# Weights and Measures

See also:

A Table of *Pāḷi* Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers.

Mensuration in Ancient India, Saradha Srinivasan, 1979, Ajanta Publications (India), Distributed by Ajanta Books International, Delhi

Lilavati Definitions for large numbers.

On the Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon.

Some interesting examples are shown below.

#### Nahuta

10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

One followed by 28 zeros. A very large number.

*Pāḷi* Text Society, *Pāḷi* English Dictionary (edited entry):

**Nahuta: **... a vast number, a myriad Sn 677; J I.25, 83; Pv IV.17; DhA I.88; PvA 22, 265.

*Asaṇkheyya*

100,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

A measure of years.

*Pāḷi* Text Society, *Pāḷi* English Dictionary (edited entry):

**Asankheyya: **(adj.) [a + sankheyya, grd. of saṇ-khyā] incalculable, innumerable, nt. an immense period A II.142; Miln 232 (cattāri a.), 289 DhA I.5, 83, 104.

#### Crore

10,000,000

A unit of quantity often referenced in the Suttas (more often in the Jatakas), equal to 10^{7} or 10 million.

#### Lakh*

100,000

The lakh or lac: a measure of quantity, equal to 100,000.

*

Childers: [abridged entry]: The numerals are called *saṇkhyā* (Sen. K. 404). The high numerals rare given at *Ab.* 474-476 and *Sen. K.* 412, 413: they are as follows,

*sataṃ,* a hundred,

*sahassaṃ,* a thousand,

*dasasahassaṃ* or *nahutaṃ* ten thousand,

*satasahassaṃ* or *lakkhaṃ,* a hundred thousand, a lac,

*dasasatasahassaṃ,* a million (1×10^{6}),

*koṭi,* ten millions.

From koṭi upwards each succeeding numeral is ten million times the preceding one. They are:

*pakoṭi* ( = ten million koṭis = 100,000,000,000,000)

*koṭippakoṭi* 1.e+21 = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

*nahutaṃ* 1.e+28 = 1+28 zeros = 10 octillion,

*ninnahutaṃ* 1.e+35 = 1+35 zeros,

*akkhohinī* 1.e+42 = 1+42 zeros,

*bindu* 1.e+49 = 1+49 zeros,

*abbudaṃ* 1.e+56 = 1+56 zeros,

*nirabbudaṃ* 1.e+63 = 1+63 zeros,

*ahahaṃ* 1.e+70 = 1+70 zeros,

*ababaṃ* 1.e+77 = 1+77 zeros,

*aṭaṭaṃ* 1.e+84 = 1+84 zeros,

*sogandhikaṃ* 1.e+91 = 1+91 zeros,

*uppalaṃ* 1.e+98 = 1+98 zeros,

*kumudaṃ* 1.e+105 = 1+105 zeros,

*puṇḍarīkaṃ* 1.e+112 = 1+112 zeros,

*padumaṃ* 1.e+119 = 1+119 zeros,

*kathānam* 1.e+126 = 1+126 zeros,

*mahākathānaṃ* 1.e+133 = 1+133 zeros,

*asaṇkheyyaṃ* 1.e+140 = 1+140 zeros = 10 Skewer's Number

Today we have these names for very large numbers:

Million | 1 x 10^{6} |

Billion | 1 x 10^{9} |

Trillion | 1 x 10^{12} |

Quadrillion | 1 x 10^{15} |

Quintillion | 1 x 10^{18} |

Sextillion | 1 x 10^{21} |

Septillion | 1 x 10^{24} |

Octillion | 1 x 10^{27} |

Nonillion | 1 x 10^{30} |

Decillion | 1 x 10^{33} |

Undecillion | 1 x 10^{36} |

Duodecillion | 1 x 10^{39} |

Tredecillion | 1 x 10^{42} |

Quattuordecillion | 1 x 10^{45} |

Quindecillion | 1 x 10^{48} |

Sexdecillion | 1 x 10^{51} |

Septendecillion | 1 x 10^{54} |

Octodecillion | 1 x 10^{57} |

Novemdecillion | 1 x 10^{60} |

Vigintillion | 1 x 10^{63} |

Unvigintillion | 1 x 10^{66} |

Duovigintillion | 1 x 10^{69} |

Trevigintillion | 1 x 10^{72} |

Quattuorvigintillion | 1 x 10^{75} |

Quinvigintillion | 1 x 10^{78} |

Sexvigintillion | 1 x 10^{81} |

Septenvigintillion | 1 x 10^{84} |

Octovigintillion | 1 x 10^{87} |

Nonvigintillion | 1 x 10^{90} |

Trigintillion | 1 x 10^{93} |

Untrigintillion | 1 x 10^{96} |

Duotrigintillion | 1 x 10^{99} |

Ten-duotrigintillion (or Googol) | 1 x 10^{100} |

Skewer's Number | 1 x 10^{130} |

Centillion | 1 x 10^{303} |

Googolplex | 1 x 10^{10100} |

Skewes' Number | 10^{101034} |

#### Kahāpaṇa

Illust.

*Pāḷi* Text Society:

Rhys Davids:

Buddhist India,

Fig. 24.

Ancient Indian Coins.

A coin described as square, made of copper or silver and possibly of gold weighing about 146 grains.

(There are 437.499999999 grains/oz)

PED describes the purchasing power as being about that of the florin = 2 shillings (in Rhys David's day — 1903 —

Today (7.14.2011) the 1903 GBP = US$ $3067.87039.

Two Pounds, 2 Shillings (or 2 Guineas) GBP in 1903 had the purchasing power of about £150.36 GBP today.

1 pound = 20 shillings.

1 shilling = $1.61

1 florin = $3.22.)

Today (Tuesday, April 01, 2003 12:02 PM — PM London Gold Fix: 334.35/oz) a gold kahāpaṇn would be worth @ $111.50; a silver k. @ $1.47; and a copper K. @ $0.015.

[Updated July 14, 2011, 3:26 AM — AM London Gold Fix: $1592.50/oz; a gold kahāpaṇa would be worth $531.07; silver $13.12; copper @ $0.088.

Today (7.14.2011) with the British Pound at $1.61 USD,

20 shillings/pound,

the purchasing power of 2 shillings = $0.0805]

Worth four Padas or twenty masakas^{[3]}

Māsa^{3} [identical with māsa^{2}] a small coin ( = māsaka) J II.425 (satta māsā = s. māsakā C.).

Māsaka [fr. māsa2+ka = māsa3] lit. a small bean, used as a standard of weight and value; hence a small coin of very low value. Of copper, wood and lac (DhsA 318; cp. KhA 37; jatu-, dāru-, loha-); the suvaṇṇa- (golden m.) at J IV.107 reminds of the "gold" in fairy tales. That its worth is next to nothing is seen from the descending progression of coins at DhA III.108 = VvA 77, which, beginning with kahāpaṇa, aḍḍha-pāda, places māsaka and kāhaṇikā next to mudhā "gratis." It only "counts" when it amounts to 5 māsakas. - Vin III.47, 67; IV.226 (pañca-); J I.112 (aḍḍha-māsakaṃ na agghati is worth nothing); IV.107; V.135 (first a rain of flowers, then of māsakas, then kahāpaṇas); DhA II.29 (pañca-m.-mattaṃ a sum of 5 m.); PvA 282 (m+aḍḍha- half-pennies and farthings, as children's pocket-money).

Kākaṇa (nt.) [kā (for kad-) + kaṇa = less than a particle] a coin of very small value Sdhp 514.

Kākaṇikā (f.) = prec. J I.120, 419; VI.346; DA I.212; DhA I.391; VvA 77 = DhA III.108. From the latter passages its monetary value in the opinion of the Commentator may be guessed at as being 1/8 of a kahāpaṇa; it occurs here in a descending line where each succeeding coin marks half the value of the preceding one, viz., kahāpaṇa, aḍḍha, pāda, māsaka, kākaṇikā, upon which follows mudhā "for nothing."
-agghanaka "not even a farthing's worth," worth next to nothing J VI.346.

See also: Lilavati Definitions for more on the weight of these coins.

#### League

Derived from an ancient Celtic unit and adopted by the Romans as the leuga, the league became a common unit of measurement throughout western Europe. It was intended to represent, roughly, the distance a person could walk in an hour. The Celtic unit seems to have been rather short (about 1.5 Roman miles, which is roughly 1.4 statute miles or 2275 meters), but the unit grew longer over time. In many cases it was equal to 3 miles, using whatever version of the mile was current. At sea, the league was most often equal to 3 nautical miles, which is 1/20 degree [2], 3.45 statute miles, or exactly 5556 meters. In the U.S. and Britain, standard practice is to define the league to be 3 statute miles (about 4828.03 meters) on land or 3 nautical miles at sea.^{[1]}

#### Yojana

A measure of distance: the amount that could be travelled in one day with one yoke (two) of oxen, or about 7 miles

See also: Lilavati Definitions for more on the Yojana and measures of distance.

**Yoke**^{6}: OED: One-fourth of a *suling,* about 50 or 60 acres (cf. *oxgang* as 1/8 of a *plough-land*); hence, later, applied vaguely to small manors. (Cf. yoklet.) Kent.

#### Gāvuta

A measure of distance: about 1/4 of a Yojana, or 1-3/4 miles.

#### Usabha

A measure of distance/length: Equal to 20 yaṭṭhis, or 140 cubits (@18") or 210 feet

#### Yaṭṭhi

A measure of length. The length of a staff or goad or the stalk of the sugar cane (to cane): working back from Usabha, equal to about 10 feet

#### Cubit Hasta (Hattha)

A measure of length: the distance between the tip of the forefinger to the end of the elbow. |

#### Span

A measure of length: the distance between the tip of the little finger to the tip of the thumb with the fingers stretched wide. |

#### Hand

A measure of length: the distance of the width of four "men's" fingers about 3" later taken to be the width of the hand at the palm: (but now exactly) 4". |

#### Fathom [*Vyāma*]

A measure of length: the distance between the fingers when the arms are extended as far as a man can reach. Today: 2 yards |

#### Magadha Karika

A measure of volume: A twelve-edged [solid] with width, length, and height measured by one |

**Lifespans in Hell** SN 1.6.10- Mrs. Rhys Davids:

"How long, lord, is the measure of life

in the White Lotus Purgatory?"

"Long indeed, bhikkhu, is the measure of life

in the White Lotus Purgatory.

Not easy is it to reckon

how many years,

or centuries,

or tens or thousands of centuries."

"Can we reckon it by means of a figure, lord?"

"We can, bhikkhu," said the Exalted One.

"Suppose there were a load of twenty kharis

as we reckon them here in Kosala,

of sesamum seed.

And suppose at the end of every century

a man were to take out one seed at a time.

Sooner, bhikkhu, would that same load

be used up and finished

than [a term in] the Abbuda Purgatory.

**Twenty Kharis = 1 Karika.** The Magadha Karika = approximately: 103,959,025 sesame seeds, so the Kosalan Karika would be approximately 415,836,100 sesame seeds or 415,836,100,000 years in Abbida.

X 20 = 8,316,722,000,000 years in Nirabbuda;

X 20 = 166,334,440,000,000 years in Ababa;

X 20 = 3,326,688,800,000,000 years in Aṭaṭa;

X 20 = 66,533,776,000,000,000 years in Ahaha;

X 20 = 1,330,675,520,000,000,000 years in Water-Lilly;

X 20 = 532,270,208,000,000,000,000 years in Sogandhika;

X 20 = 10,645,404,160,000,000,000,000 years in Blue-Lotus;

X 20 = 212,908,083,200,000,000,000,000 years in White-Lotus;

X 20 = 4,258,161,664,000,000,000,000,000* years in Red-Lotus.

*That's four undecillion, two-hundred-and-fifty-eight decillion, one hundred-sixty-one nonillion, six-hundred-sixty-four octillion years.

■

**Nāḷikā** (f.) [Sanskrit nāḍikā andnālikā] a stalk, shaft; a tube, pipe or cylinder for holding anything; a small measure of capacity Vin II.116 (sūci-, cp. sūcighara, needle-case); D I.7 ( = bhesajja- DA I.89); A I.210; J I.123 (taṇḍula- a nāḷi full of rice); VI.366 (aḍḍha-n-matta); Nd2 229. Cp. pa-. -odana a nāḷi measure of boiled rice S I.82; DhA IV.17; -gabbha an (inner) room of tubular shape Vin II.152.[PED]

**Doṇa** [Sanskrit droṇa (nt.) conn. with *dere*o tree, wood, wooden, see dabbi and dāru and cp. Sanskrit druṇī pail] a wooden pail, vat, trough; usually as measure of capacity (4 āḷhaka generally) Pv IV.333 (mitāni sukhadukkhāni donehi piṭakehi). taṇḍula- a doṇa of rice DhA III.264; IV.15. At J II.367 doṇa is used elliptically for doṇamāpaka (see below).

-pāka of which a d. full is cooked, a doṇa measure of food S I.81; DhA II.8.

-māpaka (mahāmatta) (a higher official) supervising the measuring of the doṇa-revenue (of rice) J II.367, 378, 381; DhA IV.88;

-mita a d. measure full D I.54; M I.518.[PED]

**Āḷhaka** (m. and nt.) [Sanskrit āḍhaka, from *āḍha probably meaning "grain"] a certain measure of capacity, originally for grain; in older texts usually applied to a liquid measure (udaka-). Its size is given by Bdhgh. at SnA 476 as follows: "cattāro patthā āḷhakāni doṇaṃ etc." - udakāḷhaka S V.400; A II.55 = III.337; VvA 155.[PED]

*pattha* measure [¼ *āḷhaka* = 4 *patthas;* a bowl full]

^{[1]}How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement

^{[2]}Brown University, Department of Mathematics, History of Mathematics, See: Lilavati Definitions.

^{[3]}On the Mashaka we have something: (From: Early Monetary Systems of Lanka (Ceylon))Some rock inscriptions refer to a relationship between money and weights. The famous 'Vessagiri' inscription refers to an instance where King Dappula V(l0th Century A.D.) paid or agreed to pay by means of 'kalan' and 'aka' for the construction of a dagoba. The following table of weights as given in the `Abhidhanappadipika', a book written in the 12th Century A.D. may be considered as relevant.

4 Paddy seeds = 1 Gunja 2 Gunjas = 1Mashaka(Masa?) 2-1/2 Mashakas = 1 Aka 8 Aka = 1 Dharana 5 Dharanas = 1 Suvanna 5 Suvannas = 1 Nikha 2 Suvannas = 1 Pala 100 Palas = 1 Thula 20 Thulas = 1 Bhara

**References:**

How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement

**Miscellaneous, to be researched:**
catu-nahuta ninety-four J I.25; VI.486;

catu-paṇṇasa fiftyfour DhA I.4;

#### Additional Miscellaneous Information Holding Area:

Dvi [Sanskrit dvi, dva etc. - Bases: I. dvi = Sanskrit dvi in dvipad = Latin bipes (from d*ipes), Ags. twifete; dvidant = bidens. Reduced to di (see B I.4) as in Gr. δὶπους ( = dipad), Latin diennium and preference dis- (cp. Goth. twis asunder, Ogh. zwisk between). - II. du ( = dvi in reduced grade, cp. Latin du-plex, dubius etc.). - III. dvā (and dva) = Sanskrit dvāu, dvā, f. nt. dve (declined as dual, but the Pāli (plural) inflexion from base I. see B I.1); Gr. δύω, Latin duo; Oir. dāu, dā, f. dī; Goth. twai, f. twos; Ags. twā ( = E. two); Ohg. zwene, zwo zwei. Also in cpd. num. dva-dasha twelve = Gr. δ-ςώθεκα = Latin duodecim.] number two.

A. Meanings-I. Two as unit: 1. with objective foundation: (a) denoting a combination (pair, couple) or a repetition (twice). In this conn. frequent both objective and impersonal in mentioning natural pairs as well as psychologically contrasted notions. E. g. dvipad (biped), nāgassa dve dantā (elephants' tusks), cakkhūni (eyes); dvija (bird), duvija (tooth), dijivha (snake). See also dutiya and dvaya. - dve: kāmā, khiḍḍā, gatiyo (Sn 1001), dānāni (It 98), piyā, phalāni (Sn 896; It 39), mittā, sinehā etc. See Nd2 under dve, cp. A I.47 100; D III.212-214. - (b) denoting a separation (in two, twofold etc.): see dvidhā and compounds - 2. with symbolic, sentimental meaning: (a) only two (i. e. next to one or "next to nothing"), cp. the two mites of the widow (Mark XII. 42), two sons of Rachel (Gen. 30): dumāsika not more than 2 months (Vin II.107); dvemāsiko gabbho (Pv I.67); dvevācika; duvangula (see below). - (b) a few-more than one, some, a couple (often intermediate between 1 and 3, denoting more than once, or a comparatively long, rather long, but not like 3 a very long time): māsadvayaṃ a couple of months; dvisahassa dīpā 2000 islands ( = a large number); diyaḍḍhasata 150 = very long etc.; dvīhatīha (2 or 3 = a couple of days) q. v.; dvirattatiratta (id. of nights); dvīsu tīsu manussesu to some people (PvA 47); dvatikkhattuṃ soveral times; cp. dvikkhattuṃ (more than once), dutiyaṃ (for the 2nd time).

II. Two as unit in connection with its own and other decimals means a complex plus a pair, which amounts to the same as a large and a small unit, or so to speak "a year and a day." E. g. 12 (sometimes, but rarely = 10+2, see sep.); - 32: rests usually on 4 X 8, but as No. of the Mahāpurisa-lakkhaṇāni it denotes 30+2 = the great circle plus the decisive (invisible) pair; - 62: views of heresy: see diṭṭhi; also as a year of eternity = 60 kappas+2; - 92: as measure of eternity = 90+2 kappas = a year and a day.

III. Number twelve. 1. Based on natural phenomena it denotes the solar year (dvādasamāsako saṇvaccharo VvA 247). - 2. Connected with the solar cult it is used with human arrangements to raise them to the level of heavenly ones and to impart to them a superior significance. Thus: (a) as denoting a set (cp. 12 months 12 companions of the Sun) it is the No. of a respectful, holy, venerable group (cp. 12 sons of Jacob Gen. 35, 22; cakes as shewbread Lev. 25, 5; stones erected Josh. 4, 8; apostles Math. 10, 2; patriarchs Acts 7, 8; companions of Odysseus Hom. Od. 9, 195; Knights of Arthur etc.): of theras, accompd by 12 bhikkhus PvA 67, 141. 179 etc.; dvādasa koṭisatāni Sn 677; five groups of 12 musicians VvA 96 (cp. 5 X 12 cromlechs in the outer circle of Stonehenge). - (b) as measure of distance in space and time it implies vast extent, great importance, a climax, divine symmetry etc. 12 yojanas wide extends the radiance VvA 16; 12 y. as respectful distance PvA 137 (cp. 2000 cubits in same sense at Josh. 3, 4); 12 y. in extent (height, breadth and length) are the heavenly palaces of the Vimāna-petas or Yakkhas Vv 551; J VI.116; VvA 6, 217, 244, 291, 298 etc. In the same connection we freq. find the No. 16: solasa-yojanikaṃ kanaka-vimānaṃ Vv 671; VvA 188, 289 etc. - Of years: J III.80; VvA 157 (dvādasa-vassikā; in this sense also 16 instead of 12: so'asa-vassuddesika VvA 259 etc. See so'asa).

B. Bases and Forms-I. dvi; main base for numeral and nominal composition and derivation, in:

1. numeral dve (and duve) two: nom. acc. dve (Sn p. 107; It 98; J I.150; IV.137 etc.) and (in verse) duve (Sn 896, 1001); gen. dat. dvinnaṃ (It 39, 40, 98; J II.154); instr. dvīhi (J I.87: v. l. dīhi; 151; II.153); loc. dvīsu (J I.203; PvA 47) and duvesu (Vv 412).

2. as numeral base:

-sahassa 2000 (see A I. 2b) J I.57; VvA 261; PvA 74; also in dvittā and adv. dvikkhattuṃ twice and dvidhā in two parts. - (b) as nominal base: - (r)āvaṭṭa [Sanskrit dvih. cp. Latin bis] turning twice S I.32;

-ja "twice born," i. e. a bird J I.152 (gaṇā);

-jātin one who is born twice, i. e. a brāhmaṇa Th, 2, 430 (ThA 269 = Brahmājātin);

-tālamatta of the size of 2 palms DhA II.62;

-pad [Sanskrit dvipad, Latin bipes, Gr. δίπους etc.] a biped, man S I.6;

-pala twofold Vism 339;

-pādaka = dvipad Vin II.110;

-bandhu having two friends J VI.281;

-rattatiratta two or three nights Vin IV.16; also in dvīha two days (q. v.).

3. as diaeretic form duvi-:

-ja (cp. dija) "growing again" i. e. a tooth J V.156.

4. as contracted form di-: -(y)aḍḍha one and a half (lit. the second half, cp. Ger. anderthalb) Dh 235; J I.72 (diyaḍḍha-yojana-satika 150 y. long or high etc.), 202; IV.293 (-yāma); DhA I.395; DA I.17; Miln 243, 272; DhsA 12;

-guṇa twofold, double Vin I.289; Sn 714; J V.309; Miln 84; DhA II.6; VvA 63, 120;

-ja (cp. dvija, duvija) (a) "twice-born," a bird S I.224; Sn 1134 (d. vuccati pakkhī Nd2 296); J I.152, 203; II.205; IV.347; V.157; Pv II.124; Vv 358 (cp. VvA 178); Miln 295. - (b) a brahmin ThA, 70, 73;

-jivha "twotongued," i. e. a snake (cp. du-) J III.347;

-pad (-pada or -pa) a biped (cp. dvi-) A I.22; V.21; Sn 83 (dipa-duttama), 995 (id.) 998; Dh 273;

-pādaka = -pad Th 1, 453 = Sn 205.

5. as sec. cpd. form (with guṇa) dve- (and de-):

-caturanga twice fourfold - eightfold Th 1, 520 (-gāmin);

-patha a "double" path, a border path, the boundary between two villages Vv 5317 (-sīmantika-patha VvA 241);

-piccha having two tail-feathers J V.341 (cp. de-);

-pitika having two feathers J V.424;

-bhāva doubling kacc. 21;

-māsika two months old Pv I.67;

-vācika pronouncing (only) two words, viz. Buddha and Dhamma (cp. tevācika, saying the whole saraṇa-formula), Vin I.4; J I.81;

-sattaratta twice seven nights, a fortnight [cp. Sanskrit dvisapta] J VI.230. - See also der. from numer. adv. dvidhā, viz. dvejjha (and dejjha), dvedhā-, dve'haka.

6. as noun-derivation dvaya a dyad (q. v.).

II. du; reduced base in numeral and nominal compounds and dern:

-(v)addhato from both sides (a distorted form of dubhato q. v.) Vv 6419 ( = dubhato VvA 281); -(v)angika consisting of two parts Dhs 163; -(v)angula and dvangula two finger-breadths or depths, two inches long, implying a minimum measure (see above A I.2a) Vin II.107; IV.262; usually in compounds - kappa the 2 inch rule, i. e. a rule extending the allotted time for the morning meal to 2 inches of shadow after mid day Vin II.294 306;

-pannā wisdom of 2 finger-breadths, i. e. that of a woman S I.129 = Th 2, 60 (dvanguli-, at ThA 66 as -saññā);

-buddhika = -paññā VvA 96;

-jivha twotongued (cp. di-); a snake J IV.330; V.82, 425;

-paṭṭa "double cloth" (Hind. dupaṭṭā; Kanarese dupaṭa, duppaṭa; Tamil tuppaṭṭā a cloak consisting of two cloths joined together, see Kern, Toev. I.179); J I.119; IV.114, 379 (ratta-); DhA I.249 (suratta-); III.419 (-cīvarā);
-matta (about) 2 in measure Miln 82;

-māsika 2 months old or growing for 2 months (of hair) Vin II.107;

-vagga consisting of two Vin I.58;

-vassa 2 years old Vin I.59;

-vidha twofold, instr. duvidhena M III.45 sq.; etc. - Derivations from du- see sep. under duka (dyad), dutiya (the second), and the contamination forms dubha (to) and dubhaya (for ubha and ubhaya).

III. dvā (and reduced dva), base in numeral compounds only: dvatikkhattuṃ two or three times J I.506; DA I.133, 264; DhA IV.38; dvādasa twelve (on meaning of this and following numerals see above A II. and III.) J III.80; VI.116; DhA I.88; III.210; VvA 156, 247 etc.;

-yojanika J I.125; IV.499; dvāvīsati (22) VvA 139; dvattiṃsa (32) Kh II. (-ākāra the 32 constituents of the body); DhA II.88; VvA 39 etc.; dvācattālīsa (42) Nd2 15; Vism 82; dvāsaṭṭhi (Nd2 271III. and dvaṭṭhi (62) D I.54; S III.211; DA I.162); dvānavuti (92) PvA 19, 21. - Note. A singular case of dva as adv. = twice is in dva-haṃ Sn 1116.

Nāḷikā (f.) [Sanskrit nāḍikā andnālikā] a stalk, shaft; a tube, pipe or cylinder for holding anything; a small measure of capacity Vin II.116 (sūci-, cp. sūcighara, needle-case); D I.7 ( = bhesajja- DA I.89); A I.210; J I.123 (taṇḍula- a nā'i full of rice); VI.366 (aḍḍha-n-matta); Nd2 229. Cp. pa-. -odana a nā'i measure of boiled rice S I.82; DhA IV.17; -gabbha an (inner) room of tubular shape Vin II.152.

Nāvutika (adj.) [from navuti] 90 years old J III.395 (-ā itthi); SnA 172.

Pattha^{2} [cp. late Sanskrit prastha] a Prastha (certain measure of capacity) = 1/4 of an ā'haka; a cooking utensil containing one Prastha DhA II.154; SnA 476 (cattāro patthā ā'hakaṃ).

Paddha^{2} (adj.) [cp. Sanskrit prārdha] half (*) J III.95 (probably = paddha^{1}, but C. explinations as aḍḍha upaḍḍha).

**Childers, A Dictionary of the Pāḷi Language**

RATHAREṆU (m.), A very minute measure of weight, a mite (Ab. 194).

RATANAṂ, ... There is a measure of length called ratanaṃ, equivuleut to the hattha or cubit (two vidatthis}; it must be the Sanskrit (Ab. 196, 268; Alw, 1. 76). At Mah. 128 the reading is I think ratanattayassa ratanattaṃ, the precioussness of the Three Gems.

Ammaṇam. According to **Childers, A Dictionary of the Pāḷi Language** this would be about eight thousand acres.

Karīsa (nt.) a square measure of land, being that space on which a karīsa of seed can be sown (Tamil karīsa), see Rhys Davids, Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon, p. 18; J I.94, 212; IV.233, 276; VvA 64.

"*Nikkha.*" *Nikkho* is a variable weight, equal to 250 *phalas,* which we may call grains.

**Xuanzang** born Chen Hui or Chen Yi, was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang Dynasty.

— Wikipedia

Born: 602 AD, Henan, China

Died: February 5, 664 AD

Books: Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, Cheng Weishi Lun, Treatise on groups of elements

— p.p.

Time: *Khaṇo vā layo vā muhutto vā;* the Chinese traveller, Hiuen Tsiang (or Yuan Chwang), has the following note on these periods: The shortest portion of time is called a *kshaṇa;* 120 *kshaṇas* make a *takshaṇa;* 60 of these make a *lava* (sic); 30 of these make a *muhūrta*; 5 of these make a *kāla;* 6 of these make a day and night. Beal's *Records* 71. See *Childers, muhutto.*

Likkhā (f.) [*Sanskrit lik.sā egg of a louse, as measure equal to 8 trasareṇu (BR.). - Connected with Latin ricinus a kind of vermin (see Walde, Latin Wtb. s. v.)] a kind of measure VbhA 343 (36 rattareṇus equal to one likkhā, 7 likkhās equal to 1 ūkā); KhA 43 (-matta).

* Tigāvuta:* about six miles. Equal to three Magadhan village fields. [AN 5.100 n.5]. Childers: Three Leagues. PED:

*(nt.) [cp. Vedic*

**Gāvuta***gavyūti*pasture land, district] a linear measure, a quarter of a

*yojana*= 80

*usabhas,*a little less than two miles, a league

*J*I.57, 59; II.209;

*Vism.*118;

*DhA.*I.396.

From: Sacred Books of the East, Volume 7, The Institutes of Visnu, translated by Julius Jolly, 1880; #4: Weights and Measures, p. 23, § IV.

1. The (very small mote of) dust which may be discerned in a sun-beam passing through a lattice is called trasarenu (trembling dust).

2. Eight of these (trasarenus) are equal to a nit.

3. Three of the latter are equal to a black mustard-seed.

4. Three of these last are equal to a white mustard-seed.

5. Six of these are equal to a barley-corn.

6. Three of these equal a Krishnala.

[6. Krishnala (literally, 'seed, of the Guñgâ creeper') is another {footnote p. 24} name for Raktikâ or Ratî, the lowest denomination in general use. According to Prinsep (Useful Tables, p. 97) it equals 1.875 grains = 0.122 grammes of the metrical system. According to Thomas (see Colebrooke's Essays, ed. by Cowell, I, p. 529, note) it equals 1.75 grains.]

7. Five of these equal a Mâsha.

8. Twelve of these are equal to half an Aksha.

9. The weight of half an Aksha, with four Mâshas added to it, is called a Suvarna.

10. Four Suvarnas make a Nishka.

11. Two Krishnalas of equal weight are equal to one Mâshaka of silver.

12. Sixteen of these are equal to a Dharana (of silver).

13. A Karsha (or eighty Raktikâs) of copper is called Kârshâpana.

14. Two hundred and fifty (copper) Panas are declared to be the first (or lowest) amercement, five hundred are considered as the middlemost, and a thousand as the highest.

§

From AN 7.70 Hare, note 9

1 Kshaṇa = 0.0133-1/3rd seconds;

120 K = 1 Takshaṇa:

1 Takshaṇa = 1.6 seconds;

60 T = 1 Lava;

1 Lava = 96 seconds;

30 L = 1 Muhūrta;

1 M = 48 minutes;

5 Muhūrta = 1 Kala;

1 Kala = 4 hours;

6 K = 1 day and night (24 hours).

Childers: Muhutto = 48 minutes = 'a while'.

The below consists of unedited citations from PED:

Ratha-reṇu "chariot-dust," a very minute quantity (as a measure), a mite. Childers compares Sanskrit *trasareṇu* a mote of dust, atom. It is said to consist of 36 *tajjāri's,* and 36 *ratha-reṇu's* are equal to one *likkhā:* **Vibh-a** 343;

**:: Accharā ^{1}** 1. (literal)

*accharaṃ paharati*to snap the fingers — as measure: as much as one may hold with the finger-tips, a pinch

**Jā**V 385;

**Dhp-a**II 273

*(°gahaṇamattaṃ);*cf. ekacchara-matta

**Dhp-a**II 274.

**:: Aṭṭha ^{1}** [Vedic

*aṣṭau,*old dual, Indo-Germanic

*°octou,*pointing to a system of counting by tetrads (see also

*nava*); Avesta

*aśta,*Greek

*ὸκτώ,*Latin

*octo,*Gothic

*ahtau*= Old High German

*ahto,*German

*acht,*English eight] cardinal number, eight, declention like plural of adjective in-a.

A. The number in objective significance, based on natural phenomena: see compounds

*°aṇgula, °nakha, °pada, °pāda.*

**{14}**

B. The number in subjective significance.

(1) as mark of respectability and honour, based on the idea of the double square:

(a.) in meaning "a couple"

*aṭṭha matakukkuṭe aṭṭha jīva-k. gahetvā*(with 8 dead and 8 live cocks; eight instead of 2 because gift intended for a king)

**Dhp-a**I 213.

*saṇghassa asalākabhattaṃ dāpesi*

**Vv-a**75 =

**Dhp-a**III 104.

a.

*piṇḍapātāni adadaṃ*

**Vv**34

^{8}.

**A**

*vattha-yugāni*(a double pair as offering)

**Pv-a**232,

*atherā*

**Pv-a**32. — The highest respectability is expressed by 8 X 8 = 64, and in this sense is frequently applied to gifts, where the giver gives a higher potency of a pair (2

^{3}). Thus a "royal" gift goes under the name of

*sabb'aṭṭhakaṃ dānaṃ*(8 elephants, 8 horses, 8 slaves etc.) where each of 8 constituents is presented in 8 exemplars

**Dhp-a**II 45, 46, 71. In the same sense

*aṭṭh- aṭṭha kahāpaṇā*(as gift)

**Dhp-a**II 41;

*aṭṭh'aṭṭhakā dibbā kaññā*

**Vv**67

^{3}(=

*catusaṭṭhi*

**Vv-a**290);

*aṭṭhaṭṭhaka*

**Dip**VI 56. Quite conspicuous is the meaning of a "couple" in the phrase

*satt'aṭṭha*7 or 8 = a couple, e.g.

*satt'aṭṭha divasā,*a week or so

**Jā**I 86;

**Jā**II 101;

**Vv-a**264 (

*saṃvaccharā*years). —

(b.) used as definite measure of quantity and distance, where it also implies the respectability of the gift, 8 being the lowest unit of items that may be given decently. Thus frequent as

*aṭṭha kahāpaṇā*

**Jā**I 483; IV 138;

**Vv-a**76;

**Miln**291.

In distances: A

*karīsā*

**Dhp-a**II 80; IV 217;

**Pv-a**258; A

*usabhā*

**Jā**IV 142. (commentary) in combination with 100 and 1000 it assumes the meaning of "a great many", hundreds, thousands. Thus

*aṭṭha sataṃ*800,

**Snp**227. As denotation of wealth (cf. below under 18 and 80):

*a-sata-sahassa-vibhava*

**Dhp-a**IV 7. But

*aṭṭhasata*at

**S**IV 232 means 108 (3 X 36), probably also at

**Jā**V 377. —

*aṭṭha sahassaṃ*8000

**Jā**V 39 (nāgā). The same meaning applies to 80 as well as to its use as unit in combination with any other decimal (18, 28, 38 etc.):

*(α)*80

*(asīti)*a great many. Here belong the 80 smaller signs of a

*Mahāpurisa*(see

*anuvyañjana*), besides the 32 main signs (see

*dvattiṃsa*)

**Vv-a**213 etc. Frequently as measure of riches, e.g. 80 waggon loads

**Pv**II 7

^{5};

*asīti-koṭivibhava*

**Dhp-a**III 129;

**Pv-a**196;

*asīti hatth'ubbedho rāsi*(of gold)

**Vv-a**66, etc. See further references under

*asīti*.

(β) The following are examples of 8 with other decimals: 18

*aṭṭhādasa*(only

**M**III 239:

*manopavicārā*) and

*aṭṭhārasa*(this the later form)

**Vv-a**213 (

*avenika-Buddha-dhammā: Bhagavant's*qualities); as measure

**Jā**VI 432 (18 hands high, of a fence); of a great mass or multitude:

*aṭṭhārasa koṭiyo*or

*°koṭi,*18

*koṭis*

**Jā**I 92 (of gold), 227; IV 378 (

*°dhana,*riches);

**Dhp-a**II 43 (of people);

**Miln**20 (the same);

*aṭṭhārasa-akkhohini-saṇkhāya*

**Jā**VI 395.

**A**

*vatthū*

**Vin**II 204. — 28

*aṭṭhavīsati nakkhattāni*

**Nidd**I 382;

*paṭisallāṇaguṇā*

**Miln**140. — 38

*aṭṭhatiṃsā*

**Miln**359

*(rājaparisā).*— 48

*aṭṭhacattārīsaṃ vassāni*

**Snp**289. — 68

*aṭṭhasaṭṭhi*

**Thag**1217

*°sitā savitakkā,*where the same passage at

**S**I 187 however reads

*atha saṭṭhi-tasitā vitakkā*);

**Jā**I 64

*(turiya-satasahassāni)*— 98

*aṭṭhanavuti*(cf. 98 the age of Eli, 1 Sam. 4:15)

**Snp**311 (

*rogā,*a higher set than the original 3 diseases, cf.

*navuti*).

(2) as number of symmetry or of an intrinsic, harmonious, symmetrical set,

*aṭṭha*denotes, like

*dasa (q.v.)*a comprehensive unity. See especially the compounds for this application.

*°aṃsa*and

*°aṇgika.*Closely related to nos. 2 and 4

*aṭṭha*is in the geometrical progression of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, where each subsequent number shows a higher symmetry or involves a greater importance (cf. 8 X 8 under 1 a) —

**Jā**V 409 (

*a. maṇgalena sa mannāgata,*of Indra's chariot: with the 8 lucky signs);

**Vv-a**193 (

*aṭṭhahi akkhaṇehi vajjitaṃ manussabhāvaṃ:*the 8 unlucky signs). In progression:

**Jā**IV 3 (

*aṭṭha petiyo,*following after 4, then followed by 16, 32);

**Pv-a**75 (

*a. kapparukkhā*at each point of the compass 32 in all). Further: 8 expressions of bad language

**Dhp-a**IV 3.

*-aṃsa* with eight edges, octagonal, octahedral, implying perfect or divine symmetry (see above B. 2), of a diamond **D** I 76 = **M** III 121 *(maṇi veḷuriyo a.);* **Miln** 282 *(maṇiratanaṃ subhaṃ jātimantaṃ a.)* of the pillars of a heavenly palace *(Vimāna)* **Jā** VI 127 = 173 = **Vv** 78^{2} *(a. sukatā thambhā);* **Vv** 84^{15} (*āyataṃsa = āyatā hutvā aṭṭha-soḷasa-dvattiṃsādi-aṃsavanto* **Vv-a** 339). Of a ball of string **Pv** **{16}** IV 3^{28} (*gulaparimaṇḍala,* cf. **Pv-a** 254). Of geometrical figures in general **Dhs** 617;

*-aṇga* (of) eight parts, eightfold, consisting of eight ingredients or constituents (see also next and above B 2 on significance of *aṭṭha* in this connection), in compounds with *°upeta* characterised by the eight parts (*i.e.* the observance of the first eight of the commandments or vows, see *sīla* and cf. *aṇga* 2), of *uposatha,* the fast-day **A** I 215; **Snp** 402 (Pj II 378 explains *ekam pi divasaṃ apariccajanto aṭṭhaṇgupetaṃ uposathaṃ upavassa);* cf. *aṭṭhaṇguposathin* (adjective) **Mhv** 36, 84. In BHS always in phrase *aṣṭāṇga-sa manvāgata upavāsa,* e.g. **Divy** 398; **Avadānaśataka** I 338, 399; also *vrata* **Avadānaśataka** I 170. In the same sense *aṭṭhaṇgupeta pāṭihāriyapakkha* (cf *sub voce* *pāṭihāriya*) **Snp** 402, where **Vv** 15^{6} has *°susamāgata* (explained at **Vv-a** 72 by *pānāṭipātā veramaṇī-ādīhi aṭṭhah'aṇgehi sa mannāgata*). *°sa mannāgat*a endowed with the eight qualities (see *aṇga* 3), of *rājā,* a king **D** I 137*f.,* of *brahmassara,* the supreme or most excellent voice (of the Buddha) **D** II 211; **Jā** I 95; **Vv-a** 217. Also in BHS *aṣṭāṇgopeta svara* of the voice of the Buddha, e.g. **Avadānaśataka** I 149;

*-aṇgika* having eight constituents, being made up of eight (intrinsic) parts, embracing eight items (see above B 2); of the *uposatha* (as in preceding *aṭṭhaṇg'uposatha*) **Snp** 401; of the "Eightfold Noble Path" (*ariyo a. maggo*). (Also in BHS as *aṣṭāṇgika mārga,* e.g. **Lal** 540, cf. *aṣṭāṇgamārgadeśika* of the Buddha, **Divy** 124, 265); **D** I 156, 157, 165; **M** I 118; **It** 18; **Snp** 1130 *(magga uttama);* **Dhp** 191, 273; **Thig** 158, 171; **Khp** IV; **Vin** I 10; **Nidd** II 485; **Sv** I 313; **Dhp-a** III 402;

*-aṇgula* eight finger-breadths thick, eight inches thick, *i.e.* very thick, of double thickness **Jā** II 91 (in contrast to *caturaṇgula*); **Mhv** 29, 11 (with *sattaṇgula*);

*-aḍḍha* (v.l. *Aḍḍhaṭṭha*) half of eight, *i.e.* four *(°pāda)* **Jā** VI 354, see also *aḍḍha*^{1};

*-nakha* having eight nails or claws **Jā** VI 354 *(ekekasmiṃ pāde dvinnaṃ dvinnaṃ khurānaṃ vasena* commentary);

*-nava* eight or nine **Dhp-a** III 179;

*-pada* 1. A chequered board for gambling or playing drafts etc., literally having eight squares, *i.e.* on each side (Sv I 85: *ekekāya pantiyā aṭṭha aṭṭha padāni assā ti*), cf. *dasapada* **D** I 6. 2. eightfold, folded or plaited in eight, cross-plaited (of hair) **Thag** 772 *(aṭṭhāpada-katā kesā);* **Jā** II 5 (°ṭṭhapana = cross-plaiting);

*-padaka* a small square (⅛), *i.e.* a patch **Vin** I 297; II 150;

*-pāda* an octopod, a kind of (fabulous) spider (or deer?) **Jā** V 377; VI 538; cf. Sanskrit *aṣṭapāda* = *śarabha* a fabulous eight-legged animal;

*-maṇgala* having eight auspicious signs **Jā** V 409 (explained here to mean a horse with white hair on the face, tail, mane, and breast, and above each of the four hoofs);

*-vaṇka* with eight facets, literally eight-crooked, *i.e.* polished on eight sides, of a jewel **Jā** VI 388;

*-vidha* eightfold **Dhs** 219.

**:: Aṭṭhaka** (adjective) [Sanskrit *aṣṭaka*

1. eightfold **Vin** I 196 = **Ud** 59 *(°vaggikāni);* **Vv-a** 75 = **Dhp-a** III 104 (°bhatta).

2. *°ā* (feminine) the eight day of the lunar month (cf. *aṭṭhamī*), in phrase *rattīsu antar'aṭṭhakāsu* in the nights between the eighths, *i.e.* the 8th day before and after the full moon **Vin** I 31, 288 (see **Vinaya Texts** I 130^{n}); **M** I 79; **A** I 136; **Miln** 396; **Jā** I 390.

3. *°ṃ* (neuter) an octad **Vv** 67^{2} (*aṭṭh°* eight octads = 64); **Vv-a** 289, 290. On *sabbaṭṭhaka* see *aṭṭha* B 1 **A**.

**:: Akkhohiṇī** (feminine) *[= akkhobhiṇī]* one of the highest numerals (1 followed by 42 ciphers, Childers) **Jā** V 319; VI 395.

**:: Koṭi** (c) of number: the "end" of the scale, *i.e.* extremely high, as numeral representing approximately the figure a hundred thousand (cf. Kirfel, *Kosmographie der Inder.* page 336). **It** follows on *sata-sahassāni* **Nidd** II §664, and is often increased by *sata°* or *sahassa°,* especially in records of wealth *(dhana)* **Snp** 677; **Jā** I 227, 230, 345 = **Dhp-a** I 367 *(asīti°-vibhavo);* **Jā** I 478; **Pv-a** 3, 96; cf. also *koṭisatā Arahanto* **Miln** 6, 18. — *kahāpaṇa-koṭi-santhārena* "for the price (literally by the spreading out) of 10 million *kahāpaṇas*" **Vin** II 159 = **Jā** I 94 (reference to the buying of Jetavana by Anāthapiṇḍika).

Usabha^{2} (neuter) [= usabha^{1}, in special application (?)] — a certain measure of length, consisting of 20 yaṭṭhis (see yaṭṭhi) or 140 cubits Ja I 64 (eight), 70 (the same); II 91; IV 17 (one), 142 (eight); Dhp-a I 108 (°mattaɱ).

Ūkā (feminine) [Sanskrit yūkā, probably dialectical] a louse Ja I 453; II 324; III 393; V 298; Miln 11; Vism 445; As 307, 319; Dhp-a III 342; Vv-a 86. Ūkā is also used as linear measure (cf. Sanskrit yūkālikāṣaɱ) VbhA 343 (where 7 likkhā are said to equal 1 ūkā).

Kaɱsa [cf. Sanskrit kaɱsa; of uncertain etymology, perhaps of Babylonian origin, cf. hirañña

1. bronze Miln 2; magnified by late commentators occasionally into silver or gold. Thus Ja VI 504 (silver) and Ja I 338; IV 107; VI 509 (gold), considered more suitable to a fairy king.

2. a bronze gong Dhp 134 (Dhp-a III 58).

3. a bronze dish Ja I 336; āpānīya° a bronze drinking cup, goblet M. I 316.

4. a "bronze," i.e. a bronze coin worth 4 kahāpaṇas Vin IV 255, 256. See RhD., *Coins and Measures* §§12, 22. — "Golden bronze" in a fairy tale at Vv 5^{4} is explained by Dhammapāla Vv-a 36 as "bells." — It is doubtful whether brass was known in the Ganges valley when the earlier books were composed; but kaɱsa may have meant metal as opposed to earthenware.

Gaṇaka [from gaṇ, to comprise in the sense of to count up] a counter, one skilled in counting familiar with arithmetic; an accountant, overseer or calculator. Enumerated as an occupation together with muddika at D I 51 (explained Sv I 157 by acchidda-pāṭhaka); also with muddika and saṇkhāyika S IV 376; as an office at the king's court (together with amaccā as gaṇaka-mahāmatta = a ministerial treasurer) D III 64, and in same context D III 148, 153, 169, 171, 177; as overseer Vin III 43; as accountant Miln 79, 293; Vv-a 66.

Gaṇanā (feminine) counting, i.e.

1. counting up, arithmetic, number Ja I 29; Vism 278*f.;* Miln 79; Vv-a 194.

2. counting, census, statistics; Tikap 94; Ja I 35; Miln 4 (senā °ɱ kāretvā); Dhp-a I 11, 34.

3. the art of counting, arithmetic as a study and a profession, forbidden to the bhikkhus Vin I 77 = IV 129 (°ɱ sikkhati to study ar.); D I 11 (explained Sv I 95 by acchiddaka-gaṇanā); M I 85; III 1 (°ājīva); Sv I 157. — gaṇana-patha (time-)reckoning, period of time Miln 20, 116.

Gaṇikā^{2} (feminine) = gaṇanā, arithmetic Miln 3.

Gaṇeti [denominative to gaṇa Dhātup 574: saṇkhyāne]

1. to count, to reckon, to do sums Dhp 19; Ja VI 334; Miln 79, 293; past participle gaṇita Snp 677; passive gaṇīyati Saddh 434; infinitive (vedic) gaṇetuye Bv. IV 28; causative gaṇāpeti M III 1.

2. to regard, to take notice of, to consider, to care for Ja I 300; IV 267.

Gaddūhana (neuter) [derivation unknown; Sanskrit dadrūghna] a small measure of space and time M III 127; S II 264 (°mattam pi, Spk II 224 "pulling just once the cow's teat"); A IV 395; Miln 110. See Trenckner "Notes" 59, 60; Rh.D. *J.R.A.S.* 1903, 375.

Gadrabha [Vedic gardabha., Latin burdo, a mule; see Walde Latin Wtb., s.v.] an ass, donkey Vin V 129; M I 334; A I 229; Ja II 109, 110; V 453; Sv I 163. — feminine gadrabhī Ja II 340. -bhāraka a donkey load Ja II 109; Dhp-a I 123;

Gāvuta (neuter) [cf. Vedic gavyūti pasture land, district] a linear measure, a quarter of a yojana = 80 usabhas, a little less than two miles, a league Ja I 57, 59; II 209; Vism 118; Dhp-a I 396.

Gāvutika (adjective) reaching a gāvuta in extent Sv I 284.

Cāṭi (feminine) [cf. Hindī cāṭā] 1. a jar, vessel, pot Ja I 199; 302 (pānīya°); ... Vv-a 76 (sālibhatta° holding a meal of rice). 2. a measure of capacity Ja II 404; IV 343.

Cuddasa [contracted from catuddasa, Sanskrit caturdaśa, cf. catur] fourteen Ja I 71; VI 8; Miln 12; Dhp-a III 120, 186.

Cullāsīti [= caturāsīti] eighty-four Ja VI 226 (mahākappe as duration of saɱsāra); Pv-a 254 (the same). Also as cūḷāsīti q.v.

Cūḷa [Sanskrit cūḍa and cūlikā]

1. swelling, protuberance; root, knot, crest. aḍḍha-cūḷa a measure (see aḍḍha).

Cha and Chaḷ (cha in composition effects gemination of consonant, e.g. chabbīsati = cha + vīsati, chabbaṇṇa = cha + vaṇṇa, chaḷ only before vowels in compounds: chaḷ-aṇga, chaḷ-abhiññā) [Vedic ṣaṣ and ṣaṭ (ṣaḍ = chaḷ), Greek ἥξ, Latin sex, Goth, saihs] the number six. Cases: nominative cha, genitive channaɱ, instrumental chahi (and chambhī (?) Ja IV 310, which should be chambhi and probably chabbhi = ṣaḍbhiḥ; see also chambhī), locative chasu (and chassu), ordinal number chaṭṭha the sixth. Cf. also saṭṭhi (60) soḷasa (16). Six is applied whenever a "major set" is concerned (see 2), as in the following: 6 munis are distinguished at Nidd II §514 (in pairs of 3: see muni); 6 bhikkhus as a "clique" (see chabaggiya, cf. the Vestal virgins in Rome, 6 in number); 6 are the sciences of the Veda (see chaḷaṇga); there are 6 Buddha-dhammā (Nidd II §466); 6 viññāṇakāyā (see upadhi); 6 senses and sense-organs (see āyatana) — cha dānasālā Ja I 282; oraɱ chahi māsehi kālakiriyā bhavissati (I shall die in 6 months, i.e. not just yet, but very soon, after the "next" moon) Pv IV 3^{35}. Six bodily faults Ja I 394 (viz. too long, too short, too thin, too fat, too black, too white). Six thousand Gandhabbas Ja II 334. -aɱsa six-cornered Dhs 617. -aṇga the set of six Vedāngas, disciplines of Vedic science, viz. 1. kappa, 2. vyākaraṇā, 3. nirutti, 4. sikkhā, 5. chando (viciti), 6. jotisattha (thus enumerated at Vv-a 265; at Pv-a 97 in sequence 4, 1, 3, 2, 6, 5): D III 269; Vv 63^{16}; Pv II 6^{13}; Miln 178, 236. With reference to the upekkhās, one is called the "one of six parts" (chaḷ-ang'-upekkhā) Vism 160. -abhiññā the 6 branches of higher knowledge Vin II 161; Pp 14. See abhiññā. -āsīti eighty-six [i.e. twice that many in all directions: psychologically 6 × 80 = 6(4 × 2)^{10}], of people: an immense number, millions Pv II 13^{7}: of petas Pv-a 212; of sufferings in Niraya Pv III 10^{6}. -āhaɱ for six days Ja III 471. -kaṇṇa heard by six ears, i.e. public (as opposed to catukaṇṇa) Ja VI 392. -tiɱsa(ti) thirty-six A II 3; It 15; Dhp 339; Dhp-a III 211, 224 (°yojana-parimaṇḍala); IV 48. -danta having six tusks, in °daha name of one of the Great Lakes of the Himavant (satta-mahā-sarā), literally lake of the elephant with 6 tuskṣ cf. cha-visāṇa Vism 416. -dvārika entering through six doors (i.e. the senses) Dhp-a IV 221 (taṇhā). -dhātura (= dhātuya) consisting of six elements M III 239. -pañca (chappañca) six or five Miln 292. -phassāyatana having six seats of contact (i.e. the outer senses) M III 239; Thag 755; Pv-a 52; cf. Snp 169. -baṇṇa (= vaṇṇa) consisting of six colours (of raɱsi, rays) Ja V 40; Dhp-a I 249; II 41; IV 99. -baggiya (= vaggiya) forming a group of six, a set of (sinful) Bhikkhus taken as exemplification of trespassing the rules of the Vinaya (cf. Oldenberg, *Buddha* 7384). Their names are Assaji, Punabhasu, Paṇḍuka, Lohitaka, Mettiya, Bhummajaka Vin II 1, 77, and *passim*; Ja II 387; Dhp-a III 330. -bassāni (= vassāni) six years Ja I 85; Dhp-a III 195. -bidha (= vidha) sixfold Vism 184. -bisāṇa (= visāṇa) having six (i.e. a "major set") of tusks (of pre-eminent elephants) Ja V 42 (Nāgarājā), 48 (kuñjara), cf. chaddanta. — bīsati (= vīsati) twentysix Dhp-a IV 233 (devalokā).

Chattiɱsakkhattuɱ (adverb) thirty-six times It 15.

Chaddhā [Sanskrit ṣaṭśaḥ] sixfold Miln 2.

Cha-p-pañca [cha + pañca] six or five Miln 292.

Tajjārī a linear measure, equal to 36 aṇus and of which 36 form one rathareṇu VbhA 343; cf. Abh 194 (tajjarī).

Tatiya [Sanskrit tr̥tīya, Avesta ōritya, Greek τρίτος, Latin tertius, Gothic pridja, English third] ordinal number the third. — Snp 97 (parābhavo); 436 (khuppipāsā as the 3rd division in the army of Māra), 1001; Ja II 353; Dhp 309; Pv-a 69 (tatiyāya jātiya: in her third birth). Tatiyaɱ (neuter adverb) for the 3rd time D II 155; Snp 88, 95, 450; tatiyavāraɱ the same Dhp-a I 183; Vv-a 47 (= at last); yāva tatiyaɱ the same Vin II 188; Ja I 279; Dhp-a II 75; Pv-a 272 (in casting the lot: the third time decides); yāva tatiyakaɱ the same D I 95.

Taya (neuter) [Sanskrit trayaɱ triad, cf. trayī; see also tāvatiɱsa] a triad, in ratana-ttaya the triad of gems (the Buddha, the Norm, and the Community) see ratana; e.g. Pv-a 1, 49, 141. — piṭaka-ttaya the triad of the Piṭakas Pj II 328.

Tayo [feminine tisso, neuter tīṇi; Vedic traya, trī and trīṇi; Greek τρεῖς, τρία; Latin tres, tria; Gothic preis, prija; Old High German drī; English three, etc.] cardinal number three. nominative/accusative masculine tayo (Sn 311), and tayas (tayas su dhammā Snp 231, see Pj I 188) feminine tisso (D I 143; A V 210; It 99) neuter tīṇi (A I 138, etc.), also used as absolute form (eka dve tīṇi) Khp III (cf. Pj I 79 and tīṇi lakkhaṇā for lakkhaṇāni Snp 1019); genitive masculine neuter tiṇṇaɱ (Ja III 52, 111, etc.), feminine tissannaɱ; instrumental tīhi (ṭhānehi Dhp 224, vijjāhi It 101); locative tīsu (janesu Ja I 307; vidhāsu Snp 842). — In composition and derivation: ti in numerical compounds: tidasa (30) q.v.; tisata (300) Snp 566 (brāhmaṇā tisatā); 573 (bhikkhavo tisatā); tisahassa (3000) Pv II 9^{51} (janā °ā); in numerical derivations: tiɱsa (30), tika (triad), tikkhattuɱ (thrice); tidhā (threefold). — In nominal compounds: see ti° te° (a) in numerical compounds: terasa (Pj II 489; As 333; Vv-a 72: terasī the 13th day) and teḷasa (S I 192 Snp pages 102, 103) (13) [Sanskrit trayodaśa, Latin tredecim]; tevīsa (23) Vv-a 5; tettiɱsa (33) Ja I 273; Dhp-a I 267; tesaṭṭhi (63) Pv-a 111 (Jambudīpe tesaṭṭhiyā nagarasahassesu). (b) in nominal compounds: see te°.

Tāvatiɱsa [tayo + tiɱsa. Cf. Vedic trayastriɱśat] The number 33, only in compounds denoting the 33 gods, whose chief is Sakka, while the numeral 33 is always tettiɱsa. This number occurs already in the Vedas with reference to the gods and is also found in Zend-Avesta (see Haug, *Language and Writings,* pages 275, 276). The early Buddhists, though they took over the number 33, rejected the superstitious beliefs in the magical influence and mystic meaning of that and other simple numbers.

Ti° [Vedic tris, Avesta ϸriś, Greek τρίς, Latin ter (from ters > °tris, cf. testis > °tristo, trecenti > °tricenti), Icl. prisvar, Old High German driror] base of numeral three in combination; consisting of three, threefold; in numerical compounds also = three (3 times). -kaṭuka threefold spices (kaṭuka-bhaṇḍa) Vv-a 186; -gāvuta a distance of a league (i.e. about 2 miles), Dhp-a I 108 (less than yojana, more than usabha), 131, 396; II 43, 61, 64, 69; III 202, 269; Vv-a 227; Buddhaghosa on S I 52 (sarīra); -catu three or four Dhp-a I 173; -pallattha "turning in 3 ways," i.e. skilled in all occupations (Kern, *Toev.*: zeer listig) Ja I 163 (of miga; Commentary explained as lying on 3 sides of its lair); -yojana a distance of 3 leagues, i.e. 20 miles, or figurative a long distance; Vism 392 (tiyojanika setacchatta); Dhp-a II 41 (°magga); Vv-a 75 (°mattake vihāraɱ agamāsi); Pv-a 216 (sā ca pokkharaṇī Vesaliyā °mattake hoti); °satika 300 cubits long Ja II 3; -vagga consisting of 3 divisions or books Sv I 2 (Dīghāgamo vaggato t. hoti); -(v)aṇgika having 3 aṇgas (of jhāna) Dhs 161; -vassika for the 3 seasons (°gandha-sālibhattaɱ bhuñjantā) Dhp-a II 9; Ja I 66 (the same); -vidha 3 fold, of sacrifice (yañña) D I 128, 134, 143; of aggi (fire) Ja I 4 and Miln 97; Vism 147 (°kalyāṇatā).

Tiɱsaɱ (tiɱsa°) [Vedic triɱśat, cf. Latin trīginta, Old-Irish tricha] the number 30 D I 81°°ɱsaɱ pi jātiyo); S II 217 (t.-mattā bhikkhū); dative instrumental tiɱsāya A V 305 (dhammehi samannāgato); Snp page 87 (pi dadāmi) Pv-a 281 (vassasahassehi): t.-yojana-maggaɱ (āgato) Dhp-a II 76, 79; III 172; Pv-a 154; °yojanika kantāra Dhp-a II 193 (cf. 192); Ja V 46 (magga); Dhp-a I 26 (vimāna); t.-vassasahassāni āyuppamāṇaɱ (of Konāgamana Buddha) D II 3; t.-mattāni vassāni Miln 15; t.-vassasahassāni Pv-a 281 = Dhp-a II 10. So of an immense crowd: tiɱsa bhikkhu-sahassāni D II 6; tiɱsa-mattā sūkarā Ja II 417; °sahassa-bhikkhū Dhp-a I 24.

Tika (adjective/noun) [Vedic trika] consisting of 3, a triad S II 218 (t.-bhojana); Dhp-a IV 89 (-nipāta, the book of the triads, a division of the Jātaka), 108 (t.-catukka-jhāna the 3 and the 4 jhānas); Miln 12 (tika-duka-paṭimaṇḍitā dhammasaṇganī); Vism 13*f.;* As 39 (-duka triad and pair).

Tikkhattuɱ (adverb) [Sanskrit trikr̥tvaḥ] three times (cf. tayo II C 2), especially in phrase vanditvā t. padakkhiṇaɱ katvā "having performed the reverent parting salutation 3 times" Vv-a 173, 219; t. sāvesi he announced it 3 times Ja II 352; Dhp-a II 4; t. paggaṇhāpesi offered 3 times Pv-a 74. See also Ja IV 267; V 382; VI 71; Dhp-a II 5, 42, 65, 338; IV 122 and *passim*.

Tidasa (numeral) [Vedic tridaśa] thirty (cf. tiɱsa), especially the thirty deities (plural) or belonging to them (adjective). It is the round figure for 33, and is used as equivalent to tāvatiɱsa. Nandanaɱ rammaɱ tidasānaɱ mahāvanaɱ Pv III 1^{19} = Vv 18^{13}; devā tidasā sahindakā Vv 30^{1}; Saddh 420.

Tidhā (adverb) [ti + dhā] in three ways or parts, threefold Miln 282 (-pabhinna nāgarājā).

Tisata (numeral) [ti + sata] three hundred Ja VI 427 (°mattā nāvā). See also under tayo.

Tīhaɱ (adverb) [tri + aha] a period of three days, for 3 days; usually as compound dvīhatīhaɱ 2 or 3 days (see dvīha) Ja II 103, etc.

Tumba (masculine neuter) [possibly = Sanskrit tumra swollen (of shape), same root as tumula] 1. a kind of water vessel (udaka° Sv I 202), made of copper, wood or a fruit (like a calabash, cocoanut, etc., cf. kaṭāha, English skull) Vin I 205 (loha°, kaṭṭha°, phala°); II 114 (°kaṭāha of gourd); Ja III 430 (udaka°); IV 114; Dhp-a II 193 (udaka°). 2. a measure of capacity, especially used for grain Ja I 233 (mahā°), 467 (= 4 nāḷi page 468); Miln 102.

Tulā (feminine) [see tuleti. Vedic tulā; Greek τάλαϛ, τάλαντον (balance, weighing and weight = talentum), τόλμα; Latin tollo (lift); Gothic pulan (to carry patiently, suffer); German geduld, etc.] 2. a weighing pole or stick, scales, balance A I 88; Ja I 112; Dhp 268; Miln 356 (t. nikkhepanāya). 3. figurative measure ("weighing," cf. tulanā), standard, rate S II 236 (+ pamāṇa). -kūṭa false weighing, false weight (often combined with kaɱsakūṭa and mānakūṭa, false coining and false measuring) D I 5 = A II 209; A I 79; Dhp-a I 239; -daṇḍa the beam or lever of a balance Ja I 113.

Te° [Sanskrit trai°] secondary base of numeral three (from ti) in combinations: having a relation to a triad of, three; in numerical compounds also = three (see under tayo).

Tettiɱsa (numeral) [tayo + tiɱsa] thirty-three Ja I 273; Dhp-a I 267*f.* See also under tayo and tāvatiɱsa.

Terovassika (adjective) [tiro + vassa + ika] lasting over or beyond a year (or season), a year old, dried up or decayed S IV 161 (thero vassiko in text) = 185 (of wood) M I 58 (of bones).

Dasa^{1} [Sanskrit daśa = Avesta dasa, Greek δέκα, Latin decem, Gothic taīhun, Old-Irish deich, Anglo-Saxon tīen, Old High German zehan from °dekṃ, a compound of dv + kṃ = "two hands"] the number ten; genitive dasannaɱ (Dhp 137); instrumental dasahi (Khp III) and dasabhi (Vin I 38). In compounds (-°) also as ḷasa (soḷasa 16) and rasa (terasa 13; pannar° 15; aṭṭhār° 18). Metaphorical meaning. (A) In the first place 10 is used for measurement (more recent and comprehensive than its base 5); it is the no. of a set or comprehensive unity, not in a vague (like 3 or 5), but in a definite sense. (B) There inheres in it the idea of a fixed measure, with which that of an authoritative, solemn and auspicious importance is coupled. This applies to the unit as well as its decimal combinations (100, 1000). Ethically it denotes a circle, to fulfil all of which constitutes a high achievement or power. Application (A) (based on natural phenomena): dasa disā (10 points of the compass see disā): Snp 719, 1122; Pv-a 71, etc.; d. loka-dhātuyo Pv II 9^{61} (= 10 × 1000; Pv-a 138); d. māse (10 months as time of gestation) kucchiyā pariharitvā Ja I 52; Pv-a 43, 82. (B) (figurative) 1. a set: (a) personal (cf. 10 people would have saved Sodom: *Genesis* 18:32; the 10 virgins (2 × 5) *Matthew* 25:1): divase divase dasa dasa putte vijāyitvā (giving birth to 10 sons day by day) Pv I 6. (b) impersonal: 10 commandments (dasa sikkhāpadāni Vin I 83), cf. *Exodus* 34:28; 10 attributes of perfection of a Tathāgata or an arahant: Tathāgata-balāni; with reference to the Buddha see Vin I 38 and cf. *Vinaya Texts* I 141*f.;* dasah'aṇgehi samannāgato arahā ti vuccati (in memorizing of No. 10) Khp III dasahi asaddhammehi sam° kāko Ja III 127; — 10 heavenly attributes (ṭhānāni): āyu etc. D III 146; S V 275; Pv-a 9, opposite 10 afflictions as punishment (cf. 10 plagues *Exodus* 7-11): dasannaɱ aññataraɱ ṭhānaɱ nigacchati Dhp 137 (= das. dukkha-kāraṇānaɱ, enumerated verses 138, 139) "afflicted with one of the 10 plagues"; cf. Dhp-a III 70. — 10 good gifts to the bhikkhu (see deyyadhamma) Nidd II §523; Pv-a 7; 10 rules for the king: Pv-a 161; — dividing the Empire into 10 parts: Pv-a 111; etc. vassa-dasa a decade: das'ev'imā vassa-dasā Ja IV 396 (enumerated under vassa); dasa-rāja-dhammā Ja II 367; dasakkosa-vatthūni Dhp-a I 212.- See on similar sets A V 1-310; D III 266-271. 2. a larger unity, a crowd, a vast number (of time and space): (a) personal, often meaning "all" (cf. 10 sons of Haman were slain *Esther* 9:10; 10 lepers cleansed at one time *Luke* 17:12): dasa bhātaro Ja I 307; dasa bhātikā Pv-a 111; dasa-kaññā-sahassa-parivārā Pv-a 210 etc. (b) impersonal (cf. 10 × 10 = many times, *S.B.E.* 43, 3): dasa-yojanika consisting of a good many miles Dhp-a III 291. dasavassasahassāni dibbāni vatthāni paridahanto ("for ever and aye") Pv-a 76, etc. -kkhattuɱ [Sanskrit °kr̥tvaḥ] ten times Dhp-a I 388; -pada (neuter) a draught-board (with 10 squares on each side); a pre-Buddhistic game, played with men and dice, on such a board D I 6; Vin II 10 = III 180 (°e kīḷanti); Sv I 85. -bala, [Sanskrit daśabala] endowed with 10 (supernormal) powers, especially of the Buddhas, especially of Kassapa Buddha Vin I 38 = Ja I 84; S II 27; Vism 193, 391; Dhp-a I 14; Vv-a 148, 206, etc. -vidha tenfold Dhp-a I 398. -sata ten times a hundred Vin I 38 (°parivāro); Snp 179 (yakkhā); As 198 (°nayano). -sahassa ten times a thousand (frequent); °ī in dasa-sahassi-loka-dhātu Vin I 12 (see lokadhātu).

Dasaka (neuter) 1. a decad, decade, a decennial Ja IV 397; As 316. khiḍḍā° the decad of play Vism 619; cakkhu° etc. sense-decads Vism. 553; *Cpd* 164, 250; kāya°, Vism. 588.

Price of a slave: Ja I 200, 223; III 343 (bought for 700 kahāpaṇas), 347; Pp 56; Pv-a 112.

Di° secondary base of numeral 2, contracted from dvi: see under dvi B I 4.

Dīghatta (neuter) [Sanskrit dīrghatvam] length A I 54.

**Dutiya** (ordinal number) [Sanskrit dvitīya, with reduction of dvi to du, as in compounds mentioned under dvi B II For the meaning "companion" cf. ordinal number for two in Latin secundus < sequor, i.e. he who follows, and Greek δεύτερος > δεύομαι he who stays behind, also Sanskrit davīyas farther] (a) (numeral) the second, the following Ja II 102, 110; dutiyaɱ for the second time (cf. tatiyaɱ in series 1, 2, 3) Vin II 188; D II 155.

Dubha (numeral-adjective) [See dubhaya and cf. dvi B II] both; only in ablative dubhato from both sides Thag 1134; Paṭis I 69; II 35, 181; Vv 46^{21}; Vv-a 281 (for Vv 64^{19} duvaddhato).

Dubhaya (numeral-adjective) [a contaminated form of du(ve) and ubhaya; see dvi B II ] both (see ubhaya) Snp 517, 526, 1007, 1125; Ja III 442; VI 110.

Doṇa [Sanskrit droṇa (neuter) connected with *dereṷo tree, wood, wooden, see dabbi and dāru and cf. Sanskrit druṇī pail] a wooden pail, vat, trough; usually as measure of capacity (4 āḷhaka generally) Pv IV 3^{33} (mitāni sukhadukkhāni doṇehi piṭakehi). taṇḍula° a doṇa of rice Dhp-a III 264; IV 15. At Ja II 367 doṇa is used elliptically for doṇamāpaka (see below). -pāka of which a d. full is cooked, a doṇa measure of food S I 81; Dhp-a II 8. -māpaka (mahāmatta) (a higher official) supervising the measuring of the doṇa-revenue (of rice) Ja II 367, 378, 381; Dhp-a IV 88; -mita a d. measure full D I 54; M I 518.

Dva° in numeral composition, meaning two etc., see under dvi B III

Dvaya (adjective/noun) [Vedic dvaya; cf. dvi B I. 6] (adjective) (a) two-fold Snp 886 (saccaɱ musā ti dvayadhammaɱ); Dhp 384; Pv IV 1^{29} (dvayaɱ vipākaɱ = duvidhaɱ Pv-a 228). — advaya single A V 46. — neuter a duality, a pair, couple S II 17 (°ɱ nissito loko); Ja III 395 (gātha°); Pv-a 19 (māsa°); Dhp-a II 93 (pada° two lines, "couplet").

Dvi [Sanskrit dvi, dva etc. — Bases: I. dvi [= Sanskrit dvi in dvipad = Latin bipes (from dṷipēs), Anglo-Saxon twiféte; dvidant = bidens. Reduced to di (see B I 4) as in Greek δὶπους (= dipad), Latin diennium and prefix dis- (cf. Gothic twis asunder, Ogh. zwisk between).] II. du (= dvi in reduced grade, cf. Latin du-plex, dubius etc.). III. dvā (and dva) = Sanskrit dvāu, dvā, feminine neuter dve (declined as dual, but the Pāli (plural) inflexion from base I see B I 1); Greek δύω, Latin duo; Old-Irish dāu, dā, feminine dī; Gothic twai, feminine twos; Anglo-Saxon twā (= English two); Old High German zwene, zwo zwei. Also in compound numeral dva-daśa twelve = Greek δ(ϝ)ώδεκα = Latin duodecim.] number two. A. Meanings I. Two as unit: 1. with objective foundation: (a) denoting a combination (pair, couple) or a repetition (twice). In this connection frequent both objective and impersonal in mentioning natural pairs as well as psychologically contrasted notions. E.g. dvipad (biped), nāgassa dve dantā (elephants' tusks), cakkhūni (eyes); dvija (bird), duvija (tooth), dijivha (snake). See also dutiya and dvaya. — dve: kāmā, khiḍḍā, gatiyo (Sn 1001), dānāni (It 98), piyā, phalāni (Sn 896; It 39), mittā, sinehā etc. See Nidd II under dve, cf. A I 47-100; D III 212-214. (b) denoting a separation (in two, twofold etc.): see dvidhā and compounds 2. with symbolic, sentimental meaning: (a) only two (i.e. next to one or "next to nothing"), cf. the two mites of the widow (Mark 12:42), two sons of Rachel (Genesis 30): dumāsika not more than 2 months (Vin II 107); dvemāsiko gabbho (Pv I 6^{7}); dvevācika; duvaṇgula (see below). (b) a few-more than one, some, a couple (often intermediate between 1 and 3, denoting more than once, or a comparatively long, rather long, but not like 3 a very long time): māsadvayaɱ a couple of months; dvisahassa dīpā 2000 islands (= a large number); diyaḍḍhasata 150 = very long etc.; dvīhatīha (2 or 3 = a couple of days) q.v.; dvirattatiratta (the same of nights); dvīsu tīsu manussesu to some people (Pv-a 47); dvatikkhattuɱ several times; cf. dvikkhattuɱ (more than once), dutiyaɱ (for the 2nd time). II. Two as unit in connection with its own and other decimals means a complex plus a pair, which amounts to the same as a large and a small unit, or so to speak "a year and a day." E.g. 12 (sometimes, but rarely = 10 + 2, see seperate); — 32: rests usually on 4 X 8, but as No. of the Mahāpurisa-lakkhaṇāni it denotes 30 + 2 = the great circle plus the decisive (invisible) pair; — 62: views of heresy: see diṭṭhi; also as a year of eternity = 60 kappas + 2; — 92: as measure of eternity = 90 + 2 kappas = a year and a day. III Number twelve. 1. Based on natural phenomena it denotes the solar year (dvādasamāsako saɱvaccharo Vv-a 247). 2. Connected with the solar cult it is used with human arrangements to raise them to the level of heavenly ones and to impart to them a superior significance. Thus: (a) as denoting a set (cf. 12 months 12 companions of the Sun) it is the No. of a respectful, holy, venerable group (cf. 12 sons of Jacob Genesis 35:22; cakes as shewbread Lev. 25:5; stones erected Josh. 4:8; apostles Math. 10:2; patriarchs Acts 7:8; companions of Odysseus Hom. Od. 9, 195; Knights of Arthur etc.): of theras, accompared by 12 bhikkhus Pv-a 67, 141. 179 etc.; dvādasa koṭisatāni Snp 677; five groups of 12 musicians Vv-a 96 (cf. 5 X 12 cromlechs in the outer circle of Stonehenge). (b) as measure of distance in space and time it implies vast extent, great importance, a climax, divine symmetry etc. 12 yojanas wide extends the radiance Vv-a 16; 12 y. as respectful distance Pv-a 137 (cf. 2000 cubits in same sense at Josh. 3:4); 12 y. in extent (height, breadth and length) are the heavenly palaces of the Vimāna-petas or yakkhas Vv 55^{1}; Ja VI 116; Vv-a 6, 217, 244, 291, 298 etc. In the same connection we frequently find the No. 16: soḷasa-yojanikaɱ kanaka-vimānaɱ Vv 67^{1}; Vv-a 188, 289 etc. — Of years: Ja III 80; Vv-a 157 (dvādasa-vassikā; in this sense also 16 instead of 12: soḷasa-vassuddesika Vv-a 259 etc. See soḷasa). B. Bases and Forms I. dvi; main base for numeral and nominal composition and derivation, in: 1. numeral dve (and duve) two: nominative accusative dve (Sn page 107; It 98; Ja I 150; IV 137 etc.) and (in verse) duve (Sn 896, 1001); genitive dative dvinnaɱ (It 39, 40, 98; Ja II 154); instrumental dvīhi (Ja I 87: v.l. dīhi; 151; II 153); locative dvīsu (Ja I 203; Pv-a 47) and duvesu (Vv 41^{2}). 2. as numeral base: -sahassa 2000 (see A I 2b) Ja I 57; Vv-a 261; Pv-a 74; also in dvittā and adverb dvikkhattuɱ twice and dvidhā in two parts. (b) as nominal base: -(r)āvaṭṭa [Sanskrit dviḥ cf. Latin bis] turning twice S I 32; -ja "twice born," i.e. a bird Ja I 152 (gaṇā); -jātin one who is born twice, i.e. a brāhmaṇa Thig 430 (Thig-a 269 = brahmajātin); -tālamatta of the size of 2 palms Dhp-a II 62; -pad [Sanskrit dvipad, Latin bipes, Greek δίπους etc.] a biped, man S I 6; -pala twofold Vism 339; -pādaka = dvipad Vin II 110; -bandhu having two friends Ja VI 281; -rattatiratta two or three nights Vin IV 16; also in dvīha two days (q.v.). 3. as diæretic form duvi-: -ja (cf. dija) "growing again" i.e. a tooth Ja V 156. 4. as contracted form di°: -(y)aḍḍha one and a half (literally the second half, cf. German anderthalb) Dhp 235; Ja I 72 (diyaḍḍha-yojana-satika 150 y. long or high etc.), 202; IV 293 (°yāma); Dhp-a I 395; Sv I 17; Miln 243, 272; As 12; -guṇa twofold, double Vin I 289; Snp 714; Ja V 309; Miln 84; Dhp-a II 6; Vv-a 63, 120; -ja (cf. dvija, duvija) (a) "twice-born," a bird S I 224; Snp 1134 (d. vuccati pakkhī Nidd II §296); Ja I 152, 203; II 205; IV 347; V 157; Pv II 12^{4}; Vv 35^{8} (cf. Vv-a 178); Miln 295. (b) a brahmin Thig-a, 70, 73; -jivha "two-tongued," i.e. a snake (cf. du°) Ja III 347; -pad (°pada or -pa) a biped (cf. dvi°) A I 22; V 21; Snp 83 (dipa-duttama), 995 (the same) 998; Dhp 273; -pādaka = °pad Thag 453 = Snp 205. 5. as sec. compound form (with guṇa) dve° (and de°): -caturaṇga twice fourfold — eightfold Thag 520 (°gāmin); -patha a "double" path, a border path, the boundary between two villages Vv 53^{17} (°sīmantika-patha Vv-a 241); -piccha having two tail-feathers Ja V 341 (cf. de°); -pitika having two feathers Ja V 424; -bhāva doubling Kaccāyana 21; -māsika two months old Pv I 6^{7}; -vācika pronouncing (only) two words, viz. Buddha and Dhamma (cf. tevācika, saying the whole saraṇa-formula), Vin I 4; Ja I 81; -sattaratta twice seven nights, a fortnight [cf. Sanskrit dvisapta] Ja VI 230. — See also derivation from numerical adverb dvidhā, viz. dvejjha (and dejjha), dvedhā°, dveḷhaka. 6. as noun-derivation dvaya a dyad (q.v.). II. du; reduced base in numeral and nominal compounds and derivatives: -(v)addhato from both sides (a distorted form of dubhato q.v.) Vv 64^{19} (= dubhato Vv-a 281); -(v)aṇgika consisting of two parts Dhs 163; -(v)aṇgula and dvaṇgula two finger-breadths or depths, two inches long, implying a minimum measure (see above A I 2a) Vin II 107; IV 262; usually in compounds — kappa the 2 inch rule, i.e. a rule extending the allotted time for the morning meal to 2 inches of shadow after mid day Vin II 294 306; -pannā wisdom of 2 finger-breadths, i.e. that of a woman S I 129 = Thig 60 (dvaṇguli°, at Thig-a 66 as °saññā); -buddhika = °paññā Vv-a 96; -jivha two-tongued (cf. di°); a snake Ja IV 330; V 82, 425; -paṭṭa "double cloth" (Hindu dupaṭṭā; Kanarese dupaṭa, duppaṭa; Tamil tuppaṭṭā a cloak consisting of two cloths joined together, see Kern, *Toev.* I 179); Ja I 119; IV 114, 379 (ratta°); Dhp-a I 249 (suratta°); III 419 (°cīvarā); -matta (about) 2 in measure Miln 82; -māsika 2 months old or growing for 2 months (of hair) Vin II 107; -vagga consisting of two Vin I 58; -vassa 2 years old Vin I 59; -vidha twofold, instrumental duvidhena M III 45*f.;* etc. — Derivations from du° see seperate under duka (dyad), dutiya (the second), and the contamination forms dubha (to) and dubhaya (for ubha and ubhaya). III. dvā (and reduced dva), base in numeral combination only: dvatikkhattuɱ two or three times Ja I 506; Sv I 133, 264; Dhp-a IV 38; dvādasa twelve (on meaning of this and following numerals see above A II and III) Ja III 80; VI 116; Dhp-a I 88; III 210; Vv-a 156, 247 etc.; °yojanika Ja I 125; IV 499; dvāvīsati (22) Vv-a 139; dvattiɱsa (32) Khp II (°ākāra the 32 constituents of the body); Dhp-a II 88; Vv-a 39 etc.; dvācattāḷīsa (42) Nidd II §15; Vism 82; dvāsaṭṭhi (Nidd II §271 III and dvaṭṭhi (62) D I 54; S III 211; Sv I 162); dvānavuti (92) Pv-a 19, 21. — Note: A singular case of dva as adverb = twice is in dvahaɱ Snp 1116. [BD]: II. -pannā: this elsewhere explained not as two-finger widths but the need for a woman to test the doneness of rice by pressing a few grains between two fingers; a saying current today in Italy, so I hear.

Nava^{1} (numeral) [Vedic navan, Indo-Germanic *neṷn̥, cf. Latin novem (°noven), Greek ἐννέα, Gothic niun, Old-Irish nōin, English nine. Connection with nava^{2} likely because in counting by tetrads (octo = 8 is a dual!) a new series begins with No. 9] number nine. genitive-dative navannaɱ (Sn page 87); instrumental-ablative navahi (Vv-a 76), locative navasu. Meaning and Application: The primitive Aryan importance of the "mystic" nine is not found in Buddhism and can only be traced in Pāli in folkloristic undercurrents (as fairy tales) and stereotype traditions in which 9 appears as a number implying a higher trinity = 3^{2}. 1. navabhūmaka pāsāda (a palace 9 stories high more frequent satta°, 7) Ja I 58; nava-hiraññakoṭīhi (with 9 koṭis of gold) Vv-a 188; nava yojana Dhp-a II 65. 2. navaṇgabuddhasāsana "the 9 fold teaching of Buddha," i.e. the 9 divisions of the Buddhist scriptures according to their form or style, viz. suttaɱ geyyaɱ veyyākaraṇaɱ gāthā udānaɱ itivuttakaɱ jātakaɱ abbhutadhammaɱ vedallaɱ M I 133; A II 103, 178; III 86*f.,* 177*f.;* Pp 43; Miln 344; Dīp IV 15; Pv-a 2. Cf. chaḷaṇga. — nava sattāvāsā "9 abodes of beings" Khp IV (in exemplifying No. 9), viz. (see D III 263 = Pj I 86, 87 cf. also A IV 39*f.*) (1) manussā, devā, vinipātikā; (2) Brahmakāyikā devā; (3) Ābhassarā; (4) Subhakiṇhā; (5) Asaññasattā; (6) Ākāsanañcayatana-upagā; (7) Viññāṇanañcayatana°; (8) Ākiñcaññāyatana°; (9) N'evasaññasaññayatana°. — nava sotā (Sn 197) or nava dvārā (Vv-a 76; v.l. mukhā) 9 openings of the body, viz. (Pj II 248) 2 eyes, ears, nostrils, mouth, anus and urethra (cf. *S.B.E.* 39, 180; 40, 259*f.*). — nava vitakkā 9 thoughts Nidd II §269 (q.v.). 3. a trace of the week of 9 days is to be found in the expression "navuti-vassasatasahass-āyukā" giving the age of a divinity as 9 million years ... divine week) Vv-a 345. — cf. navuti.

Navama (ordinal number) [Sanskrit navama = Old-Irish nomad; cf. Latin nonus; Greek ἔνατος, Gothic niunda with different superlative suffixes] the ninth Snp 109; feminine °ī Vv-a 72.

Navuti (numeral) [Vedic navati] number ninety Vv-a 345 and in combination eka° 91 D II 2 (i.e. 92 minus 1; in expression eka-navuto kappo, v.l. eka-navuti kappe); dvā° 92 (see dvi A II and B III); Pv-a 19, 21; aṭṭhā° 98; Snp 311 (diseases sprung from originally 3).

Navutiya (adjective) worth ninety Ja V 485. Cf. nāvutika.

Nahuta (neuter) [Sanskrit niyuta (masculine plural) of unknown etymology is it the same as navuti? The corresponding v > y > h is frequent, as to meaning cf. nava 3] a vast number, a myriad Snp 677; Ja I 25, 83; Pv IV 1^{7}; Dhp-a I 88; Pv-a 22, 265.

Nāḷikā (feminine) [Sanskrit nāḍikā and nālikā] a stalk, shaft; a tube, pipe or cylinder for holding anything; a small measure of capacity Vin II 116 (sūci°, cf. sūcighara, needle-case); D I 7 (= bhesajja- Sv I 89); A I 210; Ja I 123 (taṇḍula° a nāḷi full of rice); VI 366 (aḍḍha-n-matta); Nidd II §229. Cf. pa°. -odana a nāḷi measure of boiled rice S I 82; Dhp-a IV 17; -gabbha an (inner) room of tubular shape Vin II 152.

Nāḷī (feminine) and (in compounds) nāḷi [Sanskrit nāḍī, see nala] a hollow stalk, tube, pipe; also a measure of capacity Vin I 249; A III 49; Ja I 98 (suvaṇṇa°), 124 (taṇḍula°), 419; III 220 (kaṇḍa° a quiver); IV 67; Dhp-a II 193 (tela°), 257. Cf. pa°. -matta as much as a tube holds A II 199; Pv-a 283; Dhp-a II 70; Ja I 419 (of aja-laṇḍikā).

Nikkha (masculine and neuter) [Vedic niṣka; cf. Old-Irish nasc (ring), Old High German nusca (bracelet)] 2. (already Vedic) a golden coin or a weight of gold (cf. a "pound sterling"), equal to 15 suvaṇṇas (Vv-a 104 = suvaṇṇassa pañcadasa-dharaṇaɱ nikkhan ti vadanti) S II 234 (suvaṇṇa° and siṇgi°); Ja I 84 (the same); A IV 120 (suvaṇṇa°); Vv 20^{8} = 43^{8} (v.l. nekkha) Ja VI 180; Miln 284. suvaṇṇanikkha-sataɱ (100 gold pieces) Ja I 376; IV 97; V 58; °sahassaɱ (1,000) Ja V 67; Dhp-a I 393. — See also nekkha.

Nirabbuda^{1} (masculine neuter) [cf. BHS nirarbuda and abbuda 3] a vast number.

Nivaha [from ni + vah] multitude, quantity, heap Dāṭh IV 53; V 14, 24, 62.

Nekkha [Vedic niṣka; cf. nikkha] a golden ornament, a certain coin of gold S I 65; A I 181; II 8, 29; Dhp 230 (= Dhp-a III 329 jambonada nikkha); Vism 48; v.l. at Vv 20^{8}, 43^{8}.

Nemi (feminine) [Vedic nemi, perhaps to namati] the circumference of a wheel, circumference, rim, edge (cf. nema) A I 112; Vv 64^{5}; Miln 238, 285; Vism 198.

Hand stencil from Cosquer Cave
(c.25,000

BCE) Gravettian culture.
National Museum of

Archeology, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France.

Pañca (adjective-numeral) [Vedic pañca, Indo-Germanic °penqṷe; cf. Greek πέντε, Latin quīnque, Gothic fimf, Lithuanian penki, Old-Irish coic] number 5. — Cases: genitive dative pañcannaɱ, instrumental ablative pañcahi, locative pañcasu; often used in compositional form pañca° (cf. Vedic pañcāra with 5 spokes I 164^{13}; Greek πεμπώβολος, Latin quinqu-ennis etc.). - 1. Characteristics of No. 5 in its use, with ref, to literal and figurative application. "Five" is the number of "comprehensive and yet simple" unity or a set; it is applied in all cases of a natural and handy comprehension of several items into a group, after the 5 fingers of the hand, which latter lies at the bottom of all primitive expressions of No. 5 (see also below pañcaṇgulika. The word for 5 itself in its original form is identical with the word for hand *préq. A. No. 5, applied (a) with reference to time: catupañcāhaɱ 4 or 5 days Ja II 114 (cf. quinque diebus Horace Sat I 316); maraṇaɱ tuyhaɱ oraɱ māsehi pañcahi after 5 months Vv 63^{10}, p. māse vasitvā Sv I 319 (cf. qu. menses Horace Sat. II 3289). (b) of space: °yojanaṭṭhāna Ja III 504; °yojan-ubbedho gajavaro Vv-a 33; °bhūmako pāsādo Ja I 58 (cf. the house of Death as 5 stories high in Grimm, Mārchen No. 42 ed. Reclam). (c) of a group, set, company, etc. (cf. 5 peoples R̥V III 37^{9}; VI 11^{4}; VIII 9^{2} etc.; gods X 55^{3}; priests II 34^{14}; III 7^{7}; leaders of the Greek ships Hom. Iliad 16, 171; ambassadors Genesis 472; quinque viri Horace Sat. II 555; Epist. II 124): p. janā Ja V 230; p. amaccā Ja V 231; p. hatthino Dhp-a I 164; pañca nāriyo agamiɱsu Vv 32^{2}; p. puttāni khādāmi Pv I 6^{3}. — Note: No. 5 in this application is not so frequent in Pāli as in older literature (Vedas e.g.); instead of the simple 5 we find more frequent the higher decimals 50 and 500. See also below §§3, 4. B. No. 15 in two forms: pañcadasa (feminine °ī the 15th day of the month Vv 15^{6} = A I 144; Snp 402) Vv-a 67 (°kahāpaṇa-sahassāni dāpesi), and paṇṇarasa (also as feminine ī of the 15th or full-moon day Pv III 3^{1}; Dhp-a I 198; III 92; IV 202; Vv-a 314; Pj II 78) Snp 153 (pannaraso uposatho); Vv 64^{2} (paṇṇarase va cando; explained as paṇṇarasiyaɱ Vv-a 276); Dhp-a I 388 (of age, 15 or 16 years); Sv I 17 (°bhedo khuddaka-nikāyo); Pj II 357 (pannarasahi bhikkhu-satehi = 1500, instead of the usual 500); Pv-a 154 (°yojana). The application is much the same as 5 and 50 (see below), although more rare, e.g. as measure of space: °yojana Dhp-a I 17 (next in sequence to paṇṇāsa-yojana); Ja I 315; Pv-a 154 (cf. 15 furlongs from Jerusalem to Bethany John 11:18; 15 cubits above the mountains rose the flood Genative 7:20). C. No. 25 in two forms: pañcavīsati (the usual) e.g. As 185*f.;* Miln 289 (citta-dubbalī-karaṇā dhammā); paṇṇa-vīsati, e.g. Ja IV 352 (nāriyo); Thig 67, and paṇṇuvīsaɱ (only at Ja III 138). Similarly to 15 and 25 the number 45 (pañca-cattāḷīsa) is favoured in giving distances with °yojana, e.g. at Ja I 147, 348; Dhp-a I 367.-Application: of 25: (1) time: years Ja III 138; Dhp-a I 4; (2) space: miles high and wide Dhp-a II 64 (ahipeto); Vv-a 236 (yojanāni pharitvā pabhā). 2. Remarks on the use of 50 and 500 (5000). Both 50 and 500 are found in stereotyped and always recurring combinations (not in Buddhist literature alone, but all over the Ancient World), and applied to any situation indiscriminately. They have thus lost their original numerical significance and their value equals an expression like our "thousands," cf. the use of Latin mille and 600, also similarly many other high numerals in Pāli literature, as mentioned under respective units (4, 6, 8 e.g. in 14, 16, 18, etc.). Psychologically 500 is to be explained as "a great hand," i.e. the 5 fingers magnified to the 2nd decade, and is equivalent to an expression like "a lot" (originally "only one," cf. casting the lot, then the one as a mass or collection), or like heaps, tons, a great many, etc. — Thus 50 (and 500) as the numbers of "comm-union" are especially frequent in recording a company of men, a host of servants, animals in a herd, etc., wherever the single constituents form a larger (mostly impressive, important) whole, as an army, the king's retinue, etc. — A. No. 50 (paññāsa; the by-form paṇṇāsa only at Dhp-a III 207), in following applications: (a) of time: does not occur, but see below under 55. (b) of space (cf. 50 cubits the breadth of Noah's ark Genesis 6:15; the height of the gallows (Esther 5:14; 7:9) Ja I 359 (yojanāni); Dhp-a III 207 (°hattho ubbedhena rukkho); Vism 417 (paripuṇṇa °yojana suriyamaṇḍala); Dhp-a I 17 (°yojana). (c) of a company or group (cf. 50 horses R̥V II 185; V 185; wives VIII 1936; men at the oars Homer Iliad 2. 719; 16. 170, servants Homer Odyssey 7, 103, 22, 421) Ja III 220 (corā); V 161 (pallaṇkā), 421 (dijakaññāyo); Snp page 87; Pj II 57 (bhikkhū). Note: 55 (pañcapaññāsa) is used instead of 50 in time expressions (years), e.g. at Dhp-a I 125; II 57; Pv-a 99, 142; also in groups: Dhp-a I 99 (janā). B. No. 500 (pañcasata°, pañcasatā, pañcasatāni). (a) of time: years (as peta or petī) Vv 84^{34}; Pv II 1^{5}; Pv-a 152 (with additional 50). (b) of space: miles high Pv IV 3^{28}; Ja I 204 (°yojana-satikā); Vism 72 (°dhanu-satika, 500 bows in distance). C. of groups of men, servants, or a herd, etc. (cf. 500 horses R̥V X 93^{14}; witnesses of the rising of Christ 1 Cor. 15-6; men armed Vergil Æneid 10. 204; men as representatives Homer Odyssey 3. 7; 500 knights or warriors very frequently in *Nibelungenlied,* where it is only meant to denote a "goodly company, 500 or more") arahants Pj I 98; bhikkhus very frequent, e.g. D I 1; Vin II 199; Ja I 116, 227; Dhp-a II 109, 153; III 262, 295; IV 184, 186; sāvakas Ja I 95; upāsakas Ja II 95; Pv-a 151; paccekabuddhas Dhp-a IV 201; Pv-a 76; vighāsadā Ja II 95; Dhp-a II 154; sons Pv-a 75; thieves Dhp-a II 204; Pv-a 54; relatives Pv-a 179; women-servants (parivārikā itthiyo) Pv II 12^{6}; Vv-a 69, 78, 187; Pv-a 152; oxen A IV 41; monkeys Ja III 355; horses Vin III 6. — Money etc. as present, reward or fine representing a "round-sum" (cf. Nibelungen 314: horses with gold, 317: mark; dollars as reward Grimm No. 7; drachms as pay Horace Sat. II 743) kahāpaṇas Snp 980, 982; Pv-a 273; blows with stick as fine Vin I 247. — Various: a caravan usually consists of 500 loaded wagons, e.g. Ja I 101; Dhp-a II 79; Pv-a 100, 112; chariots Vv-a 78; ploughs Snp page 13. Cf. S I 148 (vyagghī-nisā); Vin II 285 (ūna-pañcasatāni); Ja II 93 (accharā); V 75 (vāṇijā); Dhp-a I 89 (suvaṇṇasivikā), 352 (rāja-satāni); IV 182 (jāti°) Pj I 176 (paritta-dīpā). Also BHS pañcopasthāyikā-śatāni Divy 529; pañca-mātrāṇi strī-śatāni Divy 533. Note: When Gotama said that his "religion" would last 500 years he meant that it would last a very long time, practically forever. The later change of 500 to 5,000 is immaterial to the meaning of the expression, it only indicates a later period (cf. 5,000 in *Nibelungeniled* for 500, also 5,000 men in ambush Joshua 8:12; converted by Peter Acts 4:4; fed by Christ with 5 loaves Matthew 14:21). Still more impressive than 500 is the expression 5 koṭis (5 times 100,000 or 10 million), which belongs to a comparatively later period, e.g. at Dhp-a I 62 (ariya-sāvaka-koṭiyo), 256 (°mattā-ariyasāvakā); IV 190 (p. koti-mattā ariya-sāvakā). 3. Typical sets of 5 in the Pāli Canon. °aggaɱ first fruits of 5 (kinds), viz. khett°, rās°, koṭṭh°, kumbhi°, bhojan° i.e. of the standing crop, the threshing floor, the granary, the pottery, the larder Pj II 270. °aṇgā 5 gentlemanly qualities (of king or brahmin): sujāta, ajjhāyaka, abhirūpa, sīlavā, paṇḍita (see aṇga; on another combination with aṇga see below). The phrase pañcaṇga-samannāgata and °vippahīna (S I 99; A V 16) refers to the 5 nīvaraṇāni: see explained at Vism 146; °aṇgikaturiya 5 kinds of music: ātata, vitata, ātata-vitata, ghana, susira; °abhiññā 5 psychic powers (see *Cpd.* 209); °ānantarika-kammāni 5 acts that have immediate retribution (Miln 25), either 5 of the 6 abhiṭhānas (q.v.) or (usually) murder, theft, impurity, lying, intemperance (the 5 sīlas) cf. *BMPE* 245, note 2; °indriyāni 5 faculties, viz. saddhā, viriya, sati, samādhi, paññā (see indriya B. 15-19). °vidhaɱ (rāja°) kakudhabhaṇḍaɱ, *insignia regis* viz. vāḷavījanī, uṇhīsa, khagga, chatta, pādukā; °kalyāṇāni, beauty-marks: kesa°, maɱsa°, aṭṭhi°, chavi°, vaya°; °kāmaguṇā pleasures of the 5 senses (= taggocarāni pañcāyatanāni gahitāni honti Pj II 211); °gorasā 5 products of the cow: khīra, dadhi, takka, navanīta, sappi; °cakkhūni, sorts of vision (of a Buddha): maɱsa° dibba° paññā° buddha° samanta°; °taṇhā cravings, specified in 4 sets of 5 each: see Nidd II §271 V.; °nikāyā 5 collections (of Suttantas) in the Buddhist Canon, viz. Dīgha° Majjhima° Saɱyutta°, Aṇguttara° Khuddaka°, e.g. Vin II 287. °nīvaraṇāni or obstacles: kāmacchanda, abhijjhā-vyāpāda, thīnamiddha, uddhacca-kukkucca, vicikicchā. °patiṭṭhitaɱ fivefold prostration or veneration, viz. with forehead, waist, elbows, knees, feet (Childers) in phrase °ena vandati (sometimes °ɱ vandati, e.g. Pj II 78, 267) Ja V 502; Pj II 267, 271, 293, 328, 436; Vv-a 6; Dhp-a I 197; IV 178, etc. °bandhana either 5 ways of binding or pinioning or 5 fold bondage Ja IV 3 (as "ure pañcaṇgika-bandhanaɱ" cf. kaṇṭhe pañcamehi bandhanehi bandhitvā S IV 201); Nidd II §304 III B.2 (rājā bandhāpeti andhu-bandhanena vā rajju°, saṇkhalika°, latā°, parikkhepa°), with which cf. Śikṣāsamucc. 165: rājñā pañcapāśakena bandhanena baddhaḥ. — There is a different kind of bandhana which has nothing to do with binding, but which is the 5 fold ordeal (obligation: pañca-vidhabandhana-kāraṇaɱ) in Niraya, and consists of the piercing of a red hot iron stake through both hands, both feet and the chest; it is a sort of crucifixion. We may conjecture that this "bandhana" is a corruption of "vaddhana" (of vyadh, or viddhana?), and that the expression originally was pañca-viddhana-kāraṇa (instead of pañca-vidha-bandhana-k°). See passages under bandhana and cf. M III 182; A I 141; Kv 597; Pj II 479. °balāni 5 forces: saddhā° viriya° sati° samādhi° paññā° D II 120; M II 12; S III 96; A III 12 (see also bala); °bhojanāni 5 kinds of food: odāna, kummāsa, sattu, maccha, maɱsa Vin IV 176; °macchariyāni 5 kinds of selfishness: āvāsa° kula° lābha° vaṇṇa° Dhamma°; °rajāni defilements: rūpa°, sadda° etc. (of the 5 senses) Nidd I 505; Pj II 574; °vaṇṇā 5 colours (see reference for colours under pīta and others), viz. nīla, pītaka, lohitaka, kaṇha, odāta (of B.'s eye) Nidd II §235; others with reference to paduma-puṇḍarīka Vv-a 41; to paduma Dhp-a III 443; to kusumāni Sv I 140; Dhp-a IV 203, °vaṇṇa in another meaning (fivefold) in connection with pīti (q.v.); °saɱyojanāni fetters (q.v.). °saṇgā impurities, viz. rāga, dosa, moha, māna, diṭṭhi (cf. taṇhā) Dhp-a IV 109; °sīla the 5 moral precepts, as sub-division of the 10 (see dasasīla and Nidd II under sīla on page 277); 4. Other (not detailed) passages with 5: Snp 660 (abbudāni), 677 (nahutāni koṭiyo pañca); Thig 503 (°kaṭuka = pañcakāmaguṇa-rasa Thig-a 291); Dhp-a II 25 (°mahānidhi); Pj II 39 (°pakāra-gomaṇḍala-puṇṇabhāva). Cf. further: guṇā Miln 249; paṇṇāni Vin I 201 (nimba°, kuṭaja°, paṭola°, sulasi°, kappāsika°); Paṇḍu-rāja-puttā Ja V 426; pabbagaṇṭhiyo Miln 103; pucchā As 55; mahā-pariccāgā Dhp-a III 441; mahā-vilokanāni Dhp-a I 84; vatthūni Vin II 196*f.;* vāhanāni (of King Pajjota) Dhp-a I 196; suddhāvāsā As 14. In general see Vin V 128-133 (various sets of 5). -aṇga five (bad) qualities (see aṇga 3 and above 3), in phrase vippahīna free from the 5 sins D III 269; Nidd II §284 C; cf. BHS pañcānga-viprahīna. Especially of the Buddha Divy 95, 264 and °samannāgata endowed with the 5 good qualities A V 15 (of senāsana, explained at Vism 122): see also above. -aṇgika consisting of 5 parts, fivefold, in following combinations: °jhāna (viz. vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, cittass'ekaggatā) Dhs 83; °turiya orchestra S I 131; Thag 398; Thig 139; Vv 36^{4}; Dhp-a I 274, 394; °bandhana bond Ja IV 3. -aṇgula = °aṇgulika Ja IV 153 (gandha°); Pj II 39 (usabhaɱ nahāpetvā bhojetvā °ɱ datvā mālaɱ bandhitvā). -aṇgulika (also °aka) the 5 finger-mark, palm-mark, the magic mark of the spread hand with the fingers extended (made after the hand and 5 fingers have been immersed in some liquid, preferably a solution of sandal wood, gandha; but also blood). See Vogel, *The 5-finger-token in Pāli Literature,* Amsterdam Akademie 1919 (with plates showing ornaments on Bharhut Tope), cf. also *JPTS* 1884, 84*f.* It is supposed to provide magical protection (especially against the Evil Eye). Vin II 123 (cf. *Vinaya Texts* II 116); Ja I 166, 192; II 104 (gandha°ɱ deti), 256 (gandha°ā, applied to a cetiya); III 23, 160 (lohita°); Vv 33^{18} (gandha°ɱ adāsiɱ Kassapassa thūpasmiɱ); Mhv 32, 4 (see translation page 220); Dhp-a III 374 (goṇānaɱ gandha-°āni datvā); Pj II 137 (setamālāhi sabba-gandha-sugandhehi p°akehi ca alaɱkatā paripuṇṇa-aṇgapaccaṇgā, of oxen). Cf. Mvu I 269 (stūpeṣu pañcaṇgulāni; see note on page 579). Quotations of similar use in brahmanical literature see at Vogel page 6*f.* -āvudha (āyudha) set of 5 weapons (sword, spear, bow, battle-axe, shield, after Childers) Miln 339 (see *Q.K.M.* II 227), cf. p° sannaddha Ja III 436, 467; IV 283, 437; V 431; VI 75; sannaddha-p° Ja IV 160 (of sailors). They seem to be different ones at different passages. -āhaɱ 5 days Vin IV 281; Ja II 114. -cūḷaka with 5 topknots Ja V 250 (of a boy). -nakha with 5 claws, name of a five-toed animal Ja V 489 (so read for pañca na khā, misunderstood by Commentary). -paṭṭhika at Vin II 117, 121, 152; is not clear (v.l. paṭika). *Vinaya Texts* III 97 translated "cupboards" and connect it with Sanskrit paṭṭikā, as celapattikaɱ Vin II 128 undoubtedly is ("strip of cloth laid down for ceremonial purposes," *Vinaya Texts* III 128). It also occurs at Vin IV 47; -patikā (feminine) having had 5 husbands Ja V 424, 427. -mālin of a wild animal Ja VI 497 (= pancaṇgika-turiya-saddo viya Commentary, not clear). -māsakamattaɱ a sum of 5 māsakas Dhp-a II 29; -vaggiya (or °ika Pj II 198) belonging to a group of five. The 5 brahmins who accompanied Gotama when he became an ascetic are called p. bhikkhū. Their names are Aññākondañña, Bhaddiya, Vappa, Assaji, Mahānāma. M I 170; II 94; S III 66; Pv-a 21 (°e ādiɱ katvā); Pj II 351; cf. chabbaggiya; -vidha fivefold Ja I 204 (°ā abhirakkhā); VI 341 (°paduma), °bandhana: see this; -sādhāraṇa-bhāva fivefold connection Ja IV 7; -seṭṭha (Bhagavā) "the most excellent in the five" Snp 355 (= pañcannaɱ paṭhamasissānaɱ pañcavaggiyānaɱ seṭṭho, pañcahi vā saddhādīhi indriyehi sīlādīhi vā dhamma-khandhehi ativisiṭṭhehi cakkhūhi ca seṭṭho Pj II 351); -hattha having 5 hands Ja V 431.

Pañcaka (adjective) [from pañca] fivefold, consisting of five Ja I 116 (°kammaṭṭhāna); Dhs. chapters 167-175 (°naya fivefold system of jhāna, cf. *BMPE* 47); Pj II 318 (°nipāta of Aṇguttara). — neuter pañcakaɱ a pentad, five Vin I 255 (the 5 parts of the kaṭhina robe, see *Vinaya Texts* II 155), cf. page 287; plural pañcakā sets of five Vism 242. The 32 ākāras or constituents of the human body are divided into 4 pañcaka's (i.e. sets of 5 more closely related parts), viz. taca° "skin-pentad," the 5 dermatoid constituents: kesā, lomā, nakhā, dantā, taco; vakka° the next five, ending with the kidneys; papphāsa° the same ending with the lungs and comprising the inner organs proper; matthaluṇga- the same ending with the brain, and 2 chakka's (sets of 6), viz. meda° and mutta°. See e.g. Vibh-a 249, 258.

Pañcakkhattuɱ (adverb) five times.

Pañcadhā (adverb) in five ways, fivefold As 351.

Pañcama (adjective) [comparative-superlative formation from pañca, with -ma as in Latin supremus, for the usual -to as in Greek πέμπτος, Latin quintus, also Sanskrit pañcathaḥ] ordinal number the fifth D I 88; Snp 84, 99, 101; Vv-a 102; Pv-a 52 (°e māse in the 5th month the Petī has to die); Dhp-a III 195 (°e sattāhe in the 5th week). — feminine pañcamā Pv-a 78 (ito °āya jātiyā) and pañcamī Snp 437 (senā); Pv-a 79 (jāti).

Pañcaso (adverb) by fives.

Paṭhama (adjective) [Vedic prathama, cf. Avesta fratəma; also Vedic prataraɱ further, Greek πρότερος superlative formation from preposition °pro, Sanskrit pra etc. see pa-] ordinal number "the first," in following meanings: (1) the first, foremost, former Sn 93, 436, 1031; Ja II 110; Pj I I 192; Dhp-a III 5, 196 (°vaya, contrasted with majjhima and pacchima); Pv-a 5, 13, 56. neuter accusative paṭhamaɱ at first, for the first time Vin I 16; D II 14; Dhp 158; Ja I 222; II 103, 153; often as first part of compound °— , meaning either "first" or "recently, newly, just" Vin I 1 (°ābhisambuddha having just attained Buddhaship); D III 253 (°ābhinibbatta), Snp 420 (°uppattika "in his first youth"); Ja III 394 (°uggata newly sprung up). — A second comparative formation is paṭhamatara, only as adverb °ɱ at the (very) first, as early as possible, first of all Vin I 30; Ja VI 510; Dhp-a I 138; Vv-a 230; Pv-a 93.

Patta^{1} -āḷhalka a toy measure made of palm-leaves Vin II 10; III 180; D I 6 (cf. Sv I 86); M I 266; A V 203; Miln 229. -salākā leaf-ticket Dhp-a IV 65.

Pattha^{2} [cf. late Sanskrit prastha] a prastha (certain measure of capacity) = ¼ of an āḷhaka; a cooking utensil containing one prastha Dhp-a II 154; Pj II 476 (cattāro patthā āḷhakaɱ).

Padatta (neuter) [abstract from pada] being or constituting a lot, part or element Pj II 164.

Panti (feminine) [Vedic paṇkti set or row of five, group in general] a row, range, line Vism 392 (tisso sopāna-pantiyo); Dhp-a III 219 (uddhana°); Thig-a 72 (satta pantiyo); Vv-a 198 (amba°).

Pannarasama (ordinal number) [from pannarasa] the 15th Pj II 366 (gāthā).

Pabbedha [pa + vedha of vyadh, cf. BHS pravedha in same phrase at Divy 56, viz. ṣoḍaśa-pravedho] piercing through (measuring) an arrow shot Thag 164 — Ja II 334 (soḷasa° = soḷasa-kaṇḍa-pāta-vitthāro Commentary). Note: pabbedha owes its -bb- to analogy with ubbedha. It also corresponds to the latter in meaning: whereas ubbedha refers to the height, pabbedha is applied to the breadth or width.

Pamāṇa (neuter) [of pa + mā, Vedic pramāṇa] 1. measure, size, amount S II 235; A I 88; III 52, 356*f.;* V 140*f.;* Miln 285 (cf. *Q.K.M.* II 133, note 2); Pj II 137; Vv-a 16; Pv-a 55 (ghaṭa°), 70 (ekahattha°), 99 (tālakkhandha°), 268 (sīla°). 2. measure of time, compass length, duration Pv-a 136 (jīvitaɱ paricchinna °ɱ); especially in compound āyu° age S I 151; A I 213; II 126*f.* and *passim* (cf. āyu). 4. limit Pv-a 123, 130 (dhanassa). 5. (applied meaning) standard, definition, description, dimension S IV 158 ≈ Sn 1076 (perhaps ("age"). pamāṇaɱ karoti set an example Dhp-a III 300 (maɱ p. katvā). — adjective (—°) of characteristic, of the character of, measuring or measured by, taking the standard of, only in compound rūpa° measuring by (appearance or) form, or held in the sphere of form (defined or Pp-a 229 as "rūpa-ppamāṇādisu sampattiyuttaɱ rūpaɱ pamāṇaɱ karotī ti") A II 71 = Pp 53; Nidd II §406. — appamāṇa without a measure, unlimited, immeasurable, incomparable D I 31; II 12 (+ uḷāra); M III 145 (ceto-vimutti); A I 183, 192; II 73; III 52; V 299*f.,* 344*f.;* Snp 507; Pv-a 110 (= atula). See also appamāṇa. -kata taken as standard, set as example, being the measure, in phrase p.-kataɱ kammaɱ D I 251; S IV 322.

Pamāṇavant (adjective/noun) [from pamāṇa] having a measure, finite; or: to be described, able to be defined Vin II 110; A II 73.

Pamāṇika (adjective/noun) [from pamāṇa] 1. forming or taking a measure or standard, measuring by (—°) Dhp-a III 113 (rūpa° etc., see A II 71); (noun) one who measures, a critic, judge A III 349*f.;* V 140; Saddh 441 (as pamāṇaka). 2. according to measure, by measure Vin III 149; IV 279.

Paramatā (feminine) [from parama, Vedic paramatā highest position] the highest quantity, measure on the outside, minimum or maximum D I 60 (ghāsa-cchādana-paramatāya santuṭṭho contented with a minimum of food and clothing; Sv I 169 explained by uttamatāya); M I 10 (abyābajjha°); S I 82 (nāḷik'odana-paramatāya on a nāḷi of boiled rice at the most); frequent in phrase sattakkhattuɱ p. interval of seven rebirths at the outside (cf. parama), being reborn seven times at the most S II 134*f.;* V 458; Kv 469 (cf. *PtsC* 268^{3}).

Paro (adverb) [cf. Vedic paras; to para] beyond, further, above, more than, upwards of; only °— in connection with numerals (cf. Vedic use of paras with accusative of numerals), e.g. paro-paññāsa more than 50 D II 93; paro-sataɱ more than 100 Ja V 203, 497; paro-sahassaɱ over 1,000 D II 16; S I 192 = Thag 1238; Snp page 106 (= atireka-sahassaɱ Pj II 450). See also para-kkaroti.

Pala (—°) [Classical Sanskrit pala] a certain weight (or measure), spelt also phala (see phala^{2}), only in compound sata° a hundred (carat) in weight Thag 97 (of kaɱsa); Ja VI 510 (sataphala kaɱsa = phalasatena katā kañcana-pātī Commentary). Also in combination catuppala-tippala-dvipala-ekapala-sāṭikā Vism 339.

Pasata^{2} (neuter) [etymology? Late Sanskrit pr̥ṣat or pr̥ṣad a drop; cf. phusita^{1} rain-drop = pr̥ṣata; BR under pr̥ṣant = pasata^{1}, but probably dialectical and Non-Aryan] a small measure of capacity, a handful (seems to be applied to water only) Ja I 101 (°mattaɱ udakaɱ); IV 201 (udaka°); V 382 (°mattaɱ pānīyaɱ). Often reduplicated pasataɱ pasataɱ "by handfuls" M I 245, Ja V 164. At Sv I 298 it is closely connected with sarāva (cup), as denoting the amount of a small gift.

Pāṇi [Vedic pāṇi, cf. Avesta pərənā hand, with n-suffix, where we find m-suffix in Greek παλάμη, Latin palma, Oir lām, Old High German folma = Anglo-Saxon folm] the hand Vin III 14 (pāṇinā paripuñchati); M I 78 (pāṇinā parimajjati); S I 178, 194; Snp 713; Dhp 124; Ja I 126 (°ɱ paharati); Pp-a 249 (the same); Pv-a 56; Saddh 147, 238. -tala the palm of the hand D II 17; -bhāga hand-share, division by hands Vv-a 96; -matta of the size of a hand, a handful Pv-a 70, 116, 119;

Pāda 4. a coin Vin III 47; Vv-a 77 (worth here 1/4 of a kahāpaṇa and double the value of māsaka; see also kākaṇikā).

Pābhati (neuter) [pa + ā + pp of bhr̥] "that which has been brought here," viz. 1. a present, bribe Sv I 262. 2. money, price Ja I 122; V 401, 452.

Phala^{2} is spelling for pala (a certain weight) at Ja VI 510. See pala and cf. Geiger, *Pāli Grammar* §40.

Battiɱsa (cardinal number) [for dvat-tiɱsa] thirty-two Ja III 207.

Bāvīsati (numeral) [bā = dvā, + vīsati] twenty-two Kv 218; Miln 419; As 2.

Byāma [cf. Vedic and Pāli vyāma cf. ŚBr I 2, 5, 14 a fathom, measured by both hands being extended to their full length, only in phrase °ppabhā a halo extending for a fathom around the Buddha Ja I 12, 90; Bv I 45; Miln 75; Vv-a 213.

Bhāra 2. a load, cartload (as measure of quantity) Vv-a 12 (saṭṭhi-sakaṭa°-parimāṇa); Pv-a 102 (aneka-parimāṇa).

Bhāraka (—°) [from bhāra] a load, only in compound gadrabha° a donkey-load (of goods) Ja II 109; Dhp-a I 123.

Matta^{1} (—°) (adjective) [i.e. mattā used as adjective] "by measure," measured, as far as the measure goes, i.e. 1. consisting of, measuring (with numerals or similar expressions): appamatto kali Snp 659; pañca-mattā sata 500 Sv I 35; saṭṭhimatte saṭṭhimatte katvā Pj II 510; māsamattaɱ Pv-a 55; ekādasa° the same 20; dvādasa° 42; satta° 47; tiɱsamattehi bhikkhūhi saddhiɱ 53. 2. (negative) as much as, i.e. only, a mere, even as little as, the mere fact (of), not even (one), not any: aṇumattena pi puññena Snp 431; kaṭacchumattaɱ (not) even a spoonful Miln 8; ekapaṇṇa° Pv-a 115; citta °ɱ pi (not) even as much as one thought the same 3; nāma° a mere name Miln 25; phandana °ɱ not even one throb Ja VI 7; phandita° the mere fact of ... M II 24, bindu° only one drop Pv-a 100; rodita° M II 24. 3. (positive) as much as, so much, some, enough (of); vibhava° riches enough Ja V 40; kā pi assāsa-mattā laddhā found some relief? Pv-a 104 (may be = mattā feminine).

Māna^{2} (neuter) [from mā: see mināti; Vedic māna has 2 meanings, viz. "measure," and "building" (cf. māpeti)] 1. measure Vin III 149 (abbhantarima inner, bāhirima outer); Sv I 140; -°kūṭa cheating in measure, false measure Pp 58; Pv-a 278. 2. a certain measure, a Māna (cf. mānikā and manaɱ) Ja I 468 (aḍḍha° half a M., according to comentary equal to 8 nāḷis).

Mānikā (feminine) [cf. māna^{2} 2] a weight, equal to 4 Doṇas Pj II 476 *(catudoṇaɱ mānikā).* Cf. BHS mānikā, e.g. Divy 293*f.*

Māpaka (—°) (adjective/noun) [from māpeti] one who measures, only in doṇa° (a minister measuring the d. revenue (of rice) Ja II 367, 381; Dhp-a IV 88; and in dhañña° measuring corn or grain Ja III 542 (°kamma, the process of ...); Vism 278 (in comparison).

Māsa^{2} [Vedic māṣa, *Phaseolus indica,* closely related to another species: mudga *Phaseolus mungo*] a bean (*Phaseolus indica* or *radiata*); usually combined with mugga, e.g. Vin III 64; Miln 267, 341; Sv I 83. Also used as a weight (or measure?) in dhañña-māsa, which is said to be equal to 7 likkhās: Vibh-a 343. — plural māse Vv 80^{6} (= māsa-sassāni Vv-a 310). -odaka bean-water Pj I 237; -khetta a field of beans Vv-a 80^{8}; Vv-a 308; -bīja bean-seed Dhp-a III 212;

Māsa^{3} [identical with māsa^{2}] a small coin (= māsaka) Ja II 425 (satta māsā = s. māsakā commentary).

Māsaka [from māsa^{2} + ka = māsa^{3}] literally a small bean, used as a standard of weight and value; hence a small coin of very low value. Of copper, wood and lac (As 318; cf. Pj I 37; jatu°, dāru°, loha°); the suvaṇṇa° (golden m.) at Ja IV 107 reminds of the "gold" in fairy tales. That its worth is next to nothing is seen from the descending progression of coins at Dhp-a III 108 = Vv-a 77, which, beginning with kahāpaṇa, aḍḍha-pāda, places māsaka and kāhaṇikā next to mudhā "gratis." It only "counts" when it amounts to 5 māsakas. — Vin III 47, 67; IV 226 (pañca°); Ja I 112 (aḍḍha-māsakaɱ na agghati is worth nothing); IV 107; V 135 (first a rain of flowers, then of māsakas, then kahāpaṇas); Dhp-a II 29 (pañca-m.-mattaɱ a sum of 5 m.); Pv-a 282 (m + aḍḍha° halfpennies and farthings, as children's pocket-money).

Muddā (feminine) 2. the art of calculation mentioned as a noble craft (ukkaṭṭhaɱ sippaɱ) at Vin IV 7 (with gaṇanā and lekhā), as the first of the sippāni (with gaṇanā) at M I 85 = Nidd II §199. Further at Miln 3, 59, 78*f.,* 178. Cf. BHS mudrā in same sense (e.g. at Divy 3, 26, 58 in set lipyā, saṇkhyā, gaṇanā, m.). Buddhaghosa's explanation of muddā D I 11 m. + gaṇanā (see Sv I 95) as "hattha-muddā-gaṇanā" is doubtful; since at Miln 78*f.* muddā and gaṇanā are two quite different things. See also Franke, *Dīgha* translation page 18, with note (he marks muddā "Finger-rechnen" with?); and cf. Kern, *Toev.* I 166 *sub voce* muddā. The *D.B.* I 21 translates "counting on the fingers" (see *D.B.* I 21, 22 with literature and more references). — hattha° is sign language, gesture (literally hand-arithmetic), a means of communicating (question and answer) by signs, as clearly evident from Ja VI 364 (hattha-muddāya naɱ pucchissāmi ... muṭṭhiɱ akāsi, sā "ayaɱ me ... pucchati" ti ñatvā hatthaɱ vikāsesi, so ñatvā ...; he then asks by word of mouth); — hattha-muddaɱ karoti to make a sign, to beckon Ja III 528; cf. Vin V 163: na hatthavikāro kātabbo, na hattha-muddā dassetabbā

Muddika (adjective/noun) [from muddā] one who practises muddā (i.e. knowledge of signs) D I 51 (in list of occupations, combined with gaṇaka and translated *D.B.* I 68 by "accountant"; cf. Franke, *Dīgha* translation page 53, "Finger-rechner"?) Vin IV 8 (m., gaṇaka, lekhaka); S IV 376 (gaṇaka, m., saṇkhāyaka).

Mudhā (adverb) [Classical Sanskrit mudhā] for nothing, gratis Vv-a 77.

Muhutta (masculine and neuter) [Vedic muhūrta, from muhur suddenly] a moment, a very short period of time, an inkling, as we should say "a second" — Its duration may be seen from descending series of time-connotations at Pv-a 198 (under jātakamma, prophesy by astrologers at the birth of a child): rāsi, nakkhatta, tithi, m.; and from definition at Nidd II §516 by "khaṇaɱ, layaɱ, vassaɱ, atthaɱ." Usually in oblique cases: muhuttena in a short time, in a twinkling of an eye Pv-a 55; muhuttaɱ (accusative) a moment, even a second Snp 1138 (m. api); Dhp 65 (the same), 106; Pv-a 43.

Yaṭṭhi (feminine) [cf. Vedic yaṣṭi. Another Pāli form is laṭṭhi] — 3. a measure of length (= 7 ratanas) Vibh-a 343.

Yāma -kālika of a restricted time, for a (relatively) short period (literal) only for one watch of the night, but longer than yāva-kālika temporary. It is one of the three regulation-terms for specified food, viz. y.-k., sattāhakālika and yāvajīvika, or short period, of a week's duration, and life-long food Vin IV 83, 86, 176, 311; to which is added yāva-kālika, temporary at Vin I 251 (where mutual relations of the 4 are discussed);

Hattha [from hr̥, cf. Vedic hasta] 2. the hand as measure, a cubit Ja I 34, 233 (asīti°, q.v.); Mhv 38, 52; Vism 92 (nava° sāṭaka).

Hatthaka [hattha + ka] a handful, a quantity (literal a little hand) Vv 45^{5} (= kalāpa Vv-a 197).

Hadaya-bheda "heart-break," a certain trick in cheating with measures Sv I 79;

Rajata (neuter) [Vedic rajata; see etymology under rajati] silver D I 5 (explained at Sv I 78 as a general name for all coins except gold: kahāpaṇas etc.); S I 92; Snp 962 (in simile; explained at Nidd I 478 as jātarūpa), Ja V 50; 416 (hema° gold and silver); Vv 35^{1} (°hema-jāla); Dhp-a II 42 (°paṭṭa silver tablet or salver); IV 105 (°gabbha silver money box or cabinet for silver, alongside of kahāpaṇa-gabbha and suvaṇṇa°); Vibh-a 64 (explained as "kahāpaṇa"); Pv-a 95 (for rūpiya).

Ratana^{2} [most likely = Sanskrit aratni: see ratani] a linear measure (which Abh page 23 gives as equal to 12 aṇgula, or 7 ratanas = 1 yaṭṭhi: see Kirfel, *Kosmographie der Inder*, page 335. The same is given by Buddhaghosa at Vibh-a 343: dve vidatthiyo ratanaɱ; satta r. yaṭṭhi) Ja V 36 (vīsaɱ-r-sataɱ); VI 401 (°mattaɱ); Vv-a 321 (so given by Hardy in index as "measure of length," but to be taken as ratana^{1}, as indicated clearly by context and commentary); Miln 282 (satta-patiṭṭhito aṭṭha-ratan'ubbedho nava-ratanāyāma-pariṇāho pāsādiko dassanīyo Uposatho nāgarājā: alluding to ratana^{1} 2!).

Ratani [Sanskrit aratni "elbow" with apocope and diæresis; given at Abhidh-r-m 2, 381 as "a cubit, or measure from the elbow to the tip of the little finger" The form ratni also occurs in Sanskrit. The etymology is from Indo-Germanic °ole (to bend), cf. Avesta ar°pna elbow; Sanskrit arāla bent; of which enlarged bases °olen in Latin ulna, ond °oleq in Latin lacertus, Sanskrit lakutah. = Pāli laguḷa. See cognates in Walde, Latin *Wtb.* *sub voce* lacertus] a cubit Miln 85 (aṭṭha rataniyo).

Ratanika (adjective) [from ratana] a ratana in length Ja I 7 (aḍḍha°); Miln 312 (aṭṭha°).

Ratha^{1}-reṇu. Ratha^{1} a two-wheeled carriage, chariot -reṇu "chariot-dust," a very minute quantity (as a measure), a mite. Childers compares Sanskrit trasareṇu a mote of dust, atom. It is said to consist of 36 tajjāri's, and 36 ratha-reṇu's are equal to one likkhā: Vibh-a 343;

Rasa^{2} (—°) is a dialect form of °dasa ten, and occurs in Classic Pāli only in the numerals for 13 (terasa), 15 (paṇṇa-rasa, pannarasa), 17 (sattarasa) and 18 (aṭṭhārasa, late). The Prākrit has gone further: see Pischel, *Pkt Gr.* §245.

Rājikā (feminine) [cf. Sanskrit rājikā] a certain (gold) weight (a seedcorn of *Sinapis ramosa*) Thag 97 = 862 (kaṃsa sata° 100 mustard seeds in weight, i.e. very costly); Ja VI 510 (kaṃse sovaṇṇe satarājike).

Rūpa B. In phrase rūpaṃ sikkhati Vin I 77 = IV 129 the meaning is doubtful; it may be "to study drawing, or arts and craft," or (with Mrs. Rh.D.) "weights and measures," or (with Hardy) "money changing." It is said that through this occupation the eyes become bad; it is opposed to gaṇanā.

Rūpiya^{1} (neuter) [cf. Sanskrit rūpya, literally of splendid appearance, cf. name for gold jātarūpa] silver Vin III 239 (here collectively for any transactions in "specie," as explained by commentary page 240: rūpiyaṃ nāma satthu-vaṇṇo kahāpaṇo lohamāsako dārumāsako jatumāsako; i.e. copper, wood and lac); S I 104 (suddhaṃ r.); II 233; Dhs 584.

Lakkha (neuter) [from lakṣ (see lakkhaṇa), or (after Grassmann) lag "to fix," i.e. to mark. Cf. Vedic lakāsa price at gambling (Zimmer, *Altind. Leben* 287)] 1. a mark Miln 102.3. a stake at gambling Ja VI 271. 4. a high numeral, a lakh or 100,000 (but cf. Pv-a 255, where lakkha of Pv IV 3^{38} is taken as a "period of time," equal to 100 koṭis); Dāṭh V 66.

Likkhā (feminine) [Sanskrit likṣā egg of a louse, as measure equal to 8 trasareṇu (BR). — Connected with Latin ricinus a kind of vermin (see Walde, Latin *Wtb.* *sub voce*)] a kind of measure Vibh-a 343 (36 rattareṇus equal to one likkhā, 7 likkhās equal to 1 ūkā); Pj I 43 (°matta).

Leḍḍu-pāta. Leḍḍu [dialect Sanskrit leṣṭu > *leṭṭhu > *leṭṭu > leḍḍu; also Prākrit leḍu and leṭṭhu: Pischel, *Pkt Gram.* §304; cf. Geiger, *Pāli Grammar* §62] a clod of earth S V 146 = Ja II 59 (°ṭṭhāna); Ja I 19, 175; III 16; VI 405; Miln 255; Pj II 222 (ākāse khitta, in simile); Vism 28 (translation "stone"), 360 (°khaṇḍādīni), 366 (containing gold), 419; Vibh-a 66 (°khaṇḍā); Vv-a 141; Pv-a 284. -pāta "throw of a clod," a certain measure of (not too far) a distance Vin IV 40; Vism 72; As 315 (translation "a stone's throw").

Loha-māsaka a small copper coin Pj I 37 (jatu-māsaka, dāru-māsaka + l.); As 318;

Vaḍḍhi 3. (as technical term) profit, interest (on money, especially loans) Thig 444 (= iṇa-vaḍḍhi Thig-a 271); Sv I 212, 270; Vibh-a 256 (in simile); Pj II 179 (°gahaṇa).

Vassa (masculine and neuter) [cf. Vedic var̥sa (neuter) rain. — Especially the rainy season, lasting roughly from June to October (Āsāḷha-Kattika), often called "Lent," though the term does not strictly correspond. -dasa (and °dasaka) a decade of years: see enumerated at Ja IV 397; -pūgāni innumerable years Ja VI 532, cf. Snp 1073; -sata a century Snp 589, 804; A IV 138; Pv II 1^{15}; Pv-a 3, 60, 69;

Vāha (adjective/noun) [from vah]2. a cart, vehicle; also cartload Snp page 126 (tila° = tila-sakaṭa Pj II 476); Ja IV 236 (saṭṭhi°sahassāni 60,000 cartloads); Miln 80 (°sataṃ).

Vidatthi (feminine) [cf. Vedic vitasti; see Geiger, *Pāli Grammar* 38.3] a span (of 12 aṇgulas or finger-breadths) Vin III 149 (dīghaso dvādasa vidatthiyo sugata-vidatthiyā); IV 279; Ja I 337; III 318; Miln 85; Vism 65, 124, 171, 175, 408; Dhp-a III 172; IV 220; Vibh-a 343 (dvādasaṇgulāni vidatthi; dve vidatthiyo ratanaṃ, etc.).

Vidisā (feminine) [vi + disā] an intermediate point of the compass S I 224; III 239; Snp 1122; Ja I 20, 101; VI 6, 531.

Vibbedha [from vi + vyadh after analogy of ubbedha; not vi + bheda] circumference Ja I 212.

Vimāna. (celestial palaces) PED page 565. 6. The dimensions of the Vimānas are of course enormous, but harmonious (being "divine"), i.e. either of equal extent in all directions, or specially proportioned with significant numbers. Of these the following may be mentioned. The typical numbers of greatest frequency are 12, 16, 30, 700, in connection with yojana. The dimensions, with reference to which 12 and 16 are used, are length, width, height, and girth, whereas 700 applies usually to the height (Dhp-a III 291 e.g., where it is said to be "over 700"), and the number of turrets (see above 2). At Vv-a 267 (satta-yojana-pamāṇo ratho) No. 7 is used for 700; No. 30 (extent) is found e.g. at Dhp-a III 7; Thig-a 55; No. 12 e.g. at Ja VI 116; Dhp-a III 291; Vv-a 6, 217, 221, 244, 246, 291*f.;* No. 16 at Vv-a 188, 289.

Vīsati and Vīsaṃ (indeclinable) [both for Vedic viṃśati; cf. Avesta vīsaiti, Greek εἴκοσι, Latin viginti, Old-Irish fiche, etc.; from Indo-Germanic ṋi + komt (decad), thus "two decads." cf. vi-] number 20. — Both forms are used indiscriminately. (1) vīsati, e.g. Vin II 271 (°vassa, as minimum age of ordination); Snp 457 (catu-vīsatakkharaṃ); Ja I 89 (°sahassa bhikkhū); III 360; Vibh-a 191*f.;* Dhp-a I 4 (ekūna°, 19); II 9, 54; III 62 (°sahassa bhikkhū, as followers); as vīsatiṃ at Dhp-a II 61 (vassa-sahassāni). (2) vīsaṃ; e.g. Snp 1019 (°vassa-sata); It 99 (jātiyo); Ja I 395 (°yojana-sata); V 36 (°ratana-sata); Dhp-a I 8; II 91 (°yojana-sataṃ).

Saṇkhā (feminine) and Saṇkhyā (feminine) [from saṃ + khyā] 1. enumeration, calculation, estimating D II 277; M I 109; Miln 59 2. number Dāṭh I 25.

Saṇkhāna^{1} (neuter) and Saṇkhyāna (neuter) [from saṃ + khyā, cf. saṇkhā] calculation, counting D I 11; M I 85; Sv I 95; Dhātup 613 (khy).

Saṇkhāyaka [from saṃ + khyā] a calculator S IV 376.

Saṭṭhi (ordinal number) [cf. Sanskrit ṣaṣṭi: see cha] sixty D I 45; II 261; Snp 538; Dhp-a III 412 (ekūna°). It is found mostly in the same application as cha (group number), e.g. at Ja I 64 (°turiya-sahassāni); Vv-a 92 (the same); Ja I 87 (°yojana); VI 512 (°sahassa); Dhp-a I 8, 17, 26, 131 (°sakaṭa). -°hāyana 60 years old (of elephant) M I 229; Ja II 343.

Sata^{1} (cardinal number.) [Vedic śataṃ; cf. Avesta satəm, Greek ἑ-κατόν, Latin centum; Gothic hund = hundred; Indo-Germanic °km̥tóm from dkm̥tóm (= decem), thus ultimately the same as daśa, i.e. decad (of tens)] a hundred, used as neuter (collective), either —° or as apposition, viz. gāma-sataṃ a hundred (ship of) villages Dhp-a I 180; jaṭila-satāni 100 ascetics Vin I 24; jāti° D I 13; or gāthā sataṃ 100 stanzas Dhp 102. Often in sense of "many" or "innumerable," e.g. °kaku, °raṃsi, etc.; cf. °satāni bahūni Ja IV 310, 311. -kaku having a hundred corners, epithet of a cloud A III 34 = S I 100 (v.l. sattakatu) see *JPTS* 1891-93 page 5; Ja IV 281; Dhp-a II 48; III 311; see also pāka; -puñña 100, i.e. innumerable merits Vism 211; -porisa of the height of a hundred men, extremely high, attribute of a hell Vv 52^{13}*f.;* name of a hell Ja V 269; -raṃsi "having 100 rays," the sun Saddh 590; Ja I 44; -rasabhojana food of 100 flavours Dhp-a III 96 (v.l. satta°) -sahassa one hundred thousand Ja II 20; Miln 88; 136; Dhp-a II 86; -sahassima the same S II 133.

Sataka (neuter) [cf. BHS śataka] a hundred, collection of 100 Ja I 74.

Satakkhattuṃ (adverb) [cf. dvi-kkhattuṃ, ti-kkhattuṃ etc.] a hundred times.

Satadhā (adverb) [sata + dhā, cf. ekadhā, dvidhā etc.] in 100 ways, into 100 pieces D II 341.

Satika (adjective) (—°) [from sata^{1}] consisting of a hundred, belonging to a hundred; yojanasatika extending one hundred yojanas Vin II 238; vīsaṃvassasatika of hundred and twenty years' standing Vin II 303.

Satima (adjective) [superlative formation from sata^{1}] the hundredth S II 133; Ja I 167 (pañca°).

Satta^{4} (numeral) [cf. Vedic sapta, Greek ἑπτά; Avesta hapta; Latin septem, Gothic sibun = English seven etc.] number seven. It is a collective and concluding (serial) number; its application has spread from the week of 7 days (or nights), and is based on astronomical conception (Babylon!), this science being regarded as mystic, it invests the number with a peculiar magic nimbus. From time-expressions it was transferred to space, especially when originally connected with time (like satta-bhūmaka the 7-storied palace; the Vimānas with 700 towers: see vimāna 2 and 6; or the 7 great lakes: see sara^{3}; °yojana 7 miles, cf. the 7 league-boots!). Extremely frequent in folklore and fairy tales (cf. 7 years of famine in Egypt, 7 days' festivals, dragon with 7 heads, 7 ravens, 7 dwarfs, 7 little goats, 7 years enchantment, etc. etc.). For time expressions see in compounds: °āha, °māsa, °ratta, °vassa. Cf. Snp 446 (vassāni); Ja II 91 (kāyā, thick masses); Sv I 25 (of the Buddhist scriptures: sattahi māsehi saṇgītaṃ); Dhp-a II 34 (dhanāni), 101 (maṇgalā); the collective expression 7 years, 7 months, 7 days at Ja V 48; the 7×70 ñāṇavatthūni S II 59; and the curious enumeration of heptads at D I 54. — Cases: instrumental sattahi D I 34; genitive sattannaṃ D I 56; locative sattasu D II 303 = M I 61. -aṭṭha seven or eight Ja II 101; -āha (neuter) seven days, a week of 7 days [cf. BHS saptaka Divy 99] D II 248; Vin I 1, 139; Ja I 78; II 85; IV 360; V 472; VI 37; Dhp-a I 109; Vv-a 63. satta° 7 weeks Dhp-a I 86; cf. satta-satta-divasā Ja V 443; -guṇa sevenfold Mhv 25, 36; -tiṃsa 37 (see bodhipakkhiya-dhammā); -dina a week Mhv 11, 23; -patiṭṭha sevenfold firm D II 174; Miln 282; -māsaṃ (for) seven months Pv-a 20; -yojanika 7 miles in extent Ja V 484; -ratta a week Ja VI 230 (dve° = a fortnight), 304; Snp 570; -vassika 7 years old Miln 9. 310; Dhp-a II 87, 89 (sāmaṇera), 139; Pv-a 53 (Saṇkicca Arahattaṃ patvā); Dhp-a III 98 (kumāro Arahattaṃ patto); Ja V 249. On the age of seven as that of child Arahants see Mrs. Rh.D. in *Ps.B.* introduction xxx; -vīsati twenty seven Dhp-a I 4.

Sattama^{2} (ordinal number) [from satta^{4}] the seventh D I 89; Snp 103. — feminine °mī Snp 437. Often in locative °divase on the 7th day Snp 983; Ja I 395; Miln 15; Pv-a 6, 74. -°bhavika one who has reached the 7th existence (or rebirth) Kv 475 (cf. *PtsC.* 271^{4}).

Sattarasa (cardinal number.) [satta^{4} + rasa^{2} = dasa] seventeen Vin I 77; IV 112 (°vaggiyā bhikkhū, group of 17).

Sabba — In connection with numerals sabba° has the distributive sense of "of each," i.e. so and so many things of each kind, like °catukka (with four of each, said of a gift or sacrifice) Ja III 44; Dhp-a III 3; °aṭṭhaka (dāna) (a gift consisting of 8×8 things) Miln 291. See detail under aṭṭha B 1. a. — °soḷasaka (of 16 each) Dhp-a III 3; °sata (of 100 each) Dhp-a II 6.

Sama 4. sama°, followed by numerals, means "altogether,". e.g. °tiṃsa thirty altogether Bv XVIII 18.

Samā (feminine) [Vedic samā] 1. a year Dhp 106; Mhv 7, 78.

Sahassa [Sanskrit sahasra, see etymology under saṃ°] a thousand, used as a singular with a noun in the plural, sahassaṃ vācā Dhp 100; satasahassaṃ vassāni Ja I 29; also in the plural after other numerals cattāri satasahassāni chaḷabhiññā Bv II 204 = Ja I 29; also with the thing counted in the genitive, accharānaṃ sahassaṃ Mhv 17, 13; A I 227; or °—, as sahassa-yakkha-parivāra Pj II 209. In combination with other numerals, sahassa is sometimes inflected like an adjective, saṭṭhisahassā amaccā sixty thousand ministers Ja VI 484; satasahassiyo gāvo 100,000 cows Snp 308; the thing counted then precedes in a compound jāti-sahassaṃ 1,000 births D I 13; It 99; ghaṭa-sahassam pi udakaṃ Miln 189; sindhava-sahasso ratho Ja VI 103; sahassaṃ sahassena a thousand times a thousand Dhp 103; sahassass'eva in thousands D II 87. -sahassaṃ (neuter) 1,000 gold pieces Dhp 106; Ja VI 484; Miln 10; satasahassaṃ a hundred thousand Ja I 28; sahassa (adjective) (feminine ī) worth a thousand Ja V 484, 485; Thig-a 72 (Ap verse 45, read sahassayo for °aso); epithet of Brahmā, the B. of a thousand world systems M III 101. Cf. dasa-sahassī. -akkha thousand-eyed, the god Sakka S I 229; Ja VI 203; sahassacakkhu the same Ja V 394, 407; -aggha worth a thousand Miln 284; -āra having 1,000 spokes D II 172; -ṭṭhavikā a purse with 1,000 pieces (of money) Vism 383; Ja I 506; Dhp-a II 37; Vv-a 33; -netta thousand-eyed, the god Sakka S I 226; Snp 346; Ja III 426; IV 313; V 408; VI 174; Vv 30^{10}; Dhp-a I 17; -bāhu having a thousand arms, said of Ajjuna Ja V 119, 135, 145 (°-rājā); 267, 273; VI 201; -bhaṇḍikā a heap of 1,000 pieces Ja II 424; III 60; IV 2; -raṃsi the sun Ja I 183.

Sugata [su + gata] -aṇgula a Buddha-inch, an inch according to the standard accepted by Buddhists Vin IV 168; -vidatthi a Buddha-span, a span of the accepted length Vin III 149; IV 173;

Soḷasa (cardinal number) [Sanskrit ṣoḍaśa] sixteen D I 128; Snp 1006; Ja I 78 (lekhā); II 87; III 342 (atappiya-vatthūni); V 175; VI 37; Miln 11 (palibodhā); Dhp-a I 129 (°salākā); IV 208 (°karīsa-matta). instrumental soḷasahi D I 31, and soḷasehi D I 139; genitive soḷasannaṃ Ja IV 124. Very frequent in measures of time and space. -°vassa° (16 years ...) Ja I 231, 285; II 43; IV 7; VI 10, 486; Dhp-a I 25 and *passim*. The feminine — sī acts as ordinal number "sixteenth," in phrase kalaṃ nagghati soḷasiṃ he is not worth a sixteenth particle of A IV 252; S III 156; V 44, 343; Dhp 70; It 19.

Soḷasama sixteenth Mhv 2, 29; Vism 292.