Aŋguttara Nikāya


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Aŋguttara-Nikāya
III. Tika Nipāta
VII. Mahā Vagga

The Book of the Gradual Sayings
or
More-Numbered Suttas

III. The Book of the Threes
VII. The Great Chapter

Sutta 61

Titth-ā-yatanādi Suttaɱ

Tenets

Translated from the Pali by
F.L. Woodward, M.A.

Copyright The Pali Text Society
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[157]

[1][than][bodh][olds] THUS have I heard:

On a certain occasion the Exalted One was staying near Sāvatthī, at Jeta Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Then the Exalted One addressed the monks, saying:

"Monks."

"Yes, Lord," replied those monks to the Exalted One.

The Exalted One said this:

"Monks, there are these three grounds of sectarian tenets,
which, though strictly questioned, investigated and discussed[1] by wise men,
persist in a traditional doctrine[2] of inaction.

What three?

[1] There are certain recluses and brahmins who teach thus, who hold this view; —

Whatsoever weal or woe or neutral feeling is experienced,
all that is due to some previous action.[3]

There are others who teach: -

[2] Whatsoever weal or woe or neutral feeling is experienced,
all that is due to the creation of a Supreme Deity.[4]

[3] Others teach that all such are uncaused and unconditioned.

 

§

 

[2][than][olds] [1] Now, monks, as to those recluses and brahmins
who hold and teach the first of these views,
I approach them and say:

'Is it true, as they say,
that you worthy sirs teach
that whatsoever weal or woe or neutral feeling is experienced,
all is due to former action?'

Thus questioned by me they reply:

'Yes, we do.'

Then I say to them:

'So then, owing to a previous action,
men will become murderers, thieves, unchaste, liars, slanderers, abusive, babblers, covetous, malicious, and perverse in view.

Thus for those who fall back
on the former deed as the essential reason[5]
there is neither desire to do,
nor effort to do,
nor necessity to do this deed
or abstain from that deed.

So then, the necessity for action or inaction
not being found to exist
in truth and verity,
the term 'recluse' cannot reasonably be applied to yourselves,
since you live in a state of bewilderment
with faculties unwarded.'

[158] Such, monks, is my first reasonable rebuke
to those recluses and brahmins
who thus teach,
who hold such views.

[3][than][olds] [2] Again, monks, as to those recluses and brahmins
who hold and teach the second of these views,
I approach them and say:

'Is it true, as they say,
that you worthy sirs teach
that whatsoever weal or woe or neutral feeling is experienced,
all that is due to the creation of a Supreme Deity?"

Thus questioned by me they reply:

'Yes, we do.'

Then I say to them:

'So then, owing to the creation of a Supreme Deity,
men will become murderers, thieves, unchaste, liars, slanderers, abusive, babblers, covetous, malicious, and perverse in view.

Thus for those who fall back
on the creation of a Supreme Deity
as the essential reason
there is neither desire to do,
nor effort to do,
nor necessity to do this deed
or abstain from that deed.

So then, the necessity for action or inaction
not being found to exist
in truth and verity,[6]
the term 'recluse' cannot reasonably be applied to yourselves,
since you live in a state of bewilderment
with faculties unwarded.'

Such, monks, is my second reasonable rebuke
to those recluses and brahmins who thus teach,
who hold such views.

[4][than][olds] [3] Again, monks, as to those recluses and brahmins
who teach thus,
who hold this view:

'Whatsoever weal or woe or neutral feeling is experienced,
all that is uncaused and un-conditioned,'—

I approach them and say:

'Is it true, as they say,
that you worthy sirs teach that
whatsoever weal or woe or neutral feeling is experienced,
all this is uncaused and unconditioned?'

Thus questioned by me they reply:

'Yes, we do.'

Then I say to them:

'So then, owing to no cause or condition at all,
men will become murderers, thieves, unchaste, liars, slanderers, abusive, babblers, covetous, malicious, and perverse in view.

Thus for those who fall back on the uncaused and unconditioned as the essential,
there is neither desire to do,
nor effort to do,
nor necessity to do this deed
or to abstain from that deed.

So then, the necessity for action or inaction
not being found to exist
in truth and verity,
the term 'recluse' cannot be reasonably applied to yourselves,
since you live in a state of bewilderment
with faculties unwarded.'

[159] Such, monks, is my third reasonable rebuke
to those recluses and brahmins
who hold and teach these views.

And these are the three grounds of sectarian tenets which,
though strictly questioned,
investigated and discussed by wise men,
persist in a traditional doctrine of inaction.

 

§

 

[5][than][olds] Now, monks, this Dhamma do I teach,
one not refuted,
not tarnished,
unblamed,
uncensured by intelligent recluses and brahmins.

And what is that Dhamma?

'These are the six elements,' —
that Dhamma do I teach
one not refuted,
not tarnished,
unblamed,
uncensured by intelligent recluses and brahmins.

'There are these six spheres of contact,' —
that Dhamma do I teach
one not refuted,
not tarnished,
unblamed,
uncensured by intelligent recluses and brahmins.

'There are these eighteen applications of mind[7],' —
that Dhamma do I teach
one not refuted,
not tarnished,
unblamed,
uncensured by intelligent recluses and brahmins.

'There are these four Ariyan truths,' —
that Dhamma do I teach
one not refuted,
not tarnished,
unblamed,
uncensured by intelligent recluses and brahmins.

 

§

 

[6][than][olds] Now as to the first of these,
in what connexion did I speak of six elements?

The six elements are these:

The element of earth,
the element of water,
that of heat,
that of air,
the element of space,[8] and
the element of consciousness.

That is what I meant when I spoke of the six elements.

[7][than][olds] And in what connexion did I speak of six spheres of contact?

The six spheres of contact are these:

The sphere of eye-cohtact,
that of ear-,
nose-,
tongue-,
body-, and
the sphere of mind-contact

That is what I meant when I spoke of six spheres of contact.

[8][than][olds] And in what connexion did I speak of these eighteen applications of mind?

Seeing an object with the eye one's thoughts are concerned with the object,
whether it give ground for pleasure,
pain or neutral feeling.

Hearing[ed1] an object with the ear one's thoughts are concerned with the object,
whether it give ground for pleasure,
pain or neutral feeling.

Smelling an object with the nose one's thoughts are concerned with the object,
whether it give ground for pleasure,
pain or neutral feeling.

Tasting an object with the tongue one's thoughts are concerned with the object,
whether it give ground for pleasure,
pain or neutral feeling.

Contacting an object with the body one's thoughts are concerned with the object,
whether it give ground for pleasure,
pain or neutral feeling.

Contacting a mental object with the mind one's thoughts are concerned[9] with the object,
whether it give ground for pleasure,
pain or neutral feeling.

[160] That is what I meant when I spoke of the eighteen applications of mind.

[9][than][olds] And as to these four Ariyan truths, in what connexion did I mention them?

Based on the six elements, monks, there is descent into the womb.

This descent taking place,
name-and-shape come to pass.

Conditioned by name-and-shape is the sixfold sphere (of sense).

Conditioned by the sixfold sphere is contact.

Conditioned by contact is feeling.[10]

Now to him who has feeling, monks, I make known:

'This is i11.'

I make known:

'This is the arising of i11.'

I make known:

'This is the making i11 to cease.'

I make known:

'This is the practice that leads to the making i11 to cease.'

[10][than][olds] And what, monks, is the Ariyan truth of i11?

Birth is i11,
old age and decay,
sickness,
death,
sorrow,
grief,
woe,
lamentation and despair are i11.

Not to get what one desires is i11.

In short, the five groups based on grasping are i11.[11]

[11][than][olds] And what, monks, is the Ariyan truth of the arising of i11?[12]

Conditioned by ignorance the activities come to be:
conditioned by the activities, consciousness:
conditioned by consciousness, name-and-shape:
conditioned by name-and-shape, the sixfold sphere of sense:
conditioned by the sixfold sphere of sense, contact:
conditioned by contact, feeling:
conditioned by feeling, craving:
conditioned by craving, grasping:
conditioned by grasping, becoming:
conditioned by becoming, birth:
conditioned by birth,
old age and death,
sorrow,
grief,
woe,
lamentation and despair come to pass.

This is the arising of the whole mass of i11.

This, monks, is called "the Ariyan truth of the arising of ill."

[12][than][olds] And what, monks, is the Ariyan truth of the making i11 to cease?

From the utter fading out and ending of ignorance,
comes the ending of the activities;
from the ending of the activities,
[161] the ending of consciousness;
from the ending of consciousness,
the ending of name-and-shape;
from the ending of name-and-shape,
the ending of the sixfold sphere of sense;
from the ending of the sixfold sphere of sense,
the ending of contact;
from the ending of contact,
the ending of feeling;
from the ending of feeling,
the ending of craving;
from the ending of craving,
the ending of grasping;
from the ending of grasping,
the ending of becoming;
from the ending of becoming,
the ending of birth;
from the ending of birth,
comes the ending of this whole mass of i11.

This, monks, is called "the making i11 to cease."

[13][than][olds] And what, monks, is the Ariyan truth of the practice that leads to the making i11 to cease?

It is just this Ariyan Eightfold Way, to wit:

Right view,
right aim,
right speech,
right action,
right living,
right effort,
right mindfulness,
right concentration,

This is called "the Ariyan truth of the practice that leads to the making i11 to cease.

 

§

 

' This Dhamma, monks, do I teach,
these four Ariyan truths,
Dhamma not refuted,
not tarnished,
unblamed,
uncensured by intelligent recluses and brahmins.'

What I said was said in this connexion."

 


[1] Cf. M. 1, 130 (where these three verbs are translated 'inquiry, expostulation, remonstrance' by Lord Chalmers).

[2] Param pi gantvā. Comy. paraphr. by yaɱ kiñci paramparaɱ gantvā pi, which I take to mean 'tradition.'

[3] These views are examined at M. ii, 214 ff. (Devadaha-sutta) in confuting the Niganṭha. Cf. K.S. iii, 166; iv, 251.

[4] Issara-nimmāna-hetu.

[5] Sārato paccāgacchataɱ—sāra-bhāvena gaṇhantānaɱ.

[6] M. i, 138, soccato thetato anupalabbhamāne-bhūtato thirato apaññā-yamāne. Comy.

[7] Mano-pavicārā (not in Dict-) = vitakka-vicārā-padehi aṭṭhārasasu thānesu manassa upavicārā. Comy.

[8] Cf. Buddh. Psych. 273. 'The Theravada position is that we see not space but the visible objects (rūpāni) filling space. Even these he will not admit to be anything but so many coloured areas.' The question is discussed in Buddhist Philosophy, Dr. B. Keith, pp. 168-9.

[9] Upavicarati.

[10] Cf. K.S. ii, 46; iii, 40, etc.

[11] Cf. K.S. iii, 134 ff., etc.

[12] Cf. K.S. ii, 2, etc.

 


[ed1] Woodward abbreviates: "The same as regards ear, nose, tongue and the other sense-organs. ..." to "Contacting a mental object..." I have elsewhere expanded his abbreviations without note but here his precise wording is not certain.


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