On "Samma," "Miccha," "Ariya," and "Angika"
The Eighth Lesson
The 10th Lesson
[SN 5.56.11] The Dhammacakkappavattanā Sutta In Pali PTS, L. Feer, Saŋyutta-Nikāya V: Maha-vagga XII: Sacca-Saŋyutta 2: Dhammacakkapavattanā-vaggo, pp 420
PTS: F.L. Woodward, trans., The Book of the Kindred Sayings V: The Great Chapter XI: Kindred Sayings about the Truths II: Foundation of the Kingdom of the Norm, pp 356
WP: Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans., The Connected Discourses of the Buddha II: The Great Book 12: Connected Discourses on the Truths 2: Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dhamma, pp1843
AIT: Setting Rolling the Wheel of Truth, Nanamoli Thera, trans.
The Formula of the Revolution of the Wheel of Experience, Venerable Punnaji's translation of the Dhammacakkappavattanā Sutta, the First Discourse
PTS: The Middle Length Sayings III, #141: Discourse on the Analysis of the Truths (Saccavibhaŋga Sutta), Horner, trans., pp295
[MN 9] WP: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, #9: Right View, Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans, pp134
PTS: Dialogues of the Buddha II: #22: Mahasatipatthana Sutta — Setting-Up of Mindfulness, Rhys Davids, trans, pp337
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Pali Text Society
Pali English Dictionary
Edited by T. W. Rhys Davids and William Stede
Ariya: (adj.--n.) [Vedic arya, of uncertain etym. The other Pali forms are ayira & ayya]
1. (racial) Aryan D II.87.
2. (social) noble, distinguished, of high birth.
3. (ethical) in accord with the customs and ideals of the Aryan clans, held in esteem by Aryans, generally approved. Hence: right, good, ideal. [The early Buddhists had no such ideas as we cover with the words Buddhist and Indian. Ariya does not exactly mean either. But it often comes very near to what they would have considered the best in each].
anariya (adj. & n.) not Ariyan, ignoble, undignified, low, common, uncultured
When the commentators, many centuries afterwards, began to write Pali in S. India & Ceylon, far from the ancient seat of the Aryan clans, the racial sense of the word ariya was scarcely, if at all, present to their minds. Dhammapala especially was probably a non-Aryan, and certainly lived in a Dravidian environment. The then current similar popular etmologies of ariya and arahant also assisted the confusion in their minds. They sometimes therefore erroneously identify the two words and explain Aryans as meaning Arahants. In other ways also they misrepresented the old texts by ignoring the racial force of the word. Thus at J V.48 the text, speaking of a hunter belonging to one of the aboriginal tribes, calls him anariya-rupa. The C. explains this as "shameless", but what the text has, is simply that he looked like a non-Aryan. (cp "frank" in English).