Aŋguttara Nikāya


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Aŋguttara Nikāya
Chakka Nipāta
VI. Mahā Vagga

The Book of the Gradual Sayings
The Book of the Sixes
Chapter VI: The Great Chapter

Sutta 63

Nibbedhika Suttaɱ

A Penetrative Discourse[1]

Translated from the Pali by E.M. Hare.

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[291]

[1][than][olds] 'Monks, I will teach you a penetrative discourse,
a Dhamma discourse.

Listen,
pay heed,
I will speak!'

'Yes, lord,' rejoined those monks;
and the Exalted One said:

[2][than][olds] 'And what, monks, is this penetrative discourse,
this Dhamma-discourse?

 

§

 

Monks, sense-desires must be discerned,
their tie-source,[2]
variety,[3]
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto.

Monks, feelings must be discerned,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto.

Monks, perceptions must be discerned,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto.

Monks, cankers must be discerned,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto.

Monks, action must be discerned,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto.

Monks, ill must be discerned,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto.

 

§

 

[3][than][olds]Monks, it is said:

"Sense-desires[ed1] must be discerned,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto."
— and wherefore is this said?

Monks, the strands[4] of sense-desires are five:
Forms cognizable by the eye, luring, longed for, loved, enticing, lustful, impassioning;
sounds cognizable by the ear, luring, longed for, loved, enticing, lustful, impassioning;
smells by the nose, luring, longed for, loved, enticing, lustful, impassioning;
tastes by the tongue, luring, longed for, loved, enticing, lustful, impassioning;
touches by the body, luring, longed for, loved, enticing, lustful, impassioning.

Though these are not sense-desires, monks,
in the Ariyan discipline they are called
the strands of the sense-desires.

In passionate purpose lies man's sense-desire[5]
The world's gay glitters are not sense-desires,
In passionate purpose lies man's sense-desire.
The world's gay glitters as they are abide,
But wise men hold desire therefor in check."

[292] [4][than][olds] And what is the tie-source of sense-desires?

Contact, monks.

And what is sense-desires' variety?

One sense-desire is for forms,
another for sounds,
another for smells,
another for tastes,
another for touch.

This, rnonks, is called sense-desires' variety.

And what is sense-desires' fruit?

When desiring aught,
one engenders just that proper state of being
to partake of merit or demerit.

This, monks, is called sense-desires' fruit.

And what is sense-desires' ending?

Contact's ending is sense-desires' ending, monks.

And just in this Ariyan Eghtfold Way are the steps leading to sense-desires' ending, to wit:
right view,
right purpose,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right effort,
right mindfulness and
right concentration.

And when the Ariyan disciple thus knows sense-desires,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending
and the steps leading thereto;
he knows this penetrative godly life
as sense-desires' ending.

Monks, it is said:

"Sense-desires must be discerned,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto."
— and because of this it is said.

 

§

 

[5][than][olds]Monks, it is said:

"Feelings must be discerned,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto."
— and wherefore is this said?

Monks, feelings are these three:
feeling of ease,
feeling of ill,
and feeling of neither ill nor ease.

[6][than][olds] And what is feelings' tie-source?

Contact, monks.

And what is feelings' variety?

There are feelings of ease that are carnal,[6]
there are feelings of ease that are not;
there are feelings of ill that are carnal,
there are feelings of ill that are not;
there are feelings of neither ill nor ease that are carnal,
there are feelings of neither ill nor ease that are not.

This, monks, is called feelings' variety.

And what is feelings' fruit?

When feeling aught,
one engenders just that proper state of being
to partake of merit or demerit.

This, monks, is called feelings' fruit.

And what is feelings' ending?

Contact's ending, monks.

And just in this Ariyan Eghtfold Way are the steps leading to feelings' ending, to wit:
right view,
right purpose,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right effort,
right mindfulness and
right concentration.

And when the Ariyan disciple thus knows feelings,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending
and the steps leading thereto;
he knows this penetrative godly life
as feelings' ending.

[293] Monks, it is said:

"Feelings must be discerned,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto."
— and because of this it is said.

 

§

 

[7][than][olds]Monks, it is said:

"Perceptions must be discerned,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto."
— and wherefore is this said?

Monks, perceptions are these six:
Perceptions of forms,
sounds,
smells,
tastes,
touches and
ideas.

[8][than][olds] And what is perceptions' tie-source?

Contact, monks.

And what is perceptions' variety?

There is one perception as to forms,
another as to sounds
another as to smells,
another as to tastes,
another as to touches.

This, monks, is called perceptions' variety.

And what is perceptions' fruit?

I say, monks, perceptions are the result of habit.[7]

As one comes to know a thing,
so one expresses oneself:

"Thus I perceived."

This, monks, is called perceptions' fruit.

And what is perceptions' ending?

Contact's ending, monks.

And just in this Ariyan Eghtfold Way are the steps leading to perceptions' ending, to wit:
right view,
right purpose,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right effort,
right mindfulness and
right concentration.

And when the Ariyan disciple thus knows perceptions,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending
and the steps leading thereto;
he knows this penetrative godly life
as perceptions' ending.

Monks, it is said:

"Perceptions must be discerned,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto."
— and because of this it is said.

 

§

 

[9][than][olds] Monks, it is said:

"Cankers must be discerned,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto."
— and wherefore is this said?

Monks, cankers are these three:
canker of lust,
of becoming and
of ignorance.[8]

[10][than][olds] And what is cankers' tie-source?

Ignorance, monks.

And what is cankers' variety?

There are cankers that lead to hell,
to a beast's womb,
to the realm of the departed,
to the world of man and
to the deva-world.

This, monks, is called cankers' variety.

And what is cankers' fruit?

When ignorant,
one engenders just that proper state of being
to partake of merit and demerit.

This, monks, is called cankers' fruit.

And what is cankers' ending?

Ending of ignorance, monks.

And just in this Ariyan Eghtfold Way are the steps leading to [294] cankers' ending, to wit:
right view,
right purpose,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right effort,
right mindfulness and
right concentration.

And when the Ariyan disciple thus knows cankers,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending
and the steps leading thereto;
he knows this penetrative godly life
as cankers' ending.

Monks, it is said:

"Cankers must be discerned,
their tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto."
— and because of this it is said.

 

§

 

[11][than][olds]Monks, it is said:

"Action must be discerned,[9]
its tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto."
— and wherefore is this said?

Monks, I say that
'determinate thought is action.[10]

When one determines,
one acts by deed,
word or
thought.

[12][than][olds] And what is actions' tie-source?

Contact, monks.

And what is actions' variety?

There is action that is experience in hell,
there is action that is experience in a beast's womb
there is action that is experience in the deva-world.

This, monks, is called actions' variety.

And what is actions' fruit?

I say that it is threefold:

It may either rise here now
or at another time
or on the way.[11]

This, monks, is called actions' fruit.

And what is action's ending?

Contact's ending, monks.

And just in this Ariyan Eghtfold Way are the steps leading to action's ending, to wit:
right view,
right purpose,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right effort,
right mindfulness and
right concentration.

And when the Ariyan disciple thus knows action,
its tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending
and the steps leading thereto;
he knows this penetrative godly life
as actions' ending.

Monks, it is said:

"Action must be discerned,
its tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto."
— and because of this it is said.

 

§

 

[13][than][olds]Monks, it is said:

"Ill must be discerned,
its tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending and
the steps leading thereto"
— and wherefore is this said?

Birth is ill,
old age is ill,
disease is ill,
death is ill;
grief, sorrow,
misery, distress,
tribulation are ill,
not to get what one wants is ill
— in short, (life's) fivefold bunch of clinging[12] is ill.

[295] [14][than][olds] And what is ill's tie-source?

Craving, monks.

And what is ill's variety?

Ill that is above measure;
ill that is trifling;
ill that is quick to change;
and ill that is slow to change.

This, monks, is called ill's variety.

And what is ill's fruit?

Consider one overcome by ill,
in mind forspent
— he grieves,
mourns,
laments,
beats his breast and
becomes bewildered;
or roams[13] abroad
in search of one who knows a spell or two
to end his ill.

Ill yields bewilderment and search, I say.

This, monks, is called ill's fruit.

And what is ill's ending?

Craving's ending, monks.

And just in this Ariyan Eghtfold Way are the steps leading to ill's ending, to wit:
right view,
right purpose,
right speech,
right action,
right livelihood,
right effort,
right mindfulness and
right concentration.

And when the Ariyan disciple thus knows ill,
its tie-source,
its variety,
its fruit,
its ending and
the steps leading thereto;
then he knows this penetrative godly life
as ill's ending.

Monks, it is said:

"Ill must be discerned,
its tie-source,
variety,
fruit,
ending,
and the steps leading thereto."
— and because of this it is said.

Verily, monks, such is this penetrative discourse,
this Dhamma-discourse.'

 


[1]Nidāna-sambhavo. Comy. Kāme nideti; P.E.D. omits.

[2]Vemattatā.

[3]Kāma-guṇā, Comy. Bandhanaṭṭhena guṇā, antaguṇan-ti viya.

[4]Noteworthy here is the word puriso not ejected by puggalo, and kāmo in the singular; cf. the Upanishadic use; Brh. Up. iv. 4, 5: 'so it is said, man is wholly formed of kāmo.'

[5] S. i, 22; see K.S. i, 32 and Pts. of Contr. 216. 'Desire,' last line = chanda.

[6]Samisā and nir; cf. D. ii. 298.

[7]Vohāra-vepakka; cf. Vism. 602; trsl. 726.

[8]Note that we have here retained the three (not the four) cankers. So Dial. iii. p. 209.

[9]Kamma or karma, considered both objectively and subjectively; see P.E.D. s.v. and elsewhere.

[10]Cetandhaŋ kammaŋ vadāmi; see Mrs. Rhys Davids' Buddh. Psych. 93; Pts. of Contr. 225.

[11]Ti-vidhāhaŋ kammānaŋ vipākaŋ vadāmi: Diṭṭh'eva dhamme upapajje vā apare vā pariyāye. S.e. for eva reads . But if tividha, we must read pariyāye vā (?). Cf. the fourfold effect in time at Cpd. 144; Vism. trsl. 724; but I am not certain whether this is referred to.

[12] Pānc'upādāna-kkhandhā. Cf. Vin. Texts (S.B.E.), i, 95, etc.

[13]Cf. D. i, 222.

 


[ed1] Hare here has "Sense-desires and so forth ..." but the text only referrs to "kāmā".


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