Aŋguttara Nikāya


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Aŋguttara Nikāya
X. Dasaka-Nipāta
X: Upāsaka-Vagga

The Book of the Gradual Sayings
X. The Book of the Tens
X: The Lay-followers

Sutta 93

Kiɱ Diṭṭhika? Suttaɱ

View

Translated from the Pali by F. L. Woodward, M.A.

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[127] [185]

[1][than] THUS have I heard:

Once the Exalted One was dwelling near Sāvatthī
at Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Now the housefather Anāthapiṇḍika left Sāvatthī at an early hour
to visit the Exalted One.

But it occurred to him:

"It is not time to see the Exalted One,
he is in retirement.

Nor is it time to see the monks
who make the mind to grow;[1]
those monks are in retirement.

Suppose I were to pay a visit
to the Park where dwell
the Wanderers who hold other views?"

So the housefather Anathapiṇḍika drew near
the Park where dwelt
the Wanderers holding other views.

Now on that occasion
the Wanderers holding other views,
having come together in a great company,
were sitting engaged in divers childish talk,
all talking loudly,
making a great noise and din.

But when they saw the housefather Anāthapiṇḍika approaching,
while yet he was at some distance,
they hushed each other, saying:

"Make little noise, your reverence!

Make no noise, your reverence!

Here comes the housefather Anāthapiṇḍika,
a disciple of Gotama the recluse.

This housefather Anāthapiṇḍika
is one of those disciples of Gotama the recluse,
householders clad in white,
who live at Sāvatthi.

Now those worthies are fond of little noise,
they are schooled to little noise,
they speak in praise of little noise.

Maybe, if he sees our company making little noise,
he will think it worth his while to draw near."

So those Wanderers kept silence.

So the housefather Anāthapiṇḍika drew near to those Wanderers,
and on coming to them
greeted them courteously,
and after courteous greetings
and reminiscent talk
[186]sat down at one side.

As he thus sat
those Wanderers said this to him:

"Tell us, housefather,
what views does Gotama the recluse hold?"

"Indeed, sirs, I know not
all the view of the Exalted One."

[128] "You say you know not
all the view of Gotama the recluse, housefather.

Then tell us what view the monks hold."

"Indeed, sire, of the monks
also I know not all the view."

"Well, housefather, since you know not all the view
either of Gotama the recluse
or of the monks,
tell us what sort of view you yourself hold."

"This, sirs, indeed were no hard task -
to tell you of what sort of view I am myself.

But first let your reverences
expound your own views.

Afterward it will be no hard task
for me to expound what views I hold myself."

At these words a certain Wanderer said this
to the housefather Anathapiṇḍika:

"Eternal is the world;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation.

That is the view I hold, housefather."

And yet another Wanderer said:

"Not eternal is the world;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation.

That is the view I hold, housefather."

And yet another Wanderer said:

"Limited is the world;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation.

That is the view I hold, housefather."

And yet another Wanderer said:

"Unlimited is the world;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation.

That is the view I hold, housefather."

And yet another Wanderer said:

"Soul[2] is body;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation.

That is the view I hold, housefather."

And yet another Wanderer said:

"Soul is one thing, body another;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation.

That is the view I hold, housefather."

And yet another Wanderer said:

"A wayfarer (man)[3] is beyond death;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation.

That is the view I hold, housefather."

And yet another Wanderer said:

"A wayfarer is not beyond death;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation.

That is the view I hold, housefather."

And yet another Wanderer said:

"A wayfarer both is and is not beyond death;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation.

That is the view I hold, housefather."

And yet another Wanderer said:

"Neither is nor is not beyond death;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation.

That is the view I hold, housefather."

 

§

 

At these words the housefather Anāthapiṇḍika said this to those Wanderers:

"Sirs, when this or that worthy says:

'I hold this view, housefather:

Eternal is the world;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation' -
[187]such view arises
[129] either from his own lack of close thinking,
or it depends on the words of someone else.[4]

A view like this has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something.

Now whatever has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something -
that is impermanent.

What is impermanent,
that is ill.

To what is ill
that worthy clings;
to what is ill
that worthy resorts.

Sirs, when this or that worthy says:

'I hold this view, housefather:

Not eternal is the world;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation' -
such view arises
either from his own lack of close thinking,
or it depends on the words of someone else.

A view like this has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something.

Now whatever has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something -
that is impermanent.

What is impermanent,
that is ill.

To what is ill
that worthy clings;
to what is ill
that worthy resorts.

Sirs, when this or that worthy says:

'I hold this view, housefather:

'Limited is the world;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation' -
such view arises
either from his own lack of close thinking,
or it depends on the words of someone else.

A view like this has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something.

Now whatever has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something -
that is impermanent.

What is impermanent,
that is ill.

To what is ill
that worthy clings;
to what is ill
that worthy resorts.

'Sirs, when this or that worthy says:

'I hold this view, housefather:

Unlimited is the world;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation' -
such view arises
either from his own lack of close thinking,
or it depends on the words of someone else.

A view like this has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something.

Now whatever has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something -
that is impermanent.

What is impermanent,
that is ill.

To what is ill
that worthy clings;
to what is ill
that worthy resorts.

Sirs, when this or that worthy says:

'I hold this view, housefather:

Soul is body;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation' -
such view arises
either from his own lack of close thinking,
or it depends on the words of someone else.

A view like this has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something.

Now whatever has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something -
that is impermanent.

What is impermanent,
that is ill.

To what is ill
that worthy clings;
to what is ill
that worthy resorts.

Sirs, when this or that worthy says:

'I hold this view, housefather:

Soul is one thing, body another;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation' -
such view arises
either from his own lack of close thinking,
or it depends on the words of someone else.

A view like this has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something.

Now whatever has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something -
that is impermanent.

What is impermanent,
that is ill.

To what is ill
that worthy clings;
to what is ill
that worthy resorts.

Sirs, when this or that worthy says:

'I hold this view, housefather:

A wayfarer (man) is beyond death;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation' -
such view arises
either from his own lack of close thinking,
or it depends on the words of someone else.

A view like this has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something.

Now whatever has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something -
that is impermanent.

What is impermanent,
that is ill.

To what is ill
that worthy clings;
to what is ill
that worthy resorts.

Sirs, when this or that worthy says:

'I hold this view, housefather:

A wayfarer is not beyond death;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation' -
such view arises
either from his own lack of close thinking,
or it depends on the words of someone else.

A view like this has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something.

Now whatever has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something -
that is impermanent.

What is impermanent,
that is ill.

To what is ill
that worthy clings;
to what is ill
that worthy resorts.

Sirs, when this or that worthy says:

'I hold this view, housefather:

A wayfarer both is and is not beyond death;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation' -
such view arises
either from his own lack of close thinking,
or it depends on the words of someone else.

A view like this has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something.

Now whatever has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something -
that is impermanent.

What is impermanent,
that is ill.

To what is ill
that worthy clings;
to what is ill
that worthy resorts.

Sirs, when this or that worthy says:

'I hold this view, housefather:

'Neither is nor is not beyond death;
this is truth;
any other view is infatuation' -
such view arises
either from his own lack of close thinking,
or it depends on the words of someone else.

A view like this has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something.

Now whatever has become,
is put together,
thought out,
has arisen dependent on something -
that is impermanent.

What is impermanent,
that is ill.

To what is ill
that worthy clings;
to what is ill
that worthy resorts."

 

§

 

[188]At these words those Wanderers said this to the housefather Anāthapiṇḍika:

"Well, housefather,
we have all expressed our several views
according as we hold them.

Do you now tell us
what view you hold yourself."

"Sirs, whatsoever has become,
is put together,
is thought out,
is dependent on something else,
that is impermanent.

What is impermanent,
that is ill.

What is ill,
that is not of me,
I am not that,
not for me is that the self.

Such is my own view, sirs."

"Well, housefather,
since you hold that whatsoever has become,
is put together,
is thought out,
is dependent on something else,
that is impermanent,
and since you hold
that the impermanent is ill,
then, housefather,
you cling to ill,
you make ill your resort."

'Sirs, since whatsoever has become,
whatsoever is put together,
thought out,
dependent on something else,
is impermanent;
since what is impermanent
is ill;
since what is ill
is not of me,
I am not that,
not for me is that the self -
thus is this matter well seen by me
as it really is
by right insight;
and from that ill
I have come to know
to the uttermost the escape,
as it really is."

At these words the Wanderers kept silent,
were confounded,
[130] hung the head,
looked downward,
were disappointed,
sat unable to make reply.

So the housefather Anāthapiṇḍika,
seeing those Wanderers confounded,
unable to make reply,
rose up from his seat
and went to see the Exalted One,
and on coming to him,
saluted him and sat down at one side.

So seated he related
all the conversation he had had
with the Wanderers holding other views.[ed1]

Whereupon the Exalted One said:

"Well done, housefather!

Well done, housefather!

Even thus righteously
are infatuated people
from time to time
to be confuted and rebuked by you."

Thereupon the Exalted One instructed,
stirred,
fired
and gladdened the housefather Anāthapiṇḍika
with a talk about dhamma.

And the housefather Anāthapiṇḍika,
thus instructed,
stirred,
fired
and gladdened with a talk about dhamma,
[189]rose up from his seat,
saluted the Exalted One
by keeping his right side towards him,
and so departed.

 

§

 

Not long after the housefather Anāthapiṇḍika had gone,
the Exalted One addressed the monks, saying:

This misreads the intent here. What is meant is that Anāthapiṇḍika's rebuke was on a level with that which might be given by a bhikkhu ordained for a hundred years.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

"Monks, any monk who had been fully ordained in this Dhamma-discipline
even for a hundred rain-seasons
might reasonably
from time to time
confute and rebuke
the Wanderers holding other views
just as they have been confuted
by the housefather Anāthapiṇḍika."

 


[1] Mano-bhāvanīyā = mano-vaḍḍhanakā, Comy. Cf. K.S. iii, 1 (where I mistranslate). The whole introductory part is at M. ii, 23; cf. D. iii, 37.

[2] Jīva (the living thing) the later Upanishadic term for 'soul' as distinguished from ātmā. Jīva is the link (individual soul) joining ātmā to attabhāva (personality).

[3] Tathāgata, as I remarked above, I take this term in this context as applied to any man; the Tathāgata (par excellence) I have translated Wayfarer. This set of views is about the only one put in the mouths of the 'Heretics' by the monks. If they used the word Tathāgata at all, it would not be in the sense used by the Pali records. Comy. generally interprets as 'just a being.' It is unlikely that the Master called himself Tathāgata, certainly not Buddha. 'Is' means 'survives.'

[4] Paraghosa, to be distinguished from parato ghosa (voice from the beyond) of G.S. i, 79.

 


[ed1] Woodward puts this in parenthesis, but the Pali text also abbreviates in this way without indication that the whole should be repeated as is the usual case.


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