adjective); Snp 547; Ja V 45, 215 (°ttacaṅgī = ratta-paduma-patta-vaṇṇasarīrā); Vv 4412 (= seta-kamala Vv-a 191); Pv II 122; III 33 (pokkharaṇī bahu °ā); Pp 63; Sv I 219, 284 (saṅkho elo uppalo puṇḍarīko ti cattāro nidhayo).

Puttaka [from putta] 3. a young bird (= potaka) Ja II 154.

Puthu-loma "flat fin," N of a fish "the finny carp" (Mrs. Rh.D.) Vv 4411 (= dibba-maccha Vv-a 191); Thig 508 (= so-called fish Thig-a 292); Ja IV 466

Puthuka [from puthu, cf. (late) Vedic pr̥thuka "flat corn," also "young of an animal," with which cf. perhaps Greek παρθένος see Walde, Latin Wtb. under virgo] rice in the ear Dhp-a I 98 (°agga as first gift of the field).

Punnāga [dialect?] a species of tree Ja I 9 (°puppha); VI 530; Pj I 50 (aggacchinna°-phala), 53 (the same).

Puppha1 (neuter) [Vedic puṣpa according to Grassmann for *puṣka from puṣ (?) see poseti] a flower Vin II 123; S I 204 = Ja III 308; Snp 2, 5; Dhp 47f.; 377; Vism 430; Pj II 78 (paduma°); Vv-a 73; Pv-a 127; Saddh 550. — pupphāni (plural) Vibh-a 255 (of 32 colours, in simile), 292f. (for Cetiya-worship). — adjective °puppha in ghana° thick with flowers Sv I 87. — cf. pokkharatā. -ābhikiṇṇa decked with flowers Vv 6429; Pv II 112 -ādhāna "a ledge (on a Tope) where offerings of flowers are laid down" (Geiger, Mhv page 355; cf. G.C.C. page 2022) Mhv 30, 51, 56, 60; 33, 22 Reading uncertain. -āveḷā flower-garland Vv-a 125. -āsava wine made from flowers, flower-liquor Ja IV 117; Pj I 26. -gandha odour of flowers Dhp 54; Dhs 625. -cumbaṭaka a fl. cushion. -chaḍḍaka a remover of (dead) flowers, a rubbish-remover, a low occupation, including cleaning of privies and bins etc. Vin IV 6; Thag 620; Ja V 449 (= vacca-ṭṭhāna-sodhaka Commentary); Miln 331; Vism 194 (in simile). Cf. JPTS 1884, 89 and Q.K.M. II 211. -cchatta a parasol with flowers Dhp-a I 110. -dāna offering of flowers Vibh-a 336. -dāma a wreath or garland of fls. Ja I 397; Vv-a 198. -dhara bearing flowers Pv II 124 (so read for Text °dada). -pañjara a cage (ornamented) with flowers Ja V 365. -paṭa a cloth (embroidered) with flowers Ja IV 283; Dhp-a II 45. -palāsa a fl. heap Dhp-a I 75. -bhāṇin "speaking flowers," i.e. speaking the truth Pp 29. -mālā garland of fls. Pj II 78. -muṭṭhi a handful of fl. Vism 432 (in simile). -rasa (wine°) juice made of fls., flower-liquor Vin I 246; taste of fls. Dhs 629. -rāsi a heap of fls. Dhp 53.

Pupphati [puṣp] to flower Ja I 76 (preterit °iɱsu); Pv-a 185 (= phalati). — past participle pupphita.

Pupphita [past participle of pupphati] flowering, in blossom S I 131 = Thig 230 (su°); Vv 354; Ja I 18; Miln 347; Thig-a 69 (Ap. verse 12); Dhp-a I 280; II 250 (su°).

Pupphin (adjective) [from puppha1 cf. Vedic puṣpin] bearing flowers; in nīlapupphī (feminine) name of a plant ("with blue flowers") Ja VI 53.

Pubba2-aṇṇa (adjective) [Vedic pūrva, to Indo-Germanic °per, see pari and cf. Gothic fram = from; Greek πρόμος first, Gothic fruma = As. formo first, Avesta pourvō, also Sanskrit pūrvya = Gothic frauja = Old High German fro Lord, frouwa = German frau. See also Latin prandium, provincia] previous, former, before. -aṇṇa "first grain," a name given to the 7 kinds of grain, as distinguished from aparaṇṇa, the 7 sorts of vegetables, with which it is usually combined; Vin III 151; IV 267; Nidd I 248 (where the 7 are enumerated); Nidd II §314; Ja II 185; Miln 106; Sv I 78, 270; Dhp-a IV 81 etc. (see aparaṇṇa). See also bīja-bīja;

Puḷava [etymology? dialect; cf. Classical Sanskrit pulaka erection of the hairs of the body, also given by lexicographers (Hemachandra 1202) in meaning "vermin"] a worm, maggot M III 168; Snp 672; Ja III 177; VI 73; Miln 331, 357; Vism 179 (= kimi) Dhp-a III 106, 411.

Pussaka at A I 188 is to be read as phussaka (see phussa3) cuckoo.

Pūga3 [Classical Sanskrit pūga] the betel-palm, betel nut tree Ja V 37 (°rukkha-ppamāṇaɱ ucchu-vanaɱ).

Pūti- (adjective) [cf. Sanskrit pūti, pūyati to fester Greek πύθω, πῦον = pus; Latin pūtidus putrid; Gothic fūls = German faul, English foul] putrid, stinking, rotten, fetid D II 353 (khaṇḍāni pūtīni); M I 73, 89 = III 92 (aṭṭhikāni pūtīni); Vin III 236 (anto°); S III 54; Pv I 32; I 61 (= kuṇapagandha Pv-a 32); Vism 261 (= pūtika at Pj I 61), 645 (°pajā itthi, in simile); Pv-a 67; Saddh 258.-dadhi rancid curds Vism 362; Vibh-a 68; cf. pūti-takka Vism 108;-maccha stinking fish M III 168 (+ °kuṇapa and °kummāsa); in simile at It 68 = Ja IV 435 = VI 236 = Pj I 127;-mūla having fetid roots M I 80; -latā "stinking creeper," a sort of creeper or shrub (Coccolus cordifolius, otherwise gaḷocī) Snp 29 = Miln 369; Vism 36, 183; Pj I 47 (°saṇṭhāna); Dhp-a III 110, 111 (taruṇā galoci-latā pūtilatā ti vuccati);

Pe(k)khuṇa(neuter) [not with Childers from *pakṣman, but with Pischel, Pkt Gr. §89 from Sanskrit preṅkhaṇa a swing, Vedic preṅkha, from pra + īṅkh, that which swings, through *preṅkhuṇa > prekhuṇa > pekhuṇa] 1. a wing Thag 211 (su° with beautiful feathers), 1136; Ja I 207. 2. a peacock's tail-feathers Ja VI 218 (= morapiñja Commentary), 497 (citrapekkhuṇaɱ moraɱ).

Peṇāhikā (feminine) [dialect; etymology uncertain] a species of bird (crane?) Miln 364, 402; shortened to peṇāhi at Miln 407 (in the uddāna). Cf. Q.K.M. II 343.

Pelaka a hare Ja VI 538 (= sasa Commentary).

Pesikā (feminine) (—°) [cf. Sanskrit peśikā] rind, shell (of fruit) only in compounds amba° Vin II 109; vaɱsa° Ja I 352; veḷu° (a bit of bamboo) D II 324; Ja II 267, 279; III 276; IV 382.

Pokkhara (neuter) [cf. Vedic puṣkara, from pus, though a certain relation to puṣpa seems to exist, cf. Sanskrit puṣpapattra a kind of arrow (literal lotus-leaf) Abhidh-r-m 2, 314, and Pāli pokkhara-patta] 1. a lotus plant, primarily the leaf of it, figuring in poetry and metaphor as not being able to be wetted by water Snp 392, 812 (vuccati paduma-pattaɱ Nidd I 135); Dhp 336; It 84.-ṭṭha standing in water (?) Vin I 215 (vanaṭṭha + p.), 238 (the same); -patta a lotus leaf Snp 625; Dhp 401 (= paduma-patta Dhp-a IV 166); Miln 250; -madhu the honey sap of Costus speciosus (a lotus) Ja V 39, 466;-sātaka a species of crane, Ardea Siberica Ja VI 539 (koṭṭha + p.); Pj II 359. Cf. name of a person Pokkharasāti Snp 594; Snp page 115; Pj II 372.

Pokkharaṇī (feminine) [from puṣkara lotus; Vedic puṣkariṇī, BHS has puṣkiriṇī, e.g. Avś I 76; II 201f.] a lotus pond, an artificial pool or small lake for water-plants (see note in D.B. II 210) Vin I 140, 268; II 123; D II 178f.; S I 123, 204; II 106; V 460; A I 35, 145; III 187, 238; Ja II 126; V 374 (Khemī), 388 (Doṇa); Pv III 33; IV 121

Poṭaki (°ī?) (masculine f.?) [etymology uncertain, probably non-Aryan] a kind of grass, in °tūla a kind of cotton, "grass-tuft," thistle-down (?) Vin II 150; IV 170 (the same, 3 kinds of cotton, spelt potaki here).

Poṭakila [etymology unknown, cf. poṭaki and (lexicographical) Sanskrit poṭagala a kind of reed; the variant is poṭagala] a kind of grass, Saccharum spontaneum Thag 27 = 233; Ja VI 508 (= p°-tiṇaɱ nāma Commentary).

Poṭhita and Pothita [past participle of poṭheti] beaten, struck Miln 240 (of cloth, see Kern, Toev. sub voce poṭheti); Ja III 423 (mañca; v.l. pappoṭ°) Pj I 173 (°tulapicu cotton beaten seven times, i.e. very soft; v.l. pothita, see Pj II, App page 877); Dhp-a I 48 (su°); Pv-a 174. — cf. paripothita.

Poṇika (adjective) [from poṇa2] that which is prone, going prone; Sv I 23 where the passage is "tiracchāna-gata-pāṇāpoṇika-nikāyo cikkhallika-nikāyo ti," quoted from S III 152, where it runs thus: "tiracchāna-gata pāṇā te pi bhikkhave tiracchānagatā pāṇā citten'eva cittatā." The passage is referred to with poṇika at Pj I 12, where we read "tiracchāna-gatā pāṇā poṇika-nikāyo cikkhallika-nikāyo ti." Thus we may take poṇikanikāya as "the kingdom of those which go prone" (i.e. the animals).

Pota1 [cf. Epic Sanskrit pota, see putta for etymology] the young of an animal Ja II 406 (°sūkara); Cp. I 10, 2 (udda°); Pj II 125 (sīha°).

Potaka (—°) [from pota1] 1. the young of an animal M I 104 (kukkuṭa°); Ja I 202 (supaṇṇa°), 218 (hatthi°); II 288 (assa° colt); III 174 (sakuṇa°); Pv-a 152 (gaja°). — feminine potikā Ja I 207 (haɱsa°); IV 188 (mūsika°). 2. a small branch, offshoot, twig; in twig; in amba° young mango sprout Dhp-a III 206f.;

Phaṇa [cf. Epic Sanskrit phaṇa] the hood of a snake Vin I 91 (°hatthaka, with hands like a snake's hood); Ja III 347 (patthaṭa°); Dhp-a III 231 (°ɱ ukkhipitvā); IV 133. Frequent as phaṇaɱ katvā (only thus, in gerund) raising or spreading its hood, with spread hood Ja II 274; VI 6; Vism 399; Dhp-a II 257.

Phaṇijjaka [etymology?] a kind of plant, which is enumerated at Vin IV 35 = Sv I 81 as one of the aggabīja, i.e. plants propagated by slips or cuttings, together with ajjuka and hirivera. At Ja VI 536 the Comentary gives bhūtanaka as explanation. According to Childers it is the plant Samīraṇa.

Phandana [from phandati, cf. Sanskrit spandana] 1. (adjective) throbbing, trembling, wavering Dhp 33 (phandanaɱ capalaɱ); Ja VI 528 (°māluvā trembling creeper); Dhp-a I 50 (issa° throbbing with envy). 2. (masculine) name of a tree Dalbergia (aspen?) A I 202; Ja IV 208f.; Miln 173.

Phala1 (neuter) [cf. Vedic phala, to phal [sphal] to burst, thus literally "bursting," i.e. ripe fruit; see phalati] 1. (literal) fruit (of trees etc.) Vv 8414 (dumā nicca-phalūpapannā, not to phalu, as Kern, Toev. sub voce phalu); Vism 120. — amba° mango-fruit Pv-a 273f.; dussa° (adjective) having clothes as their fruit (of magic trees) Vv 462 (cf. Vv-a 199); patta° leaves and fruits, vegetables Snp 239; Pv-a 86 pavatta° wild fruit D I 101; puppha° flower and fruit Ja III 40. rukkha°-ūpama Thag 490 (in simile of kāmā, taken from M I 130) literally "like the fruit of trees" is explained by Thig-a 288 as "aṅga-paccaṅgānaɱ p(h)alibhañjanaṭṭhena, and translated according to this interpretation by Mrs. Rh.D. as "fruit that brings the climber to a fall." — Seven kinds of medicinal fruits are given at Vin I 201 scilicet vilaṅga, pippala, marica, harītaka, vibhītaka, āmalaka, goṭhaphala. At Miln 333 a set of 7 fruits is used metaphorically in simile of the Buddha's fruit-shop, viz. Sotāpatti°, Sakadāgāmi°, Anāgāmi°, Arahatta°, suññata° samāpatti (cf. Cpd. 70), animitta° samāpatti, appaṇihita° samāpatti.-atthika one who is looking for fruit Vism 120; -āpaṇa fruit shop Miln 333; -āphala [phala + aphala, see ā4; but cf. Geiger, Pāli Grammar §33.1] all sorts of fruit, literally what is not (i.e. unripe), fruit without discrimination; a phrase very frequent in Jātaka style, e.g. Ja I 416; II 160; III 127; IV 220; 307, 449, V 313; VI 520; Dhp-a I 106; -āsava extract of fruit Vv-a 73; -uppatti ripening Pv-a 29;-dāna gift of fruit Vibh-a 337; -dāyin giver of fruit Vv 676; -pacchi fruit-basket Ja VI 560;-puṭa fruit-basket Ja VI 236; -bhājana one who distributes fruit, an official term in the vihāra Vin IV 38, cf. BHS phalacāraka; -ruha fruit tree Mbvs 82;

Phalatā (feminine) [abstract from phala] the fact or condition of bearing fruit Pv-a 139 (appa°).

Phalati [phal to split, break open = *sphal or *sphaṭ, cf. phāṭeti. On etymology see also Lüders, KZ xlii, 198f.]2. to become ripe, to ripen Vin II 108; Ja III 251; Pv-a 185.

Phalavant (adjective) [from phala] bearing or having fruit Ja III 251.

Phalika1 [from phala] a fruit vendor Miln 331.

Phalita3 [past participle of phal to bear fruit] fruit bearing, having fruit, covered with fruit (of trees) Vin II 108; Ja I 18; Miln 107, 280.

Phalin (adjective) [from phala] bearing fruit Ja V 242.

Phalima (adjective) [from phala] bearing fruit, full of fruit Ja III 493.

Phalu [cf. Vedic paru] a knot or joint in a reed, only in compound °bīja (plants) springing (or propagated) from a joint D I 5; Vin IV 34, 35.

Phallava is spelling for pallava sprout, at Ja III 40.

Phāṇita (neuter) [cf. Epic Sanskrit phāṇita] 1. juice of the sugar cane, raw sugar, molasses (ucchu-rasaɱ gahetvā kataphāṇitaɱ Vv-a 180) Vin II 177; D I 141; Vv 3525; 404; Ja I 33, 120, 227; Miln 107; Dhp-a II 57. phāṇitassa puṭaɱ a basket of sugar S I 175; Ja IV 366; Dhp-a IV 232.

Phārusaka [from pharusa, cf. Sanskrit pāruṣaka Mvy 103, 143] 1. a certain flower, the (bitter) fruit of which is used for making a drink Vin I 246; Vv 3331 = Dhp-a III 316. 2. Name of one of Indra's groves Ja VI 278, similarly Vism 424; Vibh-a 439.

Phāla3 in loṇa-maccha° a string (?) or cluster of salted fish Vism 28.

Phāliphulla [either intensive of phulla, or derived from pariphulla in form phaliphulla] in full blossom M I 218; Ja I 52.

Phālima (adjective) [either from causative of phal1 (phāleti), or from sphar (cf. phārita, i.e. expanded), or from sphāy (swell, increase, cf. sphāra and sphārī bhavati to open, expand)] expanding, opening, blossoming in compound aggi-nikāsi-phālima paduma Ja III 320 (where Commentary explaines by phālita vikasita).

Phuṭa2 [past participle of sphuṭ to expand, blossom] blossoming out, opened, in full bloom Dāṭh IV 49 (°kumuda). Cf. phuṭita.

Phulla1 [past participle of phalati, or root formation from phull, cf. phalita3] blossoming, in blossom Ja V 203. Also as intensive phāliphulla "one mass of flowers" M I 218; Ja I 52.

Phullita [past participle of phullati] in flower, blossoming Ja V 214 (for phīta = rich), 216 (su°-vana).

Phussa3 (adjective/noun) [gerundive formation from phusati2 2; scarcely from Sanskrit puṣya (to puṣ nourish, cf. poseti), but meaning rather "speckled" in all senses. The Sanskrit puṣyaratha is Sanskritization of Pāli phussa°] 1. speckled, gaily-coloured, °kokila the spotted cuckoo [Kern, Toev. sub voce phussa however takes it as "male-cuckoo," Sanskrit puɱs-kokila] Ja V 419, 423; Vv-a 57. — As phussaka at A I 188 (so read for pussaka).

Pheggu [cf. Vedic phalgu and Pāli phaggu in form] accessory wood, wood surrounding the pith of a tree, always with reference to trees (frequent in similes), in sequence mūla, sāra, pheggu, taca, papaṭikā etc. It is represented as next to the pith, but inferior and worthless. At all passages contrasted with sāra (pith, substance). Thus at M I 192f., 488; D III 51; S IV 168; A I 152 (pheggu + sāra, v.l. phaggu); II 110 = Pp 52; A III 20; Ja III 431 (opposite sāra); Miln 267, 413 (tacchako phegguɱ apaharitvā sāraɱ ādiyati).

Phegguka (—°) (adjective) [from pheggu] having worthless wood, weak, inferior M I 488 (apagata°, where °ka belongs to the whole compound); Ja III 318 (a° + sāramaya).

Pheggutā (feminine) [abstract from pheggu] state of dry wood; lack of substance, worthlessness Pp-a 229.


-----[ R ]-----

Rajana (neuter) [from raj] colouring, dye D I 110 (suddhaɱ vatthaɱ ... sammadeva rajanaɱ paṭigaṇheyya); Vin I 50 = 53 II 227; Vin I 286 (6 dyes allowed to the bhikkhus: mūla°, khandha°, taca°, patta°, puppha°, phala°, or made of the root, the trunk, bark, leaf, flower, fruit of trees) Thag 965; S II 101 (here either as feminine or adjective); Ja I 220 (washing?).

Rambhā (feminine) [Sanskrit rambhā] a plantain or banana tree Abh 589.

Rava2 [from ru, cf. Vedic rava] loud sound, roar, shout, cry; any noise uttered by animals Ja II 110; III 277; Dhp-a I 232 (sabba-rava-ññu knowing all sounds of animals); Miln 357 (kāruñña°). See also rāva and ruta.

Ravaka = rava, in go° a cow's bellowing M I 225.

Ravi [cf. Sanskrit ravi] the sun Ja II 375 (taruṇa°-vaṇṇaratha). -inda "king of the sun," name of the lotus Dāṭh III 37; -haṃsa "sun-swan," name of a bird Ja VI 539.

Rājāyatana name of a tree: "Kingstead tree," the royal tree (as residence of a king of fairies), Buchanania latifolia Vin I 3f. (where Mvu III 303 reads kṣīrikā, i.e. milk-giving tree); Ja I 80; IV 361f.; As 35; Vibh-a 433 (°cetiya)

Rājamālakāra royal gardener Ja V 292;

Rājarukkha "royal tree," Cathartocarpus fistula Vv-a 43;

Rājahaṃsa "royal swan," a sort of swan or flamingo Vism 650 (suvaṇṇa°, in simile).

Rājikā (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit rājikā] a certain (gold) weight (a seedcorn of Sinapis ramosa) Thag 97 = 862 (kaṃsa sata° 100 mustard seeds in weight, i.e. very costly); Ja VI 510 (kaṃse sovaṇṇe satarājike).

Rājin (adjective) [from rāji] having streaks or stripes, in uddhagga° having prominent stripes (of a lion) Ja IV 345.
[BD]: Lion? Tiger.

Rājula [cf. Sanskrit rājila] a certain reptile Abh 651.

Rukkha Rukkha [Vedic vr̥kṣa. See Geiger, Pāli Grammar §13, with note. Pischel, Pkt Gr. §320 puts rukkha to Sanskrit rukṣa (shining which as Pischel, following Roth, says has also the meaning "tree" in R̥gveda). The Prākrit form is rukkha. Cf. Wackernagel, Altind. Gram. 1, §184 b. We find a byform rakkha at Ja III 144. Cf. Ps.B, past participle 185, 416, where the B ms has rukkha kathā the meaning being rakkha°] a tree. In the rukkha-mūlikaṅga (see below) Buddhaghosa at Vism 74 gives a list of trees which are not to be selected for the practice of "living at the root of a tree." These are sīmantarika-rukkha, cetiya°, niyyāsa°, phala°, vagguli°, susira°, vihāra-majjhe ṭhita°, or a tree standing right on the border, a sacred tree, a resinous tree, a fruit t., a tree on which bats live, a hollow tree, a tree growing in the middle of a monastery. The only one which is to be chosen is a tree "vihāra-paccante ṭhita," or one standing on the outskirt of the Vihāra. He then gives further advice as to the condition of the tree. — Various kinds of trees are given in the definition of r. at Vism 183, viz. assattha, nigrodha, kacchaka, kapitthaka; ucca, nīca, khuddaka, mahanto; kāḷa, seta. — A very complete list of trees mentioned in the Saṃyutta Nikāya is to be found in the index to that Nikāya (vol. VI, page 84, 85). (given below) On rukkha in similes see JPTS 1907, past participle 128-130. — See also the following references.: A I 137; II 109, 207; III 19, 200, 360; IV 99, 336; V 4f., 314f.; Snp 603, 712; Ja I 35 (nāga°); Vism 688 (in simile: mahārukkhe yāva kappāvasānā bījaparamparāya rukkha-paveṇiṃ santāyamāne ṭhite); Vibh-a 165 = Vism 555 (rukkha phalita); Vibh-a 196 (in combination: jātassa avassaṃ jarā-maraṇaṃ, uppannassa rukkhassa patanaṃ viya), 334f. (as garu-bhaṇḍa); Pj II 5 ("paṭhavi-rasādim iva rukkhe": with same simile as at Vism 688, with reading kappāvasānaṃ and santānente); Dhp-a III 207 (amba°); Vv-a 43 (rāja°), 198 (amba°); Dhp-a IV 120 (dīpa°); Pv-a 43. -antara the inside of a tree Pv-a 63; -koṭṭaka (°sakuṇa) the wood-pecker Ja III 327 (= java sakuṇa); -gahana tree-thicket or entanglement A I 154 (so for °gahaṇa); -devatā a tree spirit, dryad, a yakkha inhabiting a tree (rukkhe adhivatthā d. Vin IV 34; Ja II 385; kakudhe adhivatthā d. Vin I 28) Ja I 168, 322; II 405, 438f. (eraṇḍa°), 445; III 23; IV 308 (vanajeṭṭhaka-rukkhe nibbatta-devatā); Dhp-a II 16; Pv-a 5 (in a Nigrodha tree), 43 (in the Vindhya forest). They live in a Nigrodha tree at the entrance of the village (Ja I 169), where they receive offerings at the foot of the tree (cf. IV 474), and occasionally one threatens them with discontinuance of the offerings if they do not fulfil one's request. The trees are their vimānas (Ja I 328, 442; IV 154), occasionally they live in hollow trees (Ja I 405; III 343) or in tree tops (Ja I 423). They have to rely on the food given to them (ibid); for which they help the people (Ja III 24; V 511). They assume various forms when they appear to the people (Ja I 423; II 357, 439; III 23); they also have children (Vin IV 34; Ja I 442); -paveṇi lineage of the tree Vism 688; -sunakha "tree dog," a certain animal Ja VI 538 (commentary in explanation of naḷa-sannibha "reed-coloured"); -susira a hollow tree Pv-a 62.
kinds of [trees], mentioned in Saṃutta Nikāya, Volume VI, Indexes, by Mrs. Rhys Davids, Pāḷi Text Society, 2005:
assattho, iv, 160-1; v, 96.
āmalako, i, 150; v, 438.
udumbaro, i, 117; iv, 160-1; v, 96.
eḷagalāgumbo, iii, 6.
kacchako, v, 96.
kadalī, i, 154; ii, 241; iii, 141-2; iv, 167.
kapitthako, v, 96.
kaḷāya-, i, 150.
kiṅsuko, iv, 193.
kūṭasimbali, v, 238.
koio, i, 150; v, 462.
khadiro, v, 438.
khlro, iv, 160-1.
cittapātali, v, 238.
tacasāro, i, 70; 78.
tāalaṃ, passim.
tila, i, 170. ºvaho, i, 152. tilako, piṅgalo, i, 170.
naḷo, i, 154; ii, 241.
nigrodho,. iv, 160-1; 194; v, 96.
paduma, v, 439.
palālo, palāso, v, 438-9.
pāricchattako, v, 238.
pilakkho, iv, 160-1.
billa, i, 150.
beluva-salāṭuko, 150.
mahāº, v, 96.
māluva, vitatā, i, 207; v, 439.
mugga, i, 150.
velu, ii, 241.
veluva-latthitā, iii, 91.
sālo, i, 131; 179. bhadda-salo, iii, 95.
simbalī, i, 224.
siriso, iv, 193.

Ruca (-rukkha) and Rucā (feminine) [from ruc] name of a plant, or tree, alias "mukkhaka" (read mokkhaka) "principal" Ja I 441, 443 (gloss maṅgala-rukkha).

Ruru [Vedic ruru: R̥V VI 75, 15] a sort of deer, a stag; usually called ruru-miga Ja IV 256, 261; V 406 (plural rohitā rurū), 416. Cf. ruruva.

Ruha1 (adjective) (—°) [from ruh: see rūhati] growing, a tree, in compounds: jagati°, dharaṇi°, mahī°, etc.

Ruha2 [poetical for ruhira (rohita) = lohita] blood, in compound ruhaṃghasa blood-eater, a name for panther Ja III 481 (= ruhira-bhakkha lohita-pāyin commentary).

Reṇu [cf. Vedic reṇu] 2. pollen (in this meaning found only in the so-called Jātaka-style) Ja I 233 (mahā-tumba-matta), 349 (pupphato reṇuṃ gaṇhāti); III 320; V 39 (puppha°); VI 530 (padumakinjakkha°); Dhp-a IV 203 (°vaṭṭhi).

Reruka [etymology? Probably dialectical] "elephant's tooth," ivory Ja II 230 (= hatthi-danta commentary).

Roga [Vedic roga: ruj (see rujati), cf. Sanskrit rujā breakage, illness] illness, disease. A mention of roga together with plagues which attack the corn in the field is given at Ja V 401, viz. visa-vāta; mūsika-salabha-suka-pāṇaka; setaṭṭhika-roga etc., i.e. hurtful winds, mice, moths and parrots, mildew.

Ropa (—°) [from rop = causative of ruh] plantation; in vana° and ārāma° S I 33.

Ropaka [ropa + ka] sapling Ja II 346 (rukkha°).

Ropana (neuter) and ropanā (feminine) [from ropeti1] 1. planting Pv-a 151 (ārāma°); Mhv 15, 41. 3. furthering, making grow Paṭis II 115 (buddhi°).

Ropita [past participle of ropeti 1] 1. planted Pv II 78.

Ropima (neuter) [from ropeti1] 1. what has been planted Vin IV 267. 3. (adjective) at Vv 4413 aropima ("not planted"°) is an attribute of trees. It is not explained in Vv-a. [BD]: 3. Self-sown.

Ropeti1 [causative of rūhati1] 1. to plant or sow Ja I 150 (nivāpatiṇaṃ); Mhv 15, 42 (ambaṭṭhikaṃ); 19, 56; Dhp-a II 109. 3. to further, increase, make grow Snp 208 (potential ropayeyya). 4. (figurative) causative II ropāpeti to cause to be planted D II 179; Ja VI 333; Mhv 34, 40; Dhp-a II 109.

Romanthaka (adjective) [from romanthati] chewing the cud, ruminating Vin II 132.

Romanthati and Romantheti [to romantha; cf. Latin rumen and ruminare = English ruminate] to chew the cud, to ruminate Vin II 132 (°ati); Ja IV 392 (°eti).

Romanthana (neuter) [from romanthati] ruminating Vin II 321.

Rorava [from ru, cf. Sanskrit raurava, name of a Hell] 1. a sort of hart (i.e. ruru) M I 429.

Rohañña (adjective) [from roha = rohita] red Ja V 259 (rohaññā puṅgav'ūsabhā; commentary explains by ratta-vaṇṇā). Kern. Toev. sub voce proposes rohiñño = *rohiṇyaḥ, (cf. pokkharaṇī for °iṇī) red cows.

Rohicca [from rohita, perhaps directly from Vedic rohita ewe, literally the red one] a kind of deer Ja VI 537 (°sarabhā migā).

Rohiṇī (feminine) [cf. Vedic rohiṇī red cow or mare] 1. a red cow A I 162 = III 214. 2. Name of a nakkhatta or constellation ("red cow") Pj II 456; Mhv 19, 47.

Rohita (adjective) [Vedic rohita; cf. the usual Pāli word lohita red and blood. See also rudhira and ruhira] red, as attribute of fishes at Ja V 405 (i.e. a special kind of fish), and of deer at Ja V 406 in same passage (i.e. a special kind of deer). Otherwise only in standing term rohita-maccha the "red fish," viz. Cyprinus Rohita, which is frequently mentioned in the "Jātaka" literature, e.g. Ja II 433; III 333; Dhp-a II 132 (four), 140; Pj I 118.


-----[ S ]-----

Saṃvāti [saṃ + vāyati2] to be fragrant Ja V 206 (cf. vv.ll. on page 203).

Saṃvirūhati [saṃ + virūhati] to germinate, to sprout Miln 99, 125, 130, 375. — past participle saṃvirūḷha. — causative °virūheti to cause to grow, to nourish Ja IV 429.

Saṃsādiyā (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit syavaṃ-sātikā, on which see Kern, Toev. II 62, sub voce] a kind of inferior rice Ja VI 530.

Sakuṇa [Vedic śakuna] a bird (especially with reference to augury) D I 71 (pakkhin + s.); Vin III 147; S I 197; A II 209; III 241f., 368; Ja II 111, 162 (Kandagala); Pj I 241. pantha° see under pantha. — feminine sakuṇī S I 44. adjective sakuṇa Ja V 503 (maṃsa). -kulāvaka a bird's nest Pj I 56; -patha bird-course, name of place Nidd I 155; -pāda bird foot Pj I 47; -ruta the cry of birds Miln 178; -vatta the habit (i.e. life) of a bird Ja V 254; -vijjā bird craft, augury (i.e. understanding the cries of birds) D I 9; Sv I 93.

Sakuṇagghi (feminine) [sakuṇa + °ghi, feminine of °gha] a kind of hawk (literal "bird-killer") S V 146; Ja II 59; Miln 365. Cf. vyagghīnasa.

Sakunta [cf. Sanskrit śakunta] a bird; a kind of vulture Snp 241; Dhp 92, 174; Ja IV 225; VI 272.

Sakula [cf. Epic Sanskrit śakula] a kind of fish Ja V 405.

Sakkharā (feminine) [cf. Vedic śarkarā gravel] 4. (granulated) sugar Ja I 50.

Sagaha (adjective) [sa3 + gaha2] full of crocodiles It 57, 114. As sagāha at S IV 157.

Saṅkusumita (adjective) [saṃ + kusumita] flowering, in blossom Ja V 420; Miln 319.

Saṅkha2 [etymology?] a water plant (combined with sevāla) Miln 35. See detail under paṇṇaka 2.

Sacca-vaṅka a certain kind of fish Ja V 405 (the Copenhagen ms has [sa]sacca-vaṅka, which has been given by Fausbøll as sata-vaṅka);

Saṇa (neuter) [Vedic śaṇa; Greek κάνναβις = Latin cannabis; Ags haenep = English hemp; German hanf.] a kind of hemp D II 350 (v.l.); S I 115 (the same); cf. sāṇa1 and sāṇī.

Saṇṭha a reed (used for bow-strings) M I 429.

Saṇhaka, According to Andersen, Pāli Glossary "betelnut" (= saṇha).

SataSata1 (cardinal number.) a hundred. Often in sense of "many" or "innumerable," e.g. °kaku, °raṃsi, etc.; cf. °satāni bahūni Ja IV 310, 311. -patta the Indian crane (or woodpecker?) Ja II 153; 388; Miln 404; -padī a centipede A II 73; III 101, 306; IV 320; V 290; Vin II 110, 148; Miln 272; -pupphā Anethum sowa, a sort of dill or fennel Ja VI 537; -mūlī Asparagus racemosus Abh 585; -vaṅka a kind of fish Abh 672.

Sattapaṇṇi-rukkha name of a tree Mhv 30, 47

Sattali (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit saptalā, name of various plants, e.g. jasmine, or many-flowered nykkanthes, or many-flowered tree, Halāy. 2, 52] the plantain, and its flower Ja IV 440 (= kadali-puppha commentary; so read for kandala°); and perhaps at Thig 260 for pattali (q.v.), which is explained as kadali(-makula) at Thig-a 211.

Sattu2 [cf. Sanskrit śaktu] barley-meal, flour Vin II 116 (satthu); Nidd I 372; Ja III 343f.; Pv III 13; Dhs 646. -āpaṇa baker's shop Ja VI 365; -pasibbaka flour sack; -bhasta the same Ja III 346.

Sadassa [sat (= sant) + assa] a horse of good breed A I 289.

Saddūla [cf. Sanskrit śārdūla] a leopard Miln 23.

San1 [cf. Vedic śvā, genitive śunaḥ; Avesta spā, Greek κύων; Latin canis, Old-Irish cū, Gothic hunds = hound] a dog; nominative singular sā D I 166 = M I 77; S I 176; III 150; Kv 336. For other forms of the same base see suvāṇa.

Santacā (feminine) [?] bark Ja V 202 (sattacaṃ?).

Santāna (neuter) [from saṃ + tan]2. one of the 5 celestial trees Ja VI 239 (°maya made of its flowers).

Santānaka [santanā + ka] 1. (neuter) = santāna 1; Vv-a 94, 162 (°valli a sort of long creeper). mūla° a spreading root S III 155; Ja I 277. 2. = santāna 2 Vv-a 12. 3. (neuter) a cobweb Vin I 48.

Sandhovika [from sandhovati] washing; kaṇṇa-sandhovikā khiḍḍā ear-washing sport or gambol (of elephants, with piṭṭhi° etc.) A V 202. So probably for saṇadhovika at M I 229, 375. Cf. sāṇadhovana (?).

Sannakaddu [lexicographical Sanskrit sannakadru] the tree Buchanania latifolia Abh 556.

Sappa [cf. Sanskrit sarpa, from sr̥p; "serpent"] a snake M I 130; A III 97, 260f.; Snp 768; Ja I 46, 259, 310, 372; V 447 (kaṇha°); Nidd I 7; Sv I 197; Pj II 13. Often in similes, e.g. Vism 161, 587; Pj I 144; Pj II 226, 333. -°potaka a young snake Vism 500; -°phaṇa the hood of a snake Pj I 50. — Cf. sappin.

Sappin (adjective/noun) [from sappati] crawling, creeping; moving along: see pīṭha°. — (feminine) sappinī a female snake Ja VI 339 (where the differences between a male and a female snake are discussed).

Sampaphulla (adjective) [saṃ + pa + phulla] blooming, blossoming Saddh 245.

Sara1 [cf. Vedic śara] 1. the reed Saccharum sara Miln 342.

Sarabha [Vedic śarabha a sort of deer Ja IV 267; VI 537] (rohiccasarabhā migā = rohitā sarabhamigā, commentary ibid. 538)

Sarabhū (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit saraṭa] a lizard Vin II 110; A II 73; Ja II 135, 147; Pj II 439.

Sarala the tree Pinus longifolia Ja V 420 (thus read with v.l. instead of salaḷa [?]).

Saroja (neuter) [Sanskrit saroja, saras + ja] "lake-born," a lotus Dāṭh III 13.

Saroruha (neuter) [saras + ruha] a lotus Dāṭh III 83.

Sal Tree

Salabha [cf. Sanskrit śalabha] a moth Ja V 401; Ud 72 (commentary); Vibh-a 146.

Salākā (feminine) [cf. Vedic śalākā] 3. blade of a grass M I 79; Ja I 439.

Sallaka [cf. Sanskrit śalala and śallaka] a porcupine Ja V 489.

Sallakī (feminine) [cf. Classical Sanskrit śallakī] the tree Boswellia thurifera (incense tree) Ja IV 92; plural °-iyo Ja VI 535; bahukuṭaja-sallakika Thag 115 (= indasālarukkha [?]).


Savaṅka a sort of fish Ja V 405. Cf. satavaṅka and saccavaṅka.

Sasa [Vedic śaśa, with Old High German haso = English hare to Latin canus grey, greyish-brown; cf. Anglo-Saxon hasu] a hare, rabbit Dhp 342; Ja IV 85; of the hare in the moon Ja IV 84f.; — sasolūkā (= sasā ca ulūkā ca) Ja VI 564. -lakkhaṇa the sign of a hare Ja I 172; III 55; -lañjana the same Vv-a 314 (°vant = sasin, the moon); -visāṇa a hare's horn (an impossibility) Ja III 477.

Sassa (neuter) [cf. Vedic sasya] corn, crop M I 116; Ja I 86, 143, 152; II 135; Miln 2; Dhp-a I 97; Pj II 48; sassasamaya crop time Ja I 143; susassa abounding in corn Vin I 238; plural masculine sassā Ja I 340. -kamma agriculture Ja VI 101; -kāla harvest time Vin IV 264; -ṭṭhāna = -khetta Ja VI 297; -dussassa (having) bad crops Vin I 238; A I 160; Pj I 218 (= dubbhikkhā); -uddharaṇa lifting the corn Miln 307

Sāka (neuter) [Epic Sanskrit śāka] 1. vegetable, potherb D I 166; M I 78, 156; A I 241, 295; II 206; Pp 55; Vism 70; Vv 3333; Ja III 225; IV 445; V 103. 2. (masculine) name of a tree (Tectona grandis) D I 92; Sv I 259; Vism 250. -vatthu ground for cultivation of vegetables Ja IV 446; sāka-paṇṇavaṇṇa "like the colour of vegetable leaf" (said of teeth) Ja V 206 (cf. 203).

Sākhā [Vedic śākhā, cf. also śaṅku stick, and Gothic hoha plough] a branch Vin I 28; M I 135; A I 152; II 165, 200f.; III 19, 43f., 200; IV 99, 336; V 314f.; Snp 791; Ja V 393; Ja II 44; a spur of a hill A I 243; II 140; Miln 36; also sākha (neuter) Mhv 1, 55; Ja I 52; IV 350; Ja I 164 (? yāva aggasākhā). — the rib of a parasol Snp 688. adjective sīla-sākha-pasākha whose branches and boughs are like the virtues Ja VI 324. In compounds sākha° and sākhā°. -patta-palāsa branches and foliage A III 44; -patta-phalupeta with branches, leaves and fruit A III 43; -palāsa the same M I 488; A II 200; -bhaṅga faggots Ja I 158; III 407; Dhp-a II 204; III 375; -miga a monkey Ja II 73; -ssita living upon branches (i.e. monkey) Ja V 233.

Sācakka (neuter) [sā = śvan, dog; + cakka; cf. sopāka and suva] name of a science ("the interpretation of omens to be drawn from dogs") Miln 178.

Sāṇa1 (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit śāṇa hempen, from śaṇa = Pāli saṇa; cf. bhaṅga1] hemp D II 350; Miln 267; a coarse hempen cloth Vin I 58; D I 166; III 41; M I 78; A I 240; S II 202, 221; Pp 55; Vism 54 (°sāṭaka). — sāṇavāka the same Thig 252; Ja III 394 (v.l.).

Sāṇī (feminine) [from saṇa] hemp-cloth D II 350; Vin III 17; a screen, curtain, tent Ja I 58, 148f., 178, 419; Dhp-a I 194; II 49. °-pākāra a screen-wall Vin IV 269, 279; Ja II 88; Dhp-a II 68, 71, 186; Vv-a 173; Pv-a 283; Mhv 7, 27; sāṇipasibbaka a sack or bag of hemp cloth Vin III 1710. — paṭṭa-sāṇī a screen of fine cloth Ja I 395.

Sātaka name of a kind of bird Ja VI 539 (koṭṭhapokkhara-°, cf. 540); Pj II 359 (the same).

Sāpada (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit śvāpada] a beast of prey Ja II 126; VI 79.

Sāmalatā (feminine) [sāma1 + latā; Sanskrit śyāmalatā] the creeper Ichnocarpus Ja I 60.

Sāmā (feminine) [Sanskrit śyāmā Abhidh-r-m 2, 38; see sāma1, sāmalatā, and sāmāka] a medicinal plant Ja IV 92 (bhisasāmā, commentary bhisāni ca sāmākā ca); the Priyaṅgu creeper Ja I 500; V 405.

Sāmāka [cf. Vedic śyāmāka] a kind of millet (Panicum frumentaceum) D I 166; M I 78, 156, 343; A I 295; II 206; Snp 239; Pp 55; Ja III 144, 371; Nett 141; Dhp-a V 81.

Sāyana2 the Nāga tree (cf. nāga 3) Ja VI 535 (vāraṇā sāyanā = nāgarukkhā, commentary, v.l. vāyana). Kern, Toev. II 77 conjectures sāsanā "with Asana's Terminalia's."

Sāmāmigī (feminine) a black hind Ja II 44.

Sāra [Vedic sāra neuter] 2. (masculine) the innermost, hardest part of anything, the heart or pith of a tree (see also pheggu) M I 111; Ja I 331; Miln 413; most excellent kind of wood Vin II 110; D II 182, 187. -gandha the odour of the heart of a tree Dhs 625; -gavesin searching for hard wood M I 111, 233; sārapariyesana the same ibid; -dāru strong, durable wood Ja II 68; -mañjūsā a box made of choice wood Ja IV 335; -maya being of hard or solid wood Ja III 318 (commentary sārarukkhamaya, "of sāra wood" translation); -sūci a needle made of hard wood Ja I 9.

Sārameya [Vedic sārameya] a dog (literal "son of Saramā") Mhbv 111.

Sāravant (adjective) [from sāra] valuable, having kernel or pith (said of grain or trees) A IV 170 (synonym daḷha, opposite palāpa); S V 163; M I 111 = 233.

Sārasa [cf. Epic Sanskrit sārasa] a water bird, Ardea sibirica Vv-a 57, 163; at both passive = koñca.

Sāla [cf. Sanskrit śāla and sāla] a Sal tree (Shorea robusta) M I 488; D II 134; A I 202; III 49, 214; Dhp 162. -māḷaka an enclosure of Sal trees Ja I 316; -rukkha Sal tree Vv-a 176; -laṭṭhi Sal sprout A II 200; -vana Sal grove D II 134; M I 124; S I 157; Vv 392.

Sālakakimi a kind of worm Miln 312.

Sāli [cf. Sanskrit śāli] rice D I 105, 230; II 293; Vin IV 264; M I 57; A I 32, 145; III 49; IV 108 (+ yavaka), 231; S V 10, 48; Ja I 66, 178; IV 276; V 37; VI 531; Miln 251; Snp 240f.; Vism 418; plural °-iyo Ja I 325; genitive plural °-inaṃ Ja VI 510. — lohitaka° red rice Miln 252. -khetta a rice-field A I 241; IV 278; Vin II 256; Dhp-a I 97; III 6; -gabbha ripening (young) rice Dhp-a I 97; -bīja rice seed A I 32; V 213; -bhatta a meal of rice Vism 191; -bhojana rice food Ja I 178.

Sālikā (feminine) [cf. Epic Sanskrit sārikā crow, usually combined with śuka parrot] a kind of bird S I 190 = Thag 1232; Ja V 110. See sāliya and saḷika.

Sāliya or āliyā the maina bird (= sālikā) Ja III 203; sāliyachāpa (a young bird of that kind), and sāliyacchāpa (i.e. sāliyā which is probably the right form) Ja III 202. madhu-sāliyā Ja V 8 (= suvaṇṇa-sālika-sakunā commentary page 911); Ja VI 199 (suva-sāliya-°), 425 (Sāliya-vacana the story of the maynah bird, v.l. suva-khaṇḍa; a section of the 546th Jātaka, but sāḷiyā, sālikā, sāliyā is not a parrot.

Sālīna (adjective) [from sāli] fine (rice) Miln 16 (°ṃ odanaṃ; cf. śālīnaṃ odanaṃ Divy 559).

Sāluka (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit śālūka] the edible root of the water-lily Vin I 246; Ja VI 563; Vv-a 142 (°muṭṭhi).

Sālūra [but cf. Sanskrit śālūra a frog] a dog Ja IV 438 (°-saṅgha = sunakhagaṇa, commentary; spelling -ḷ-).

Sāḷava [cf. Sanskrit ṣāḍava, which is given in different meaning, viz. "comfits with fruits"] a certain dish, perhaps a kind of salad, given as "lambila," i.e. bitter or astringent at As 320 (made of badara or kapiṭṭha); cf. Vin IV 259.

Sāḷika a bird; feminine °ā the mynah bird Ja I 429; VI 421. Spelt sāḷiyā at Ja VI 425. See ālikā and sāliya.

Sāvi [Sanskrit śvāvidh, see Luder's ZDMG 61, 643] a porcupine Ja V 489 (mss sāmi and sāsi, cf. Manu V 18).

Sāsapa [cf. Sanskrit sarṣapa] a mustard seed S II 137; V 464; A V 170; Ja VI 174 (compared with mt. Meru); Snp 625, 631, page 122; Dhp 401; Sv I 93; Dhp-a I 107; II 51; IV 166; Vism 306 (āragge), 633; Pv-a 198 (°tela); -°kuṭṭa mustard powder Vin I 205; II 151.

Siṃsapā (feminine) [cf. Vedic śiṃśapā] the tree Dalbergia sisu (a strong and large tree) S V 437; Siṃsapā-groves (s.-vanā) are mentioned near Aḷavi A I 136; near Setavyā D II 316f.; Dhp-a I 71; Vv-a 297; and near Kosambi S V 437.

Siṃsaka (neuter) [Sanskrit śīrṣaka°] name of a water plant Ja VI 536.

Sikhaṇḍin (adjective/noun) [Sanskrit śikhaṇḍin] 2. a peacock Ja V 406; Vv-a 163.

Sikhara [cf. Sanskrit śikhara] the top, summit of a mountain Ja VI 519; Miln 2; a peak Dhp-a III 364 (°thūpiyo or °thūpikāyo peaked domes); the point or edge of a sword M I 243; S IV 56; crest, tuft Ja II 99; (this is a very difficult reading; it is explained by the commentary by sundara (elegant); Trenckner suggests singāra, Cf. II 98); a bud Thig 382.

Sikhā (feminine) [Vedic śikhā] point,in the corn trade, the pyramid of corn at the top of the measuring vessel Sv I 79

Sikhin (adjective) [from sikhā] crested, tufted Thag 22 (mora); Ja II 363 (feminine °inī). Also name of(b) the peacock Snp 221, 687.

Sigāla (śr̥°) [cf. Vedic sr̥gāla; as loan-word in English = jackal] a jackal D II 295; III 24f.; A I 187; S II 230, 271; IV 177f. (text siṅgāla); IV 199; Ja I 502; III 532 (Pūtimaṃsa by name). — sigālī (feminine) a female jackal Ja I 336; II 108; III 333 (called Māyāvī); Miln 365. — See also siṅgāla.

Sigālika (adjective) [from sigāla] belonging to a jackal Ja II 108; III 113 (°aṃ nādaṃ, cf. segalikaṃ A I 187, where the Copenhagen ms has sigālakaṃ corrected to segālakaṃ). — (neuter) a jackal's roar (sigālakaṃ nadati) D III 25. Cf. segālaka.

Siggu (neuter) [cf. Vedic śigru, name of a tribe; as a tree in Suśr] name of a tree (Hyperanthera moringa) Ja III 161; V 406.

Siṅga1 (neuter) [Vedic śr̥nga, cf. Greek κάρνον, κραγγύν; Latin cornu = English horn] a horn Ja I 57, 149, 194; IV 173 (of a cow)

Singa2 the young of an animal, calf Ja V 92; cf. Deśīnāmamālā VIII 31.

Siṅgika (adjective) [from siṅga1] having horns Ja VI 354 (āvelita-° having twisted horns).

Siṅgila a kind of horned bird Ja III 73; Dhp-a III 22 (v.l. siṅgala).

Siṅgivera (neuter) [Sanskrit śr̥ṅga + Tamil vera "root," as English loan word = ginger] ginger Vin I 201; IV 35; Ja I 244; III 225 (alla-°); Miln 63; Mhv 28, 21; As 320; Sv I 81.

Siṅgu (feminine) (?) a kind of fish Ja V 406; plural siṅgū Ja VI 537. According to Abh. siṅgū is masculine and Payogasiddhi gives it as neuter.

Siṅghāṭaka [cf. Sanskrit śr̥ṅgāṭaka; from śr̥ṅga] (masculine and neuter)2. a water plant (Trapa bispinosa°) Ja VI 530, 563.

Sitthaka (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit sikthaka] beeswax Vin II 116 (madhu°).

Sithila (adjective) [Vedic śithira, later śithila] loose, lax, bending, yielding S I 49, 77 = Dhp 346 = Ja II 140; Ja I 179; II 249; Miln 144; Dhp-a IV 52, 56; Pv-a 13. -°hanu a kind of bird M I 429.

Siddhatthaka [Sanskrit siddhārthaka] white mustard Thig-a 181 (Ap verse 24); Ja III 225; VI 537; Dhp-a II 273 (in Kisāgotamī story).

Sindī (feminine) [etymology?] name of a tree Vism 183, where Pj I 49 in the same passage reads khajjūrikā. See also Abh 603; Hc-Deś VIII 29.

SinduvāraSinduvāra [Sanskrit sinduvāra] the tree Vitex negundo Sv I 252; As 14, 317; also spelt sindhavāra Vv-a 177; sinduvārikā Ja VI 269; sindhuvāritā (i.e. sinduvārikā?) Ja VI 550 = 553; sinduvārita Ja IV 440, 442 (v.l. °vārakā).

Sindhava [Sanskrit saindhava] belonging to the Sindh, a Sindh horse Ja I 175; II 96; III 278; V 259; Dhp-a IV 4 (= Sindhava-raṭṭhe jatā assā)

Sipāṭikā (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit sr̥pāṭikā, beak, BR] 1. pericarp M I 306; Vv 8433; Vv-a 344; hiṅgu° a s. yielding gum Vin I 201. Also written sipātikā; thus ādiṇṇasipātikā with burst pod or fruit skin S IV 193.

Sippikā1 (feminine) [from sippī] a pearl oyster J I 426; II 100 (sippika-sambukaṃ); Vism 362 (in compound) = Vibh-a 68.

Sippikā2 at Thag 49 is difficult to understand. It must mean a kind of bird (°abhiruta), and may be (so Kern) a misread pippikā (cf. Sanskrit pippaka and pippīka). See also Ps.B. page 533.

Sippī [cf. Prākrit sippī] (feminine) a pearl oyster J II 100; sippipuṭa oyster shell Ja V 197, 206. sippi-sambuka oyster and shells D I 84; M I 279; A I 9; III 395.

Sibala name of a tree Ja VI 535.

Simbali (feminine) [cf. Vedic śimbala flower, cf. Pischel, Pkt Gr. §109] the silk-cotton tree Bombax heptaphyllum Ja I 203; III 397; Vism 206; Dhp-a I 279. -vana a forest of simbali trees Ja I 202; II 162 (s. °-pālibhaddaka-vana); IV 277. sattisimbalivana the sword forest, in Hell Ja V 453.

Siriṃsapa [Sanskrit sarīsr̥pa] a (long) creeping animal, serpent, a reptile Vin I 3; II 110; D II 57; M I 10; S I 154; A II 73, 117, 143; V 15; Snp 52, 964; Ja I 93; Pv III 52; Nidd I 484; Vibh-a 6. -tta (neuter) the state of being a creeping thing D II 57.

Sirī (siri) (feminine) [Vedic śrī] 1. splendour, beauty Snp 686 (instrumental siriyā); Ja VI 318 (siriṃ dhāreti). 2. luck, glory, majesty, prosperity S I 44 (nominative siri); Ja II 410 (siriṃ), 466; Sv I 148; Vv-a 323 (instrumental Buddha-siriyā). rajjasirī-dāyikā devatā the goddess which gives prosperity to the kingdom Dhp-a II 17; sirī + lakkhī splendour and luck Ja III 443. 3. the goddess of luck D I 11 (see Rh.D. Buddhist India 216-222); Sv I 97; Ja V 112; Miln 191 (°devatā).-nigguṇḍi a kind of tree Ja VI 535

Sirīsa (neuter) [cf. Classical Sanskrit śirṣa] the tree Acacia sirissa D II 4; S IV 193; Vv 8432; Vv-a 331, 344

Silābhu (neuter) a whip snake Ja VI 194 (= nīlapaṇṇavaṇṇasappa).

Silutta a rat snake Ja VI 194 (= gharasappa).

Sivā (feminine) [Sanskrit śivā] a jackal Sv I 93.

Sītā (feminine) a furrow Vin I 240 (satta sītāyo); gambhīra-sīta with deep mould (khetta) A IV 237, 238 (text, °-sita). -āloḷī mud from the furrow adhering to the plough Vin I 206.

Sīha (neuter) 4. panicle, ear (of rice or crops) A IV 169; Sv I 118.

Sīsa2 [Vedic siṃha] 1. a lion D II 255; S I 16; A II 33, 245; III 121; Snp 72; Ja I 165; Miln 400; Nidd II §679 (= migarājā); Vibh-a 256, 398 (with popular etymology "sahanato ca hananato ca sīho ti vuccati") -camma lion's hide A IV 393; -tela "lion-oil," a precious oil Pj I 198; -potaka a young lion Ja III 149;

Suṃsumāra [cf. Sanskrit śiśumāra, literally child-killing] a crocodile S IV 198; Thig 241; Thig-a 204; Ja II 158f.; Vism 446; Pj II 207 (°kucchi); Dhp-a III 194. — °rī (feminine) a female crocodile Ja II 159; suṃsumārinī (feminine) Miln 67;

Suka [Vedic śuka, from śuc] a parrot Ja I 458; II 132; instead of suka read sūka S V 10. See suva.

Suṇa "dog," preferable spelling for suna, cf. Geiger, Pāli Grammar §93.1.

Suna2 [Sanskrit śuna; see suvāṇa] a dog, also written suṇa Ja VI 353, 357 (cf. sunakha).

Sunakha [cf. Sanskrit śunaka; the BHS form is also sunakha, e.g. Mvu III 361, 369] a dog A I 48; II 122; Thig 509; Ja I 175, 189; II 128, 246; Pv-a 151, 206. — rukkha° some sort of animal Ja VI 538. feminine sunakhī a bitch Ja IV 400. — Names of some dogs in the Jātakas are Kaṇha (or Mahā°) Ja IV 183; Caturakkha III 535; Jambuka, Piṅgiya ibid.; Bhattabhuñjana II 246. Cf. suvāṇa.

Supāṇa [= suvāṇa] a dog D II 295 = M I 58, 88; Snp 201; Miln 147. Spelt supāna at Ja IV 400.

Sumanā the great-flowered jasmine Ja I 62; IV 455; Dhp-a IV 12. In composition sumana°. -dāma a wreath of jasmine Ja IV 455; -paṭṭa cloth with jasmine pattern Ja I 62; -puppha j. flower Miln 291; Vv-a 147; -makula a j. bud Dhp-a III 371; -mālā garland of j. Vv-a 142.

Sulasī (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit surasī, "Basilienkraut" BR; from surasa] a medicinal plant Vin I 201; cf. Hc-Deś VIII 40.

Sulopī (feminine) a kind of small deer Ja VI 437, 438.

Suva [cf. Sanskrit śuka] a parrot Ja I 324; IV 277f.; VI 421; 431f. (the two: Pupphaka and Sattigumba); Dhp-a I 284 (°rājā). feminine suvī Ja VI 421.

Suvāṇa and Suvāna [cf. Sanskrit śvan, also śvāna (feminine śvānī): from Vedic accusative śuvānaṃ, of śvan. For etymology cf. Greek κύων, Avesta spā, Latin canis, Old-Irish cū, Gothic hunds] a dog M III 91 (= supāṇa M I 58); Ja VI 247 (the 2 dogs of hell: Sabala and Sāma); Vism 259 (= supāṇa Pj I 58). As suvā° at Saddh 379, 408. — See also the various forms san, suṇa, suna, sunakha, supāṇa, soṇa. -doṇi a dog's (feeding) trough Vism 344, 358; Vibh-a 62; -piṇḍa a dog biscuit Vism 344; -vamathu dog's vomit Vism 344 (= suvā-vanta Saddh 379).

Susunāga a young elephant D II 254.

Susu3 the name of a sort of water animal (alligator or seacow?) Ja VI 537 (plural susū) = V 255 (kumbhīlā makasā susū).

Susukā (feminine) an alligator Vin I 200; A II 123 (where the same passage at Nidd II §470 has suṃsumāra); M I 459; Miln 196.

Sūka [cf. Sanskrit śūka] the awn of barley etc. S V 10, 48; A I 8.

Sūkara [Sanskrit sūkara, perhaps as sū + kara; cf. Avesta hū pig, Greek ὧς; Latin sūs; Anglo-Saxon sū = English sow] a hog, pig Vin I 200; D I 5; A II 42 (kukkuṭa + s.), 209; It 36; Ja I 197 (Muṇika); II 419 (Sālūka); III 287 (Culla-tuṇḍila and Mahā-tuṇḍila); Miln 118, 267; Vibh-a 11 (vara-sayane sayāpita). — feminine sūkarī Ja II 406 (read vañjha°). -maṃsa pork A III 49 (sampanna-kolaka); -maddava is with Franke (Dīgha translation pages 222f.) to be interpreted as "soft (tender) boar's flesh." So also Oldenberg (Reden des B. 1922, page 100) and Fleet (JRAS 1906, pages 656 and 881). Scarcely with Rh.D. (D.B. II 137, with note) as "quantity of truffles" D II 127; Ud 81f.; Miln 175; -potaka the young of a pig Ja V 19; -sāli a kind of wild rice Ja VI 531 (v.l. sukasāli).

Sūkarika [from sūkara; BHS saukarika Divy 505] a pig-killer, pork-butcher S II 257; A II 207; III 303; Pp 56; Thig 242; Ja VI 111; Thig-a 204.

Sūci (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit sūci; doubtful whether to sīv] a needle Vin II 115, 117, 177; S II 215f., 257; Ja I 111, 248; Vism 284 (in simile) -mukha "needle-mouthed," a mosquito Abh 646; a sort of intestinal worm; °ā pāṇā (in the Gūtha Niraya Hell) M III 185.

Sūpeyya (neuter) [from sūpa = Sanskrit sūpya] 1. belonging to soup, broth, soup M I 448; S III 146. 2. curry D II 198; Nidd II §314; Dhp-a IV 209. -paṇṇa curry leaf, curry stuff Vism 250 = Vibh-a 233; Ja I 98, 99; -sāka a potherb for making curry Ja IV 445.

Segālaka (neuter) [from sigāla] a jackal's cry A I 187f. (°ṃ nadati); cf. sigālika.

Seta (adjective) [Vedic śveta and śvitra; cf. Avesta spaēta white; Lithuanian szaitḷti to make light; Old High German hwīz = English white] white -geru name of a plant Ja VI 535;-puppha "white-flowered," name of a tree (Vitex trifolia?) Ja V 422 (= piyaka); -vārī (and °vārisa) names of plants or trees Ja VI 535, 536.

Setaccha a tree Ja VI 535; setacchakūṭa adjective Ja VI 539 (sakuṇa).

Setapaṇṇi (feminine [?]) a tree Ja VI 335.

Sena2 [Sanskrit śyena] a hawk Ja I 273; II 51, 60; Dhp-a II 267.

Senaka2 = sena2 Ja IV 58, 291; VI 246.

Sepaṇṇī (feminine) [Sanskrit śrīparṇī, literally having lucky leaves] name of a tree, Gmelina arborea Ja I 173, 174; Dhp-a I 145.

Semhāra some sort of animal (monkey?) (explained by makkaṭa Ps III 142) M I 429.

Sereyyaka name of a tree (Barleria cristata) Ja III 253.

Sevāla [cf. Epic Sanskrit śaivala and saivāla] the plant Blyxa octandra moss, A III 187, 232, 235; Ja II 150 = Dhp-a I 144; Ja III 520; IV 71; V 462; Miln 35; Dhp-a III 199; Tikap 12 (in simile). (masculine and neuter) Ja V 37; -mālaka (or -mālika) who makes garlands of Blyxa octandra A V 263; S IV 312. — Often combined with another waterplant, paṇaka (see under paṇṇaka), e.g. A III 187; Vism 261 (simile); Vibh-a 244 (the same); Pj I 61 (cf. Kalpasūtra page 46f.).

Sogandhika (neuter) [Sanskrit saugandhika; from sugandha] the white water-lily (Nymphaea lotus) Ja V 419; VI 518, 537 (seta-sogandhiyehi). — As masculine designation of a Hell A V 173; S I 152; Snp 126.

Soṇa1 [see suvāṇa] a dog Ja I 146; VI 107 (= sunakha); Snp 675; Vism 191; Dhp-a III 255 (+ sigāla); soṇi (feminine) a bitch Mhv 7, 8 = sona It 36.

Soṇa2 [cf. śyonāka] a kind of tree; the Bodhi trees of the Buddhas Paduma and Nārada Bv IX 22; X 24; Ja I 36, 37.

Soṇḍikā (feminine) 1. tendril of a creeper S I 106; Miln 374. 2. peppered meat S II 98 (cf. Sanskrit śauṇḍī long pepper).

Soṇḍī2 (feminine) the neck of a tortoise S IV 177 (soṇḍi-pañcamāni aṅgāni); Miln 371; the hood of a snake Ja VI 166 (nāgā soṇḍi-katā).

Sona dog It 36; see soṇa.

Sobhañjana the tree Hyperanthica moringa Ja V 405; sobhañjanaka the same Ja III 161 (= siggurukkha, commentary); VI 535.

Somarukkha [soma + rukkha] a certain species of tree Ja VI 530.


Silk Cotton Tree


-----[ T ]-----

Takka2 (neuter) [Should it not belong to the same root as takka1?] buttermilk (with water), included in the five products from a cow (pañca gorasā) at Vin I 244; made by churning dadhi Miln 173; Ja I 340; II 363; Dhp-a II 68 (takkādi-ambila).

Takkaḷa (neuter) a bulbous plant, a tuberose Ja IV 46, 371 (biḷāli°, explained at 373 by takkala-kanda) = VI 578.

Takkārī (feminine) the tree Sesbania Aegyptiaca (a kind of acacia) Thig 297 (= dālika-laṭṭhi Thig-a 226).

TakkārīTakkoṭaka [is reading correct?] a kind of insect or worm Vism 258. Reading at the same page Pj I 58 is kakkoṭaka.

Takkola [Sanskrit kakkola and takkola] Bdellium, a perfume made from the berry of the kakkola plant Ja I 291; also as name of place at Miln 359 (the Takola of Ptolemy; perhaps = Sanskrit karkoṭa: Trenckner, "Notes", page 59).

Tagara (neuter) the shrub Tabernaemontana coronaria, and a fragrant powder or perfume obtained from it, incense Vin I 203; It 68; Dhp 54, 55, 56 (candana + t.); Ja IV 286; VI 100 (the shrub), 173 (the same); Miln 338; Dāṭh V 50; Dhp-a I 422 (tagara-mallikā two kinds of gandhā).
[BD]: AN 3.78

Taca and taco (neuter) [Vedic tvak (feminine), genitive tvacaḥ] 1. bark: M I 198, 434, 488; A V 5. -gandha the scent of bark Dhs 625; -rasa the taste of bark Dhs 629, -sāra (a) (even) the best bark, (i.e. tree) S I 70 = 98 = It 45; (b) a (rope of) strong fibre Ja III 204 (= veṇudaṇḍaka).

Taccha1 [Vedic takṣan, cf. taṣṭr̥, to takṣati (see taccheti), Latin textor, Greek τέκτων carpenter (cf. architect), τέχνη art] a carpenter, usually as °ka: otherwise only in compound °sūkara the carpenter-pig ... boar, so called from felling trees), title and hero of Jātaka No. 492 (IV 342f.). Cf. vaḍḍhakin.

Taṇḍula [Sanskrit taṇḍula: dialectical] rice-grain, rice husked and ready for boiling; frequently combined with tila (q.v.) or tela (q.v.) in mentioning of offerings, presentations, etc.: loṇaɱ telaɱ taṇḍulaɱ khādaniyaɱ sakaṭesu āropetvā Vin I 220, 238, 243, 249; tilataṇḍulādayo Ja III 53; Pv-a 105. — Vin I 244; A I 130; Ja I 255; III 55, 425 (taṇḍulāni metri causā); VI 365 (mūla° coarse r., majjhima° medium r., kaṇikā the finest grain); Snp 295; Pp 32; Dhp-a I 395 (sāli-taṇḍula husked rice); Sv I 93. Cf. ut°.Taṇḍula-ammaṇa a measure (handful?) of rice Ja II 436.Taṇḍula-dona a rice-vat or rice-bowl Dhp-a IV 15; -muṭṭhi a handful of rice Pv-a 131;Taṇḍula-homa an oblation of rice D I 9.

Taṇḍuleyyaka [cf. Sanskrit taṇḍulīya] the plant Amaranthus polygonoides Vv-a 99 (enumerated amongst various kinds of ḍāka).

Tacasāro a bamboo

Tamāla [Sanskrit tamāla] name of a tree (Xanthochymus pictorius) Pv III 105 (+ uppala).

Tambūla (neuter) [Sanskrit tambūla] betel or betel-leaves (to chew after the meal) Ja I 266, 291; II 320; Vism 314; Dhp-a III 219. -°pasibbaka betel-bag Ja VI 367.

Taraccha [derivation unknown. The Sanskrit forms are tarakṣu and tarakṣa] hyena Vin III 58; A III 101; Miln 149, 267; Dhp A 331; Mhbv 154. — feminine taracchi Ja V 71, 406; VI 562.

Taru [Perhaps dialectic for dāru] tree, Pv-a 154 (°gaṇā), 251.

Taruṇa (adjective) [Vedic taruṇa, cf. Greek τέρυς, τέρη'; Latin tener and perhaps tardus] 1. tender, of tender age, young; new, newly (°-) fresh. Especially applied to a young calf: M I 459 (in simile); °vaccha, °vacchaka, °vacchī: Vin I 193; Ja I 191; Dhp-a II 35; Vv-a 200. — Vin I 243 (fresh milk); 2. (masculine and neuter) the shoot of a plant, or a young plant Vin I 189 (tāla°); M I 432; Vism 361 (taruṇa-tāla).

Tāla [Sanskrit tāla, cf. Greek τᾶλιϛ and τηλεθάω (be green, sprout up) Latin talea shoot, sprout] 1. the palmyra tree (fan palm), Borassus flabelliformis; frequent in comparisons and similes M I 187; Ja I 202 (°vana), 273 (°matta as tall as a palm): Vv-a 162; Pv-a 100 (chinnamūlo viya tālo). 2. a strip, stripe, streak Ja V 372 (= raji). -aṭṭhika a kernel of the palm fruit Dhp-a II 53, cf. 60 (°aṭṭhi-khaṇḍa); -kaṇḍa a bulbous plant Ja IV 46 (= kalamba); -k-khandha the trunk of a palm Ja IV 351; Vv-a 227 (°parimāṇā mukhatuṇḍā: beaks of vultures in Niraya); Pv-a 56; -cchidda see tāḷa°; -taruṇa a young shoot of the p. Vin I 189; -pakka palm fruit It 84; -paṇṇa a palm-leaf Dhp-a I 391; II 249; III 328; Abhidh-av 62; also used as a fan (tālapattehi kata-maṇḍalavījanī Vv-a 147) Vv 3343 (Hardy for °vaṇṭha of Gooneratne's ed. (PTS 1886) page 30); Vv-a 147 (v.l. °vaṇṭa q.v.); Nidd II §562 (+ vidhūpana); -patta a palm-leaf Vin I 189; Vv-a 147; -miñja the pith of a p. Ja IV 402;

Tālīsa1 (neuter) (also tālissa Ja IV 286, tālīsaka Miln 338) [cf. Sanskrit tālī, tālīśa and talāśā] the shrub Flacourtia cataphracta and a powder or ointment obtained from it Vin I 203 (+ tagara); Ja IV 286 (the same); Miln 338.

Tiṇa (neuter) [Vedic tr̥ṇa, from *ter (cf. tarati) to pierce, originally "point" (= blade); Gothic paūrnus, Anglo-Saxon porn = English thorn, German dorn] grass, herb; weed; straw; thatch; hay, litter S III 137 (tiṇa, kasā, kusa, babbaja, bīraṇa); satiṇakaṭṭhodaka full of grass, wood and water (of an estate) D I 87, 111, etc.; sītaɱ vā uṇhaɱ vā rajo vā tiṇaɱ vā ussāvo vā (dust and weeds) D II 19; A I 145; t. + paṇṇa (grass and leaves) A I 183; Vv-a 5. — Ja I 108 (dabba°), 295; III 53; Pv I 81 (harita t.); IV 148; Vism 353 (kuṇṭha°); Sv I 77 (alla° fresh grass); Pv-a 7 (weed), 62 (grass), 112; Dhp-a IV 121; Miln 47 (thatch), 224 (the same). -aṇḍupaka a roll of grass Vin I 208 = III 249; -āgāra a thatched cottage A I 101 (+ naḷāgāra); -ukkā a firebrand of dry grass or hay S II 152; III 185; Ja I 212, 296; Vism 428; Dhp-a I 126; Thig-a 287; Abhidh-av 107; -karala a wisp of grass Dhp-a III 38; -kājaka a load of g. Dhp-a IV 121; -gahana a thicket of g., a jungle A I 153; -cuṇṇa crushed and powdered (dry) grass or herbs Vin I 203; Vv-a 100 (-rajānukiṇṇa); -jāti grass-creeper Vv-a 162; -dāya a grass-jungle S II 152; -dosa damaged by weeds (khetta) Dhp 356; Pv-a 7; -pupphaka (-roga) sickness caused by the flowering of grass, hay-fever Miln 216; -puñja heap of grass, pile of straw -bhakkha eating grass; of animals M III 167; of ascetics D I 166; Pp 55; A I 241, 295; -bhusa chaff, litter, dry grass Vv-a 47; -rukkha a shrub; -santhāraka a mat of grass Vin I 286; II 113, 116; Ja I 360.

Tittira [Onomatopoetic cf. Vedic tittira and tittiri, Greek τατύρας pheasant, Lithuanian teterva heath-cock; Latin tetrinnio to cackle] partridge Ja I 218; III 538.

Tinduka [Sanskrit tinduka] the tree Diospyros embryopteris D I 178

Tipusa (neuter) [Sanskrit trapusa] a species of cucumber Ja V 37; Vv-a 147.

Timi [derivation unknown. Sanskrit timi] a large fish, a leviathan; a fabulous fish of enormous size. It occurs always in combination with timiṅgala, in formula timi timiṅgala timitimiṅgala, which should probably be reduced to one simple timitimiṅgala (see next).

Timiṅgala [timi + gila, gl, see note on gala] in combination with timi, timitimiṅgala. Sanskrit has timiṅgila and timiṅgilagila: reduplicated in 2nd syllable where Pāli has reduplicated in 1st; fish-eater, reduplicated as intensive = greedy or monstrous fish-eater, a fabulous fish of enormous size, the largest fish in existence Vin II 238 = A IV 200 = Nidd II §235 3 q; Paṭis II 196; Miln 377. At Ud 54f. and Miln 262 we find the reading timi timiṅgala timirapiṅgala, which is evidently faulty. A Sanskritized form of t. is timitimiṅgala at Divy 502. See timiratipiṅgala, and cf. also the similar Sanskrit cilicima a sort of fish.

Timira (adjective) [Sanskrit timira from tim = tam (as in tamas), to which also belong tibba 2 and tintiṇāti. This is to be distinguished from tim in temeti to (be or) make wet. See tama] dark; neuter darkness Vv 323 (t.-tamba); Ja III 189 (t.-rukkha); vanatimira a flower Ja IV 285; V 182.

Timiratipiṅgala (neuter) a great ocean fish, As 13, cf. timiṅgala.

Timbaru a certain tree (Strychnos nux vomica or Diospyros) Ja VI 336; °tthanī (feminine) "with breasts like the t. fruit" Snp 110; (Pj II 172; taruṇadārikā); Ja VI 457; Vv-a 137 (t.-nādasadisa).

Timbarukkha = timbarūsaka Ja VI 529.

Timbarūsaka = timbaru (Diospyros or Strychnos) Vin III 59; Vv 3327 (= tindukaphala Vv-a 147; tipusasadisā ekā vallijāti timbarūsakan ti ca vadanti); Dhp-a III 315.

Tiracchāna [for °gata = Sanskrit tiraścīna (°gata) = tiraśca; "going horizontally," i.e. not erect. Cf. tiraccha, tiriyaɱ, tiro] an animal It 92 (tiracchānaɱ ca yoniyo for tiracchāna-yoniyo); Vv-a 23 (manussa-tiracchāna an animal-man, wild man, "werwolf"). -gata an animal, a beast Vin IV 7; S III 152 = Sv I 23; (t. pāṇā) M III 167 (t. pāṇā tiṇabhakkhā); Nidd II on Snp 72 (t.-pāṇā); Ja I 459 (= vanagocara); Vibh 412f.; -yoni the realm of the brute creation, the animals. Among the 5 gatis (Niraya t. manussā devā pettivisaya) it counts as an apāyagati, a state of misery D I 228; III 234; S I 34; III 225f.; IV 168, 307; A I 60; II 127, 129; Pv IV 111; Vism 103, 427; Pv-a 27, 166; -yonika (and yoniya A I 37) belonging to the realm of the animals S V 356

Tiriyā (feminine) a kind of grass or creeper A III 240, 242 (tiriyā nāma tiṇajāti; Commentary dabbatiṇa).

Tirivaccha a certain tree Ja V 46.

Tirīṭa (neuter) the tree Symplocos racemosa, also a garment made of its bark Vin I 306 (°ka); D I 166 = A I 295; M I 343; Pp 51.

Tila (masculine neuter) [Vedic tila masculine] the sesame plant and its seed (usually the latter, out of which oil is prepared: see tela), Sesamum Indicum. Often combined with taṇḍula, e.g. A I 130 = Pp 32; Ja I 67; III 53. — Vin I 212 (navā tilā); A IV 108; Snp 126; Ja I 392; II 352; Vism 489 (ucchu°); Dhp-a I 79; Pv-a 47 (tilāni pīḷetvā telavaṇijjaɱ karoti). -odana rice with sesame Ja III 425; -kakka sesame paste Vin I 205; -tela sesame oil Vv-a 54 (°ɱ pātukāma); Dhp-a III 29; Abhidh-av 105; -piññāka tila seed-cake, oilcake Vv-a 142; -piṭṭha sesamum-grinding, crushed s. seed Vin IV 341. -muṭṭhi a handful of sesame Ja II 278; -rāsi a heap of t. seeds Vv-a 54; -vāha a cartload of t. seeds A V 173 = Snp page 126; -saṅgulikā a ses. cake Dhp-a II 75.

Tilaka [tila + ka, from its resemblance to a sesame seed] 2. a kind of tree Vv 67 (= bandhu-jīvaka-puppha-sadisa-pupphā ekā rukkha-jāti).

Tuṅga (adjective) [Sanskrit tuṅga, tum to stand out, cf. Greek τύμβος hillock, Latin tumeo and tumulus, Mir. tomm hill] high, prominent, long Ja I 89; III 433 (pabbata, explained however by tikhiṇa, sharp, rough); Dāṭh. IV 30. -vaṇṭaka having a long stalk; name of a plant Ja VI 537.

Tuṇḍa (neuter) [Sanskrit tuṇḍa, probably dialect for tunda which belongs to tudati] the beak of birds, the mouth, snout S V 148 (of a monkey); Ja I 222; IV 210; Dhp-a I 394.

Turī a hen Thig 381 (= migī Thig-a 254) (v.l. korī, cf. Tamil koḷi hen).

Tulasi [derivation unknown] basil (common or sweet) Ja V 46 (°gahana a thicket of b.; v.l. tūlasi); VI 536 (tuḷasi = tuḷasigaccha).

Tūla (neuter) [Sanskrit tūla, to *teu, Sanskrit tavīti, to swell or be bushy, cf. Greek τύλη swelling; Anglo-Saxon ϸol peg] a tuft of grass, cotton Vin II 150 (3 kinds: rukkha°, latā°, poṭaki°); Snp 591 = Ja IV 127 (vāto tūlaɱ va dhaɱsaye); Sv I 87. -picu cotton wool Vism 282, 285, 404; Dhp-a III 202; Pj I 173.

Tūlinī (feminine) [Sanskrit tūlinī] the silk-cotton tree M I 128.

Tela (neuter) [from tila] sesamum-oil (prepared from tila seeds), oil in general (tela = tilatelādika Sv I 93): used for drinking, anointing and burning purposes Vin I 205, 220, 245, etc.; A I 209, 278 (sappi vā t. vā); II 122 (tattena pi telena osiñcante; punishment of pouring over with boiling oil); Ja I 293; II 104; Pv IV 148 (tiṇena telaɱ pi na tvaɱ adāsi: frequent as gift to mendicants); Pp 55; Dhs 646, 740, 815; Pv-a 80 (kaḷebarānaɱ vasā telañ ca: fat or oil in general). — tila °ɱ pātukāma desire to drink tila-wine Vv-a 54; pāka-tela oil concoction Vv-a 68 = Dhp-a III 311; Ja II 397 (sata°); III 372 (sahassa- worth a thousand); V 376 (sata° worth a hundred); -pādabbhañjana° oil for rubbing the feet Vv-a 44; sāsapa° (mustard seed and oil) Pv-a 198; sappi° (butter and oil) Snp 295; Pv-a 278 (also + madhu) as various objects of grocery trade (dhañña). -koṭṭhāgāra oil store Dhp-a I 220; -ghaṭa oil jar Sv I 144; -cāṭī an oil tank Dhp-a I 220; -dhūpita spiced or flavoured with oil (of a cake) Vv 435; -nāḷi a reed used for keeping oil in, an oil tube Vism 99; Dhp-a II 193 (+ udakatumba); -pajjota an oil lamp Vin I 16 = D I 85 = A I 56 = Snp page 15; -padīpa an oil lamp Vin I 15; S III 126; V 319; Vv-a 198; -pāka an oil decoction, mixed with spirits, oil-wine Vin I 205; -pilotikā (plural) rags soaked in oil Dhp-a I 221; -makkhana anointing (the body) with oil Miln 11; -miñjaka an oil-cake Pv-a 51; -vaṇijjā oil trade Pv-a 47; -homa an oblation of oil D I 9.

Teḷaka (neuter) = tela Vin I 204 ("a small quantity of oil"); II 107 (sittha-t. oil of beeswax).

Thana [Vedic stana; cf. Greek στηνιον = στῆθος (Hesychius)] 2. the udder of a cow M I 343 = Pp 56; Dhp-a II 67.

Thambha [see etymology under thaddha; occasionally spelt thamba, viz. A I 100; M I 324; Pv-a 186, 187] 3. a clump of grass M I 324; cf. thambhaka.

Thambhaka (= thambha 3) a clump of grass Vv-a 276 (= gumba).

Thala1 (neuter) [Vedic sthala, to sthā, original standing place; cf. Greek στέλλω, στόλος; Anglo-Saxon steall (place); also Pāli thaṇḍila] dry ground, viz. high, raised (opposite low) or solid, firm (opposite water) S IV 179. As plateau opposed to ninna (low lying place) at Snp 30 (Pj II 42 = ukkūla); Dhp 98; It 66 = S I 100 (megho thalaɱ ninnañ ca pūreti); Pv-a 29 (= unnatapadesa). As dry land, terra firma opposed to jala at Dhp 34; Ja I 107, 222; Pv IV 121. -ja sprung from land (opposite vārija Dhp 34 or udakarūha Vv 356 = water-plant); referring to plants A I 35; Ja I 51; Vv 356 (= yodhikādikā Vv-a 162); Miln 281;

Thusa (neuter) [Vedic tuṣa (masculine)] husk of grain, chaff A I 242 (together with other qualities of corn); Ja IV 8; Vism 346. athusa D III 199. -aggi a fire of husks Nett 23; -odaka gruel (= sabbasambhārehi kataɱ sovīrakaɱ Pp-a 232) D I 166 = A I 295 = Pp 55; -pacchi a bird stuffed with chaff, a straw-bird Ja I 242; -piṇḍa a lump of husks Vin II 151; -rāsi a heap of h. Dhp-a I 309; -homa an oblation of h. D I 9 (= Sv I 93; v.l. kana, for kaṇa; cf. kaṇahoma D I 9).


-----[ U ]-----

Ukkaṇṇaka (ad.) [ut + kaṇṇa + ka literally "with ears out" or is it ukkandaka?] a certain disease (° mange) of jackals, S II 230, 271; Sp "the fur falls off from the whole body".

Ukkusa — an osprey Ja IV 291 (°rāja), 392.

Uccāliṅga a maw-worm Vin III 38, 112; Ja II 146.

Ucchu sugarcane Vin IV 35; A III 76; IV 279; Miln 46; Dhp-a IV 199 (°ūnaɱ yanta sugarcane mill), Pv-a 257, 260; Vv-a 124.
-agga (ucch°) top of sugarcane with Vism 172.
-khaṇḍikā a bit of sugarcane Vv 3326.
-khādana eating sugarcane with Vism 70.
-khetta sugarcane field Ja I 339; Vv-a 256.
-gaṇṭhikā a kind of sugarcane, Batatas Paniculata Ja I 339; VI 114 (so read for °ghaṭika).
-pāla watchman of sugarcane Vv-a 256.
-pīḷana, cane-pressing As 274.
-puṭa sugarcane basket Ja IV 363.
-bīja seed of sugarcane A I 32; V 213.
-yanta a sugar-mill Ja I 339.
-rasa sugarcane juice Vin I 246; Vism 489; Vv-a 180
-vāta, As 274.
-sālā, As 274.

Udumbara [Sanskrit udumbara] the glomerous fig tree, Ficus Glomerata D II 4; Vin IV 35; A IV 283 (°khādika), 283 (the same), 324 (the same); Snp 5; Dhp-a I 284; Pj II 19; Pj I 46, 56; Vv-a 213. Cf. odumbara.

Uddāraka [?] some wild animal Ja V 416 (reading uncertain, explanation ditto).

Uddālaka [from ud + dal, see dalati] the Uddāla tree, Cassia Fistula (also known as indīvara), or Cordia Myxa, literally "uprooter" Vv 67 (= vātaghātako yo rājarukkho ti pi vuccati Vv-a 43); Ja IV 301 (°rukkha), 440; V 199 (= vātaghātaka Commentary), 405; VI 530 (so read for uddh°); Vv-a 197 (°puppha = indīvara); Pv-a 169.

Upari-bhaddaka Name of a tree [either Sanskrit bhadraka Pinus Deodara, or bhadra Nauclea Cadamba, after Kern, Toev. s.v.] Ja VI 269.

Uparopa [upa + ropa, cf. upa 5] "little plant", sapling Vin II 154. See also next.

Uparopaka = uparopa, sapling Ja II 345; IV 359.

Upavana (neuter) [upa + vana, see upa 5] a kind of wood, miniature wood, park Ja IV 431; V 249; Miln 1; Vv-a 170 (= vana), 344; Thig-a 201; Pv-a 102 (ārām°), 177 (mahā°).

Uppala [Sanskrit utpala, uncertain etymology] the (blue) lotus; a water lily. The 7 kinds of lotuses, mentioned at Ja V 37 are: nīla-ratta-set-uppala, ratta-seta-paduma, seta-kumuda, kalla-hāra. — D I 75; II 19; Vin III 33 (°gandha); Ja II 443; Dhp 55; Vv 322; 354; Pv II 120; III 105; Dhp-a I 384 (nīl°); III 394 (the same); Thig-a 254, 255; Vv-a 132, 161. What is meant by uppala-patta (lotus-leaf?) at Vin IV 261?

Uppalin (adjective/noun) [from uppala] having lotuses rich in l., only in feminine uppalinī a lotus-pond D I 75; II 38; S I 138; A III 26; Vv 322; Sv I 219.

Ubbarī (feminine) [Sanskrit urvarā, Avesta urvara plant] fertile soil, sown field.

Ummā (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit umā] flax, only in compound °puppha the (azure) flower of flax M II 13 = A V 61 (v.l. dammā°, ummāta°); D II 260; Thag 1068; As 13; DN 33, 34 8s.

Ummūla (adjective) [ud + mūla] "roots-out", with roots showing, laying bare the roots Ja I 249 (°ɱ karoti); Saddh 452;
Ummūlaka (adjective) [= ummūla] uprooting, laying bare the roots Ja I 303 (vāta);
Ummūleti [causative from ummūla] to uproot, to root out Ja I 329.

Uyyāna (neuter) [Sanskrit udyāna, from ud + yā] a park, pleasure grove, a (royal) garden Ja I 120, 149; II 104; IV 213; V 95; VI 333; Pv-a 6, 74, 76; Vv-a 7; Saddh 7.
-kīḷā amusement in the park, sports Dhp-a I 220; IV 3.
-pāla overseer of parks, head gardener, park keeper Ja II 105, 191; IV 264
-bhūmi garden ground, pleasure ground Ja I 58; Vv 6419; Pv II 129; Sv I 235.

Ura (masculine neuter) and Uro (neuter) [Sanskrit uras] 1. the breast, chest.
-ga going on the chest, creeping, i.e. a snake S I 69; Snp 1, 604; Ja I 7; IV 330; VI 208; Vv 808; Pv I 121 (= urena gacchati ti urago sappass'etaɱ adhivacanaɱ Pv-a 63); Pv-a 61, 67.

Urabbha [Sanskrit urabhra, with ulā and uraṇa to be compared with Greek ἀρήν wether, cf. Hom. εἶρος wool; Latin vervex; Anglo-Saxon waru = English ware (original sheepskins) = German ware. Here also belongs Pāli urāṇī] — a ram D I 127; A I 251f.; II 207; IV 41f.; Ja V 241; Pp 56; Sv I 294; Dhp-a II 6. See also orabbhika.

Urāṇī (feminine) [or uraṇī?, feminine of uraṇa, see urabbha] a ewe Ja V 241 (= urāṇikā Commentary); v.l. uraṇī and uraṇikā.

Ulūka [Sanskrit ulūka; cf. Latin ulucus and ulula owl, uluḷāre to howl, German uhu; onomatopoeia °ul, as in Greek ὀλολύζω, Sanskrit ululi, Lithuanian uluti] — an owl Vin I 186 (°camma, sandals of owl's skin); III 34; A V 289f.; Ja II 208, 352 (as king of the birds); Miln 403; Dhp-a I 50 (kāka- crows and owls).
-pakkha owls' wings (used as dress) Vin I 305; D I 167.
-pakkhika dress of owls' wings, or owl feathers A I 241, 296; II 206; Pp 55 (= ulūka-pattāni ganthetvā kata-nivāsanaɱ Pp-a 233).

Ulūka (masculine and neuter) [Sanskrit uśīra] The fragrant root of Andropogon Muricatum (cf. bīraṇa) Vin I 201; II 130 (°mayā vijanī); S II 88 (°nāḷi); A II 199 (the same); Dhp 337; Ja V 39; Thag 402 (°attho) AN 3.69.

Uhuṅkara [onomat uhu + kāra, see under ulūka] an owl (literally "uhu"-maker) Ja VI 538 (= ulūka Commentary).

Ūkā (feminine) [Sanskrit yūkā, probably dialectical] a louse Ja I 453; II 324; III 393; V 298; Miln 11; Vism 445; As 307, 319; Dhp-a III 342; Vv-a 86.


-----[ V ]-----

Vaṃsa [Vedic vaṃśa reed, bamboo (R̥V)] 1. a bamboo Snp 38 (vaṃso visālo va; vaṃso explained at Nidd II §556 as "veḷugumba," at Pj II 76 as "veḷu"), ibid. (°kaḷīra); Ja VI 57; Vism 255 (°kaḷīra); Pj I 50 (the same). -coraka name of a certain kind of reed (cf. coraka: plant used for perfume) Ja V 406 (commentary for veḷuka); -nalaka bamboo reed Pj I 52, 59 (with note Snp Index page 870: naḷaka); -nāḷa the same Miln 102;

Vaka1 [Vedic vr̥ka, Indo-Germanic ṷḷqṷo = Latin lupus, Greek λύκος, Lithuanian vilkas, Gothic wulfs = English wolf etc.] wolf, only in poetry Snp 201; Ja I 336; II 450; V 241, 302.

Vakula [cf. Sanskrit vakula] a tree (Mimusops elengi) Ja V 420.

Vakkaṅga [vakkaṃ + ga] a term for bird, poetically for sakuṇa Ja I 216 (tesaṃ ubhosu passesu pakkhā vaṅkā jātā ti vakkaṅgā commentary).

Vakkala [cf. BHS valkala (e.g. Jm 210): see vāka] 1. the bark of a tree Ja II 13 (°antara); III 522.

Vagguli and °ī (masculine and feminine) [cf. Sanskrit valgulī, of valg to flutter] a bat Vin II 148; Miln 364, 404; Vism 663 (in simile); Dhp-a III 223. -rukkha a tree on which bats live Vism 74;

Vaṅka-dāṭha (adjective/noun) [cf. Vedic vaṅka and vakra bending; also Vedic vaṅku moving, fluttering, walking slant; vañcati to waver, walk crooked. Cf. Latin con-vexus "convex," Anglo-Saxon woh "wrong," Gothic wāhs; Old High German waṅga cheek, and others. — Dhātup 5 gives "koṭilya" as meaning of vaṅk. Another Pāli form is vakka (q.v.). The Prākrit forms are both vakka and vaṅka: Pischel, Pkt Gr. §74]. -dāṭha having a bent fang (of a boar) Ja II 405.

Vaca (neuter) a kind of root Vin I 201 = IV 35. Cf. vacattha.

Vacattha (neuter) a kind of root Vin I 201 = IV 35.

Vaccha1 [Vedic vatsa, literally "one year old, a yearling"; cf. Greek ἔτος year, Sanskrit vatsara the same, Lat vetus old, vitulus calf; Gothic wiϸrus a year old lamb = Old High German widar = English wether] a calf Dhp 284; Ja V 101; Vism 163 (in simile), 269 (the same; kūṭa° a maimed calf); As 62 (with popular etymology "vadatī ti vaccho"); Vv-a 100, 200 (taruṇa°). On vaccha in similes see JPTS 1907, 131.

Vaccha2 [= rukkha, from vr̥kṣa] a tree; only in mālā° an ornamental plant Vin II 12; III 179; Vism 172; Dhp-a II 109.

Vacchaka [denominative from vaccha1] a (little) calf Ja III 444; V 93, 433; Miln 282 (as go-vacchaka).

Vacchatara [from vaccha; the comparative suffix in meaning "sort of, -like." cf. Sanskrit vatsatara] a weaned calf, bullock D I 127, 148; S I 75; A II 207; IV 41f.; Pp 56; Sv I 294. — feminine vacchatarī D I 127; S I 75; Vin I 191; Pp 56.

Vajuḷa [cf. Sanskrit vañjula. Given as vañjula at Abh 553] name of several plants, a tree (the ratan: Abhidh-r-m 2, 46) Ja V 420. See also vaṅgati.

Vajjha-sūkariyo (plural) sows which had no young, barren sows (read vañjha°!) Ja II 406.

Vaṭa1 [cf. Epic Sanskrit vaṭa. A root vaṭ, not connected with this vaṭa is given at Dhātum 106 in meaning "veṭhana": see vaṭaṃsa] the Indian fig tree Ja I 259 (°rukkha); III 325; Mhv 6, 16; Dhp-a I 167 (°rukkha); Pv-a 113.

Vaṭaka [cf. Sanskrit vaṭaka, from vaṭa rope] a small ball or thickening, bulb, tuber; in muḷāla° the (edible) tuber of the lotus Ja VI 563 (commentary kaṇḍaka).

Vaṭṭakā (feminine) and Vaṭṭaka° [cf. Sanskrit vartakā and Vedic vartikā] the quail M III 159f.; Ja I 172, 208 (vaṭṭaka-luddaka); III 312; Dhp-a III 175 (locative plural vaṭṭakesu). — The Vaṭṭaka-jātaka at Ja I 208f. (cf. Ja V 414).

Vaṇṭa (neuter) [Epic Sanskrit vr̥nta] a stalk S III 155 = D I 73 (°chinna with its stalk cut); Ja I 70; Ap 62; Vism 356 (in comparison); Pj II 296; Vibh-a 60; Dhp-a II 42; IV 112; Vv-a 44.

Vatthi-kosa-mukha Vatthi-kosa-mukha orifice of the sexual organ, pudendum of an elephant).

Vana-timiraVana-timira forest darkness; The commentary explainations "giri-kaṇṇika-samāna-nettā"; thus taking it as name of the plant Clitoria ternatea

Vantāda [past participle of vamati] refuse-feeder, crow Ja II 439;

Vapati [vap, Vedic vapate. definition at Dhātup 192; bījanikkhepe] to sow Snp page 13 (kāsati + v.); Ja I 150 (nivāpaṃ vapitvā); Pv-a 139. — passive vappate S I 227 (yādisaṃ v. bījaṃ tādisaṃ harate phalaṃ), and vuppati [Vedic upyate] Thag 530. — past participle vutta. — causative I vāpeti: see past participle vāpita1. — causative II vapāpeti to cause to be sown Vin III 131 (khettaṃ); Ja IV 276 (sāliṃ).

Vapana (neuter) [from vap] sowing Pj II 137; Dhp-a III 220 (°kassaka); Pv-a 8.

Vappa1 (masculine or neuter) [original gerundive from vap = Sanskrit vāpya] to be sown, sowing; or soil to be sown on, in paṃsu° sowing on light soil and kalala° on heavy soil Pj II 137. -kamma the act or occupation of sowing Ja I 340 (+ kasi-kamma); -kāla sowing time Snp page 13; S I 172 (= vapanakāla, bīja-nikkhepa-kāla Pj II 137); -maṅgala ploughing festival Ja I 57; Dhp-a II 113; Pj II 141.

Vammīka and Vammika (masculine and neuter) [cf. Vedic valmīka; Indo-Germanic °ṷorm(āi); cf. Avesta maoiris, Sanskrit vamrah., Greek μύρμηζ, Latin formica, Cymr. mor; all of same origin and meaning] anthill: (a) °īka: M I 142f.; Ja III 85; IV 30 (°bila the ant's hole); V 163. (b) °ika: Ja I 432; IV 30; Vism 183 (described), 304 (°muddani), 446; Dhp-a II 51; III 208; IV 154.

Varaka1 [cf. Sanskrit varaka] the bean Phaseolus trilobus Ja II 75 (where equal to kalāya); Miln 267; Dhp-a I 311.

Varaṇa [cf. Sanskrit varaṇa rampart, causeway, wall] the tree Crataeva roxburghii Ja I 222, 317 (°rukkha), 319 = Dhp-a III 409 (°kaṭṭha-bhañja); Ja VI 535.

Varāha [Vedic varāha and varāhu, frequent in R̥V] a boar, wild hog Dhp 325 = Thag 17; Ja V 406 = VI 277; Miln 364; Saddh 378.

Valāhaka 2. Name of mythical horses S III 145.

Valāhassa [valāha + assa] cloud-horse Ja II 129 (the Valāhassa-jātaka, pages 127f.); cf. BHS Bālāhāśva (-rājā) Divy 120f. (see Divy Index).

Valin-mukhaValin (adjective) [from vali] having wrinkles M I 88 — In compound vali-mukha "wrinkled face," i.e. monkey Ja II 298.

Vallibha [cf. late Sanskrit valibha wrinkled] the plant kumbhaṇḍa i.e. a kind of gourd Abh 597 (no other reference?).

Vallī (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit vallī; for etymology see valaya] 1. a climbing plant, a creeper Vin III 144; Ja V 37; VI 536; Vv-a 147, 335 (here as a root?). — santānaka° a long, spreading creeper Vv-a 94, 162. 2. a reed or rush used as a string or rope for binding or tying (especially in building), bast (?) M I 190 (Neumann, "Binse"); Ja III 52 (satta rohita-macche uddharitvā valliyā āvuṇitvā netvā etc.), 333 (in similar connection); Dhp-a III 118. 3. in kaṇṇa° the lobe of the ear Mhv 25, 94. — The compound form of vallī is valli°. -koṭī the tips of a creeper Ja VI 548; -pakka the fruit of a creeper Vv 3330; -phala = °pakka Ja IV 445; -santāna spreadings or shoots of a creeper Pj I 48;

Vaḷa at Vism 312 is to be read vāḷa (snake), in phrase vāḷehi upadduta "molested by snakes."

Vaḷavā (feminine) [cf. Vedic vaḍavā] a mare, a common horse D I 5; Pp 58; Mhv 10, 54; Ja I 180; VI 343; Dhp-a I 399; IV 4 (assatarā vaḷavāya gadrabhena jātā).

Vasabha [the Sanskritic-Pāli form (*vr̥ṣabha) of the proper Pāli usabha (q.v. for etymology). Only in later (commentary) style under Sanskrit influence] a bull Miln 115 (rāja°); Pj II 40 (relation between usabha, vasabha and nisabha); Vv-a 83 (the same).

Vassati2 [vāś to bellow, Vedic vāśyate; Dhātum 471: "saddane"] to utter a cry (of animals), to bellow, bark, to bleat, to crow etc. S II 230; Ja I 436 (of a cock); II 37, 153, 307; III 127; VI 497 (present participle vassamāna = vāsamāna commentary). — past participle vassita2.

Vassana2 (neuter) [from vassati2] bleating; negative a° Ja IV 251.

Vassikā (feminine) and Vassika (neuter) = vassikī, i.e. Jasminum Sambac; cf. BHS varṣika Lal 366, 431; Divy 628; Avś I 163. (a) feminine (the plant) Dhp 377 (= sumanā Dhp-a IV 112); Miln 251. (b) neuter (the flower, said to be the most fragrant of all flowers) A V 22; S V 44; Dhp-a IV 112 (°puppha).

Vassikī (feminine) the great-flowered jasmine, Jasminum Sambac (cf. vassikā) Dhp 55 = Ja III 291 = Miln 333; Miln 181, 338; Dhp-a I 422.

Vāka (neuter) [late Sanskrit valka, cf. Pāli vakka] the bark of a tree D I 167; Vin III 34; Ja I 304; II 141; Vism 249 = Vibh-a 232 (akka° and makaci°); Miln 128. — avāka without bark Ja III 522.

Vāja [cf. Vedic vāja strength; Indo-Germanic seeg, cf. vājeti, vajra (Pāli vajira); Latin vegeo to be alert ["vegetation"], vigeo to be strong ["vigour"]; Avesta vazra; Old-Icelandic wakr = Anglo-Saxon wacor = German wacker; English wake, etc.] 1. strength, a strength-giving drink, Soma Pj II 322.

Vājapeyya [cf. Vedic vājapeya; see Macdonell, Vedic Mythology past participle 131f., 155, quoting Weber, Vājapeya; Banerjea, Public Administration 92] the vājapeya sacrifice, a soma offering. Spelling often vāca° (mostly as v.l.); see S I 76; A II 42; IV 151; Snp 303; It 21; Miln 219; Ja III 518. Cf. peyya2.

Vājin (adjective/noun) [from vāja] possessed of strength or swiftness; a horse, stallion Dāṭh I 31; V 35 (sita°), 53 (sasi-paṇḍara°); Vv-a 278.

Vāta [Vedic vāta, of vā; cf. Sanskrit vāti and vāyati to blow, vāyu wind; Latin ventus, Gothic winds = wind; Old High German wājan to blow, Old-Irish feth air; Greek ἄημι to blow, ἀήτης wind, Lithuanian áudra storm etc.] wind.-ghāta ("wind-struck") the tree Cassia (or Cathartocarpus) fistula, a synonym of uddāla(ka) Ja IV 298; Vv-a 197; also as °ka at Ja V 199, 407; Vv-a 43;-sakuṇa a certain kind of bird ("wind-bird") Nidd I 87, where Pj I 118 reads bhāsa°.

Vātiṅgaṇa [cf. Sanskrit vātiṅgaṇa] the eggplant, Solanum melongena Ja V 131; As 320.

Vādika2 [?] a species of bird Ja VI 538 (v.l. vāj°).

Vānara [from vana] monkey, literally "forester" Thag 399 = Dhp 334; Thag 454; Ja II 78 (Senaka), 199f. (Nandiya); III 429; IV 308; V 445; Miln 201; Dhp-a II 22. -inda monkey king Ja I 279; II 159.

Vāpita1 [past participle of vāpeti] sown Ja I 6 (+ ropita, of dhañña).

Vāpeti [causative from vap, representing vapati1 as well as vapati2] to cause to sow [cf. Divy 213 vāpayituṃ] or to mow. — past participle vāpita.

Vāmanaka (adjective/noun) [from vāmana] dwarfish, crippled Ja II 226; IV 137; V 424, 427. — feminine °ikā name of certain elephants M I 178.

Vāyasa [cf. Vedic vāyasa a large bird, Epic Sanskrit vāyasa crow] a crow D I 9 (°vijjā: see Sv I 93); S I 124; Snp 447, 675; Ja I 500; II 440; Miln 373; Dhp-a III 206; Vv-a 27.

Vāraṇa2 [cf. Vedic vāraṇa strong] 1. elephant Ja I 358; IV 137; V 50, 416; Sv I 275; Dhp-a I 389 (°līḷhā elephant's grace); Vv-a 36, 257. 2. the hatthiliṅga bird Thag 1064.

Vāla1 [Vedic vāla; connected with Latin adūlāre (ad + ūlāre) to flatter (literal wag the tail, like a dog), cf. English adulation; Lithuanian valaī horse hair] 1. the hair of the tail, horse-hair, tail Vin II 195 = Ja V 335 (pahaṭṭha-kaṇṇavāla with bristling ears and tail, of an elephant); Ja V 274 (so read for phāla, cf. page 268, V 113); Pv-a 285 (°koṭi, so read for bāla°); Saddh 139. — pallaṅkassa vāle bhinditvā destroying the hair (-stuffing) of a couch Vin II 170 = Sv I 88; cf. Vin IV 299: pallaṅko āharimehi vālehi kato. — On v. in similes see JPTS 1907, 136.

Vāla3 (neuter) [= vāri, cf. late Sanskrit vāla] water; only in compound °ja a fish (cf. vārija).

Vāladhi [cf. Epic Sanskrit vāladhi] a tail (usually of a large animal) Thag 695; Ja I 63, 149; VI 302; Pv I 83; Mhv 10, 59; Vv-a 252, Saddh 621; Vism 36 cf. Ap 61.

Vālin (adjective) [from vāla1] having a hairy tail Vv 647, cf. Vv-a 277.

Vāḷa1 [cf. late Sanskrit vyāḍa, see Geiger, Pāli Grammar §54.6] 1. a snake Vism 312 (so read for vaḷa). 2. a beast of prey A III 102 (amanussa); Ja I 295; III 345 (°macchā predaceous fishes); Miln 23 (°vana forest of wild beasts). -miga a beast of prey, predaceous animal, like tiger, leopard, etc. Ja VI 569; Dhp-a I 171 (°ṭṭhāna); III 348 (°rocanā); Vism 180, 239.

Vikaca (adjective) blossoming Sv I 40.

Vikaṭa [vi + kata, of kr̥] changed, altered, distorted; disgusting, foul, filthy Pañca-g 63 (°ānana with filthy mouth). — neuter filth, dirt; four mahā-vikaṭāni applied against snake-bite, viz., gūtha, mutta, chārikā, mattikā Vin I 206. — Cf. vekaṭika.

Vikāsati1 [vi + kas] to open (out), to expand, to blossom fully (of flowers). — past participle vikasita. causative vikāseti to open Ja VI 364 (hatthaṃ).

Vikasita [past participle of vikāsati1] burst asunder, blossoming, opened (wide), expanded, usually applied to flowers Ja III 320 (= phālita commentary); IV 407; Vv-a 40, 206 (of eyes); Pj II I 39; Sv I 40. [BD]: of flowers: blown.

Vikulāva(ka) (adjective) [vi + kulāva] having no nest, without a nest S I 224 (ka); Ja I 203.

Vikkanta [past participle of vi + kram] heroic Ja I 119; II 211; IV 271; Miln 400 (°cārin, of a lion).

Vighā̆sa [from vi + ghasati] remains of food, broken meat, scraps Vin IV 265, 266; Ja II 288; III 113, 191, 311 (read °ghasa for metre); V 268 (the same); Saddh 389. -āda one who eats the remains of food Vin I 200 (panca°-satāni) Ja I 348; II 96; III 191; Dhp-a II 128. Also name of an animal Ja VI 538.

Vicchika [cf. Vedic vr̥ścika: Zimmer, Altind. Leben 98] a scorpion D I 9 (°vijjā scorpion craft); Vin II 110; A II 73; III 101, 306; IV 320; V 289f.; Ja II 146; Miln 272, 394; Vism 235; Sv I 93.

Viṭapa [cf. Epic Sanskrit viṭapa] the fork of a tree, a branch Ja I 169, 215, 222; III 28; VI 177 (nigrodha°).

Viṭapin [viṭapa + in] a tree, literally "having branches" Ja VI 178.

Viṭabhī (feminine) [= Sanskrit viṭapin] the fork of a tree M I 306; Ja II 107; III 203.

Vidhunāti [vi + dhunāti] 2. to remove, to skin (an animal) Vin I 193.

Vipakka (adjective) [vi + pakka] fully ripe Ja I 136.

Vipakkhin (adjective) [vi + pakkhin] having no wings, without wings Ja V 255.

Vipaccati [vi + paccati] 1. to be cooked, i.e. to ripen Ja V 121; Pv-a 104. 2. to bear fruit D II 266; S I 144; M I 388; Nett 37; Vv-a 171.

Vipaccanaka (adjective) [from vipaccati, cf. paccana] bearing fruit, ripening (fully) Miln 421 (notes); Pv-a 190.

Vipanna [past participle of vipajjati] gone wrong, having lost, failing in (—°), opposite sampanna: A III 19 (rukkho sākhā-palāsa° a tree which has lost branches and leaves)

Vipākatta (neuter) [abstract from vipāka] state of being ripe Pv-a 52.

Vipina (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit vipina, Abhidh-r-m 2, 55] wood, grove D I 248 (doubtful; vv.ll. vijina, vivada, vivana); Ap 51 so. Ap-a reads vivana; commentary vivana and vipina); Dāṭh IV 39; Pv-a 81 (read vicitta!).

Vibhaṅga [vi + bhaṅga, of bhaj1] distribution, division, distinction, classification Vin I 359; Snp 600 (jāti° classification of species; explained as jāti-vitthāra at Pj II 464); Ja IV 361 (+ vicaya; commentary explains as vibhāga).

VibhītakaVibhītaka (and °ṭaka) [cf. Sanskrit vibhīta and °ka] the plant Terminalia belerica; beleric myrobolan. Dice were made from its fruits, which are also used as medicine (intoxicant); its flowers smell vilely. — Vin I 201; Ja III 161; V 363; VI 529.

Vibhedika (feminine) [from vi + bhid] the palmyra tree Ja VI 529.

Vimāna see in PED for mention of celestial trees. Article too long for inclusion here and mentions have few details.

Vilaṅga (neuter) [Sanskrit viḍaṅga] the plant Erycibe paniculata Vin I 201 (v.l. viḷ°). — °thālikā at Nidd I 154 read as bilaṅga° (q.v.).

Vilambin (adjective) [vi + lambin] hanging down, drooping M I 306 (feminine °inī, of a creeper, i.e. growing tendrils all over).

Vilīva and Viliva (adjective) [Kern, Toev. sub voce compares Sanskrit bilma slip, chip. Phonetically viliva = Sanskrit bilva: see billa] 1. made of split bamboo Vin II 266 (i). 2. (-ī-) a chip of bamboo or any other reed, a slip of reed M I 566 (Buddhaghosa on M I 429); Vism 310 (°maya).

Vilīvakāra [vilīva + kāra] a worker in bamboo, a basketmaker Vin III 82; Miln 331; Vibh-a 222 (°ka in simile); Pv-a 175.

Viḷāra at A III 122 read as biḷāra (sasa-biḷārā rabbits and cats).

Visa (neuter) [cf. Vedic viṣa; Avesta viš poison, Greek ἰός, Latin vīrus, Old-Irish fī: all meaning "poison"] poison, virus, venom M I 316 = S II 110; Thag 418; 768; Snp 1 (sappa° snake venom); A II 110; Ja I 271 (halāhala° deadly p.); III 201; IV 222; Pp 48; Miln 302; Pv-a 62, 256; Thig-a 489. — On visa in similes see JPTS 1907, 137. Cf. āsī°.-rukkha "poison tree," a certain tree Vism 512; Vibh-a 89; Sv I 39;

Visāṇa (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit viṣāṇa] 1. the horn of an animal (as cow, ox, deer, rhinoceros) Vin I 191; A II 207; IV 376; Snp 35 (khagga°, q.v.), 309; Pp 56 (miga°); Ap 50 (usabha°); Ja I 505; Miln 103. 2. (also as m.) the tusks of an elephant Ja III 184; V 41, 48. -maya made of horn Vin II 115.

Vihaga [viha, sky, + ga] a bird (literal going through the sky) Sv I 46. —°pati lord of birds, a garuḷa Dāṭh IV 33, 38, 55.

Vihaṅgama (adjective) [viha + gam] going through the air, flying; (masculine) a bird A II 39; III 43; Snp 221, 606; Thag 1108; Ja I 216; III 255; Sv I 125 = As 141.

Vihaviha [for vihaga] a sort of bird Thag 49 (v.l. cihaciha). The commentary explains by "parillaka."

Vītaṃsa [from vi + tan, according to BR. The word is found in late Sanskrit (lexicographical) as vītaṃsa. BR compare Sanskrit avaṭaṃsa (garland: see Pāli vaṭaṃsa) and uttaṃsa. The etymology is not clear] a bird-snare (BR.: "jedes zum Fangen von Wild & Vögeln dienende Gerṷt"), a decoy bird Thag 139. Kern, Toev. sub voce "vogelstrik."

Vīhi [cf. Vedic vrīhi] rice, paddy Vin IV 264 (as one of the 7 kinds of āmaka-dhañña); Ja I 429; III 356; Miln 102, 267; Vism 383 (°tumba); Dhp-a I 125; III 374 (°piṭaka).

Vutta2 [past participle of vapati1] sown S I 134 (khetta); Ja I 340; III 12; VI 14; Miln 375 (khetta); Pv-a 7, 137, 139.

Vejja a physician, doctor, medical man, surgeon Ja I 455; III 142; Pj I 21; Pj II 274 (in simile); Vv-a 185, 322; Dhp-a I 8; Pv-a 36, 86; Saddh 279, 351. — hatthi° elephant doctor Ja VI 490; Mhv 25, 34; visa° a physician who cures poison(ous bites) Ja I 310; IV 498.

Veṇa [cf. Sanskrit vaiṇa, dialect] 1. a worker in bamboo Pv-a 175.

Veṇu [cf. Vedic veṇu. Another Pāli form is veḷu (q.v.)] bamboo; occurs only in compounds, e.g. -°gumba thicket of bamboo Dhp-a I 177; -°tinduka the tree Diospyros Ja V 405 (= timbaru commentary); -°daṇḍaka jungle-rope Ja III 204; -°bali a tax to be paid in bamboo (by bamboo workers) Dhp-a I 177; -°vana bamboo forest Ja V 38.

Vetasa [Vedic vetasa] the ratan reed, Calamus rotang Ja V 167; Pj II 451.

Vetta (neuter) [cf. Epic Sanskrit vetra] twig, rod; creeper; jungle rope (cf. veṇu-daṇḍa); cane (calamus). -agga cane top, sprout of bamboo (cf. kaḷīra) Vism 255 (where Pj I in the same passage reads °aṅkura); Vibh-a 60, 239, 252; -aṅkura a shoot of bamboo Pj I 52, 67; -āsana cane chair Vv-a 8; -patha "a jungle full of sticks" (translation Rh.D.) Miln 280 (+ saṅkupatha), jungle-path; -bandhana binding with twigs (rope?), creeper-bands S III 155; V 51 = A IV 127; -latā cane creeper Ja I 342; Vv-a 8, 338; -valli garland of creeper Dāṭh III 40.

Vedisa [from vidisā?] name of a tree Ja V 405; VI 550.

Vepakka (neuter) [from vipakka] ripening, ripeness, maturity. (adjective) yielding fruit, resulting in

Veyyaggha (adjective) [from vyaggha] belonging to a tiger Dhp 295

Veḷu [= veṇu, cf. Geiger, Pāli Grammar §43.3 and Prākrit veḷu: Pischel, Pkt Gr. §243] a bamboo A II 73; Vin IV 35; Ja IV 382 (daṇḍa°); V 71; Vism 1, 17; Pj II 76 (= vaṃsa); Vibh-a 334. -agga (veḷagga) the top of a bamboo Vin II 110; -gumba a bamboo thicket Pj II 49, 75; -daṇḍa a bamboo stick Pj II 330; -dāna a gift of bamboo Vibh 246; Miln 369; Pj II 311; Pj I 236; Vibh-a 333; -nāḷi (°nalaka, °nāḷika) a stalk or shaft of bamboo Vism 260; Pj I 52; Thig-a 212; -pabba a stalk or section of the b. Ja I 245; Vism 358 = Vibh-a 63.

Veḷuka [from veḷu] a kind of tree Ja V 405 (= vaṃsa-coraka).

Vohāra 4. Name of a sea-monster which gets hold of ships Ja V 259.

Vyaggha [cf. Vedic vyāghra] a tiger D III 25; A III 101; Snp 416 (°usabha); Ap 68 (°rājā); Ja I 357; III 192 (Subāhu); V 14 (giri-sānuja). — feminine viyagghinī (biy°) Miln 67. See also byaggha.

Vyagghīnasa [?] a hawk S I 148 (as °nisa); Ja VI 538. Another word for "hawk" is sakuṇagghi.


-----[ W ]-----


-----[ Y ]-----

Yaṭṭhi (feminine) [cf. Vedic yaṣṭi. Another Pāli form is laṭṭhi] — 2. a stem, stalk (of a plant), cane in ucchu° sugar-stick, sugar-cane Dhp-a III 315 (= ucchu-khaṇḍika at Vv 3326); IV 199. -madhukā ("cane-sweetness") liquorice Mhv 32, 46;

Yava [Vedic yava, corn; see Zimmer, Altind. Leben 239. Cf. Greek ζεά spelt; Lithuanian javaī corn; Old-Irish eorna barley] corn (in general), barley (in particular) Vin IV 264; S IV 220; A IV 169. -karaṇa the preparation of corn A IV 169; -kalāpī (or °inī) a sheaf of barley S IV 201; -kāraṇḍava chaff of corn (or barley) A IV 169; -kummāsa barley-gruel Vv-a 62; -khetta cornfield Vin IV 47, 266; Vv-a 294; -sūka the awn or beard of corn (barley) A I 8; S V 10, 48.

Yavaka (neuter) [yava + collective ending °ka] in compound sāli° (whatever there is of) rice and corn (i.e. rice- and corn-fields commentary) Ja IV 172. Cf. yāvaka.

Yavasa (neuter) [from yava; Vedic yavasa] grass, hay, fodder Ja I 338.

Yudhikā (feminine) [doubtful] name of a tree Ja V 422 (for Text yodhi, which appears as yodhikā in commentary reading). The legitimate reading is yūthikā (q.v.), as is also given in Vvll.

Yūtha (neuter) [Vedic yūtha] a flock, herd of animals Snp 53 (of elephants); Ja I 170 (monkeys), 280 (the same); Pj II 322 (go°, of oxen). -pa the leader of a herd Thig 437 (elephants); -pati same Ja III 174 (elephant); Dhp-a I 81 (the same).

Yūthikā (feminine) [cf. later Sanskrit yūthikā] a kind of jasmine, Jasminum auriculatum Ja VI 537; Miln 338. So is also to be read at Ja V 420 (for yodhi) and 422 (yodhikā and yudhikā). See also yodhikā.

Yodha-hatthin [cf. Vedic yodha; from yudh] a warrior, soldier, fighter, champion Vin I 73 (yodhā yuddhābhinandino ... pabbajjaɱ yāciɱsu); Ja I 180; Miln 293. -hatthin a war elephant Dhp-a I 168.

Yodhikā (feminine) [v.l. of yūthikā (q.v.)] a special kind of jasmine Vv 354; Ja IV 440 (yoth°), 442; V 422; Vv-a 162 (as thalaja and a tree).




Copyright Statement