PTS: Middle Length Sayings I, #1: Discourse on the Synopsis of Fundamentals, Horner, trans., pp 3.
WP: Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: The Root of All Things, Bhikkhu Nanamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi, trans., pp 83
Examining the Mulapariyaya -- Analysis
The Root Sequence, Bhikkhu Thanissaro, translation of the Mulapariyaya
|Pali||MO||Hare||Horner||Punnaji||Bodhi||Rhys Davids||(Mrs)Rhys Davids||Thanissaro||Walshe||Woodward|
|Bhūta||beings, living things||beings||beings||beings|
Pali Text Society
Pali English Dictionary
Edited by T. W. Rhys Davids and William Stede
bhūta: [pp of bhavati...] grown, become; born, produced; nature as the result of becoming. -- The (exegetical) definition by Bdhgh of the word bhūta is interesting. He...distingishes the foll. 7 meanings of the term: (1) animate Nature as principle, or the vital aggregates (the 5 Khandhas)...(2) ghosts (amanussā)...(3) inanimate Nature as principle, or the Elements (the 4 dhātus)...(4) all that exists, physical existence in general (vijjamānaṅ)...(5) what we should call a simple predicative use, is exemplified by a typical dogmatic example. viz. "kālaghaso bhūto," where bhūta is given as meaning khīnāsava (Arahant)...(6) all beings or specified existence, animal kingdom (sattā) D II.157; (7) the vegetable kingdom, plants, vegetation (rukkh'ādayo) Vin Iv34 (as bhūta-gāma).
-- Meanings: 1. bhūtā and bhūtāni (pl) beings, living beings, animate Nature...moveable and immovable S. II.47 mind and body as come-to-be; M I.2; The pl. nt. bhūtāni is used as pl. to meaning 2; viz. inanimate Nature, elements, usually enumerated under term mahā-bhūtāni; 2. (nt.) nature, creation, world M 1.2 (bhūte bhūtato asñjānāti; recognises the beings from nature, i.e. from the fact of being nature); 3. (nt. adj.) that which is, i.e. natural, genuine, true; nt. truth; neg. abhūta falsehood, lie; 4. a supernatural being, ghost, demon, Yakkha; pl. bhūtā guardian genii (of a city) J. IV.245; 5. pp. in predicative use (cp. on this meaning Bdhgh's meaning No. 5 above) (a) what has been or happened; viz. mātu-bhūtaṅ having been his mother...abhūtapubba bhūtaṅ what has never happened before happened (now); (b) having become such and such, being like, acting as, being quasi (as it' were), consisting of...
Bhū: being, creature, living being
Bhū2 [fr. bhū, otherwise bhūmi] the earth
Organic. Having life as a property. Butane.
Note: the search term "Beings" produces both here and on Access to Insight a huge number of references that do not relate to the term 'bhuta'. Probably most of these should be uderstood to translate back into Pali as the term 'satta'. Since 'beings' is the preferred translation of 'bhuta' of all those translators of the Mulapariyaya it was still felt to be necessary to include a search on this term. Happy sifting!