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Comparative Translation Vocabulary

A Study of Some Translatons
of the Terms of the Core Dhammas
with Recommendations and Their Explanations

 


 

The Core Dhammas

The Four Settings-up of Mind

The Four Consummate Efforts

The Four Paths to Supernormal Powers

The Five Forces

The Five Powers

The Seven Dimensions of Self-Awakening

The Aristocratic Eight-Dimensional High Way

The Jhānas

Miscellaneous Terms

 


 

The Four Settings-up of Mind

Pali Recommended PTS Bhk. Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro Bhk. Sujato
Sati Mind, Memory Mindfulness Mindfulness Mindfulness Mindfulness
Satipaṭṭhāna Setting up Mind Setting Up, Uprisings, Stations, Foundations of Mindfulness Foundations of Mindfulness Frames of Reference Mindfulness
Ekāyano ayaɱ Maggo One Sure Way One Way, The One and Only Path The Direct Path The Direct Path The Path to Convergence
Kāya Body Body Body Body Body
Kāye kāy'ānupassī viharati (Vedana, Citta, Dhamma). Living in the Body (etc) Overseeing Body (etc.) Contemplating the body in the body Contemplating the body as a body Focusing on the body in and of itself Observing an Aspect of the (Body, Feelings, Mind, Principles
Vedanā Experience Feeling Feeling Feeling Feeling
Citte Heart, Mental State Consciousness, thought, Mind Mind Mind
Dhamma The Dhamma Mind-States, Mental Objects, Ideas Mind Objects Mental Qualities Principles

 

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The Four Consummate Efforts

Pali Recommended PTS Bhk. Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro Bhk. Sujato
Cattāro Samma-p-padhānā Four Consummate Efforts Right, Supreme, Great Efforts, Strivings, Right Strivings, Kinds of Striving Right Effort Four Right Efforts

 

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The Four Paths to Supernormal Powers

Pali Recommended PTS Bhk. Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro Bhk. Sujato
Cattāri Iddhipādā The Four Power Paths Basis of, Roads to Psycic Power, Effective Power, Mystic Potencies, Stages to Efficiency Bases for Spiritual Power Bases of Power Four bases of psychic power
Chanda Wanting, Wishing Desire-to-do, Intention, Desire Desire, zeal Desire Enthusiasm
Viriya Energy Energy Energy Persistence Energy
Citte Heart, Having the Heart for it Consciousness, thought, Mind Mind Mental development
Vīmaɱsa Rememberance, Investigation Investigation Investigation Discrimination Inquiry
Chanda- [Citta, Viriya, Vīmaɱsa] samādhi-padhāna-sankhāra-samannāgataɱ iddhi-pādaɱ bhāveti begets the Powerpath Consisting of Effort-upon-Effort at Own-Making Serene Wishes [etc.] develops the stage which is characterized by the mental co-efficient of an effort of purposive concentration [intellectual concentration, energized concentration, investigating concentration]; develops the basis for spiritual power that possesses concentration due to desire and volitional formations of striving [etc.] develops the base of power endowed with concentration founded on desire & the fabrications of exertion, [etc.] develops the basis of psychic power that has immersion due to enthusiasm [etc.], and active effort

 

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The Five Forces

Pali Recommended PTS Bhk. Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro Bhk. Sujato
Indriyāni Forces Faculties Faculties Faculties Five Faculties
Saddhā Faith Faith Faith Conviction Faith
Viriya Energy Energy Energy Persistence Energy
Sati Mind, Memory Mindfulness Mindfulness Mindfulness Mindfulness
Samādhi Serenity, Getting High Concentration Concentration Concentration Immersion
Paññā Wisdom Insight, Intelligence, Wisdom Discernment Wisdom

 

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The Five Powers

Pali Recommended PTS Bhk. Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro Bhk. Sujato [AN.5.15]
Balani Powers Powers Powers Strengths Powers
Saddhā Faith Faith Faith Conviction Faith
Viriya Energy Energy Energy Persistence Energy
Sati Mind, Memory Mindfulness Mindfulness Mindfulness Mindfulness
Samādhi Serenity, Getting High Concentration Concentration Concentration Immersion
Paññā Wisdom Insight, Intelligence, Wisdom Discernment Wisdom

 

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The Seven Dimensions of Self-Awakening

Pali Recommended PTS Bhk. Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro Bhk. Sujato
Satta Sambojjhangā Seven Dimensions of Self-Awakening Parts, Links, Factors in Awakening, Enlightonment, Wisdom Enlightenment Factors The Seven Factors for Awakening Seven awakening factors
Sati Mind, Memory Mindfulness Mindfulness Mindfulness Mindfulness
Dhamma-Vicaya Investigation of Dhamma or Things Dhamma Testing, Investigation, Investigation, discrimination of states Analysis of Qualities Investigation of principles
Viriya Energy Energy Energy Persistence Energy
Pīti Enthusiasm Zest, Rapture (Horner), Joy Rapture Rapture Rapture
Passaddhi Impassivity, Equanimity, Poise Calming Down, Serenity, Satisfaction, Tranquillity, Tranquillity Serenity tranquillity
Samādhi Serenity, Getting High Concentration Concentration Concentration Immersion
Upekkha Detachment Equanimity, poise Equanimity Equanimity Equanimity

 

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The Aristocratic Eight- Ten-Dimensional High Way

Pali Recommended PTS Bhk. Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro Bhk. Sujato
Dhamma Dhamma, The Teaching Mental Objects, Mental Qualities, Event, Action, Nibbana Principles
Sammā Consummate, High Right, Perfect, Right, Correct, Perfectly Right Right
Micchā Misguided, Contrary Wrong Wrong Wrong Wrong
Diṭṭhi Working Hypothesis, View View View View View
Saɱkappa Principles Purpose, Aim, Intention; Horner: Thought Intention Resolve Thought
Vācā Talk, Speech Speech Speech Speech Speech
Kammanta Works Action, Doing Action Action Action
Ājīva Lifestyle Livelihood, living Livelihood Livelihood Livelihood
Vāyāma Self-control Effort Effort Effort Effort
Sati Mind, Memory Mindfulness Mindfulness Mindfulness Mindfulness
Samādhi Serenity, Getting High Concentration Concentration Concentration Immersion
Cattāri Jhānāni The Four Knowings, Gnosis Musing, Jhāna Jhāna Mental Absorption The Four Absorption
Avijjā Blindness Ignorance Ignorance Ignorance Ignorance
Ñāṇa Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge NA
Vimutti Freedom Freedom Liberation Release Freedom
Diṭṭhā Seeing, The Seen The Seen The Seen The Seen Seen
Upekha Detachment Equanimity, Poise, Indifference Equanimity Equanimity Equanimity

 

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The Jhānas

Pali Recommended PTS Bhk. Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro Bhk. Sujato
Cattāri Jhānāni The Four Knowings, Gnosis Musing, Jhāna Jhāna Mental Absorption The Four Absorption
Paṭhama Jhāna: Vivicc'eva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pīti-sukhaṃ paṭhamajjhānaṃ upasampajja viharati Separated from sensuality, separated from unskillful things, with thinking, with pondering solitude-born pleasurable enthusiasm, there arises and he makes a habit of the First Knowing Aloof from pleasures of the senses, aloof from unskilled states of mind, [he enters] into the first meditation which is accompanied by initial thought and discursive thought, is born of aloofness, and is rapturous and joyful Quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, [he enters] upon and [abides in] in the first jhana, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. Quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities -- [a monk] enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and evaluation A mendicant, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unskillful qualities, enters and remains in the first absorption, which has the rapture and bliss born of seclusion, while placing the mind and keeping it connected.
Vitakka vicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pīti-sukhaṃ dutiyajjhānaṃ upasampajja viharati With the resolution of thinking and pondering, attaining impassivity, becoming whole-heartedly single-minded, without thinking and pondering, with the pleasurable enthusiasm born of Serenity, there arises and he makes a habit of the Second Knowing By allaying initial and discursive thought, with the mind subjectively tranquillised and fixed on one point, I entered into and abided in the second meditation which is devoid of initial and discursive thought, is born of concentration, and is rapturous and joyful. With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, I entered upon and abided in the second jhana, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. Furthermore, with the stilling of directed thought and evaluation, he enters and remains in the second jhana: rapture and pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought and evaluation -- internal assurance. As the placing of the mind and keeping it connected are stilled, they enter and remain in the second absorption, which has the rapture and bliss born of immersion, with internal clarity and confidence, and unified mind, without placing the mind and keeping it connected
Pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno sukhaṃ ca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti, yan taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti 'upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī'ti taṃ tatiyajjhānaṃ upasampajja viharati Dispassionate and detached from enthusiasm, living self-conscious and aware of bodilysense-reactions such as those described by the Aristocrats when they say: "Detached, minding, he lives pleasantly", there arises and he makes a habit of the Third Knowing By the fading out of rapture, I dwelt with equanimity, attentive, and clearly conscious; and I experienced in my person that joy of which the ariyans say: 'Joyful lives he who has equanimity and is mindful,' and I entered into and abided in the third meditation. With the fading away as well of rapture, I abided in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, I entered upon and abided in the third jhana, on account of which noble ones announce: 'He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.' And furthermore, with the fading of rapture, he remains in equanimity, mindful and alert, and physically sensitive to pleasure. He enters and remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, 'Equanimous and mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.' And with the fading away of rapture, they enter and remain in the third absorption, where they meditate with equanimity, mindful and aware, personally experiencing the bliss of which the noble ones declare, 'Equanimous and mindful, one meditates in bliss.'
Sukhassa ca pahāṇā dukkhassa ca pahāṇā pubb'eva somanassa-domanassānaṃ atthaŋgamā adukkha-m-asukhaṃ upekkhā-sati-pārisuddhiṃ catutthajjhānaṃ upasampajja viharati Letting go of his former experiences of pleasure and pain, allowing his experience of mental ease and discomfort to subside on their own, without pleasure or pain, with utterly pure detachment of mind, there arises and he makes a habit of the Fourth Knowing By getting rid of joy, by getting rid of anguish, by the going down of my former pleasures and sorrows, I entered into and abided in the fourth meditation which has neither anguish nor joy, and which is entirely purified by equanimity and mindfulness. With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, I entered upon and abided in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. And furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure and stress -- as with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress -- he enters and remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. Giving up pleasure and pain, and ending former happiness and sadness, they enter and remain in the fourth absorption, without pleasure or pain, with pure equanimity and mindfulness

 

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Miscellaneous Terms

Pali Recommended PTS Bhk. Bodhi Bhk. Thanissaro Bhk. Sujato
AppamādaAN 10.15 Care Earnestness, diligence Diligence Heedfulness Diligence
AbhiññāAN 5.28 Higher Knowledge/Powers super knowledge, knowledge direct knowledge supernormal realizing anything that can be realized by insight to which they extend the mind
Āhāra Food Food, supports Nutriments Nutriments Food
Viññāṇa Consciousness (Re-knowing-knowing-knowledge) Consciousness, Cognition Consciousness Consciousness Consciousness
Āsavā Influences, Corrupting Influences Cankers, Corruptions, Intoxicants, Poisons Taints Effluents, Fermentations Defilements
Sankhārā Own-making Activities, Volitional Activities, Complexes, dispositions, synergies, mental property, mental adjuncts causal activities, conditioned activities, formations, exertion Fabrications Choice
Parimukhaɱ Satim Mind around mouth set his mindfulness alert established mindfulness in front setting mindfulness to the fore [lit: the front of the chest] focuses their mindfulness right there

 


 

Source Texts:

Almost all the terms found here can be found in DN 33, DN 22, DN 15, MN 10