Aŋguttara Nikāya


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Aŋguttara Nikāya
X. Dasaka-Nipāta
XVII: Jāṇussoṇi-Vagga

The Book of the Gradual Sayings
X. The Book of the Tens
XVII: Jāṇussoṇi

Sutta 176

Cunda Kammara-Putta Suttaɱ

Cunda the Silversmith

Translated from the Pali by F. L. Woodward, M.A.

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[175]

[1][than] THUS have I heard:

Once the Exalted One was staying at Pava
in the mango grove of Cunda, the son of the silversmith.

Now Cunda, son of the silversmith,[1] came to see the Exalted One,
and on coming to him saluted him
and sat down at one side.

So seated the Exalted One said this to him:

"Cunda, in whose purifying rites do you find satisfaction?"

"Sir, the brāhmins of the west
who carry waterpots
and [176] wear lily-garlands,
who are purifiers by water,
fire-worshippers,
enjoin purifying rites.[2]

In those I find satisfaction."

"In what way, Cunda,
do those brāhmins who carry water-pots
and wear lily-garlands,
who are purifiers by water,
fire-worshippers,
enjoin their purifying rites?"

"Herein, sir, those brāhmins who carry waterpots
and wear lily-garlands,
who are purifiers by water,
fire-worshippers,
thus instruct a follower:

'Come now, good fellow,
rise up in good time
from your bed
and touch the ground.

If you do not touch the ground,
touch wet cowdung.

If you do not touch wet cowdung,
touch green grass.

If you do not touch green grass,
worship fire.

If you do not worship fire,
adore the sun with clasped hands.

If you do not adore the sun with clasped hands,
descend into water for the third time[3] in the evening.'

Thus, sir, do the brāhmins who carry waterpots
and wear lily-garlands,
who are purifiers by water,
fire-worshippers,
enjoin purifying rites.

In them do I find satisfaction."

"Well, Cunda, the purifying rites
enjoined by those brāhmins
are quite different from the purification in the discipline of the Ariyan."[4]

"In what way, sir,
is there purification in the discipline of the Ariyan?

Well for me, sir,
if the Exalted One would teach me dhamma
about the discipline of the Ariyan."

"Then, Cunda, do you listen.

Pay attention carefully
and I will speak."

"I will, sir," replied Cunda, the son of the silversmith, to the Exalted One,
who said this:

 

§

 

"Threefold, Cunda, is defilement by body;
fourfold is defilement by speech;
threefold is defilement by thought.

 

§

 

And how is defilement by body threefold?

Herein, Cunda, a certain one takes life,
he is a hunter,
bloody-handed,
given up to killing and slaying,
void of compassion for all living creatures.[5]

A certain one takes what is not given;
he takes with thievish intent
things not given to him,
the property of another person,
situated in jungle
or in village.

In sexual desires
he is a wrong-doer;
he has intercourse with girls in ward of mother or father,
brother,
[177] sister
or relatives (or clan);
with girls lawfully guarded,[6]
already pledged to a husband
and protected by the rod,[7]
even with girls crowned with the flower-garland (of betrothal).

Thus, Cunda, threefold is defilement by body.

 

§

 

And how, Cunda, is defilement by speech fourfold?

Herein again, Cunda, a certain one is a liar.

When cited to appear before the council
or a company
or amid his relatives
or guild-men
or before the royal family
and asked to bear witness
with the words:

"Come, good fellow!
Say what you know."

Though he knows not, he says, 'I know';
though he knows, he says, 'I know not';
though he has not seen, he says 'I saw';
though he saw, he says 'I saw not'.

Thus for his own sake
or that of others
or to get some carnal profit or other
he deliberately utters falsehood.

Also he is a slanderer.

Hearing something at one place
he proclaims it somewhere else
to bring about a quarrel between the parties;
what he has heard here
he repeats there
to bring about a quarrel between the parties.

Thus he breaks up harmony,
foments strife between those discordant,
discord is his delight;
exulting in
and passionately fond of discord,
he utters speech
that makes for discord.

Also he is of harsh speech.

Whatsoever speech is rough,[8]
cutting,
bitter about others,
abusive of others,
provoking wrath
and conducive to distraction -
such speech does he utter.

He is given to idle babble,
he speaks out of season,
speaks unrealities;
he speaks things unprofitable,
what is not-dhamma
and not-discipline;
he utters speech not worth treasuring up,
speech unreasonable
and not worth listening to,
undiscriminating
and unconcerned with profit.

Thus, Cunda, defilement by speech is fourfold.

 

§

 

And how is defilement by mind threefold?

Herein, Cunda, a certain one is covetous,
he is one who covets [178] the property of another,
thinking:

"O that what is another's were mine!"

He is malevolent of heart,
the thoughts of his heart are corrupt, thus:

'Let these beings be slain,
come to destruction,[9]
be destroyed,
not exist at all.'

Also he has wrong view,
he is perverse in outlook,
holding:

'There is no gift,
no offering,
no sacrifice;
there is no fruit or ripening of deeds
well done or ill done;
this world is not,
the world beyond is not;
there is no mother,
no father,
no beings supernaturally born;
there are no recluses and brāhmins in the world
who have gone right,
who fare rightly,
men who by their own comprehension
have realized this world
and the world beyond
and thus declare.'

Thus, Cunda, defilement by mind is threefold.

Cunda, there are those ten ways of wrong action.

 

§

 

One characterized by those ten ways of wrong action
may rise up early
and at eventide[ed1] touch the earth,
yet is he still impure.

Even if he touch not the earth
he is equally impure.

Though he handle cowdung he is impure.

Even if he does not handle cowdung
he is equally impure.

He may handle green grasses or not

He may worship the fire or not

He may clasp his hands
and bow to the sun or not,
he is impure just the same.

He may descend in the evening into water for the third time
or not,
yet is he still impure.

What is the cause of that?

Those ten ways of wrong action, Cunda,
are impure
and cause impurity.

Moreover, as a result of being characterized
by those ten ways of wrong action,
purgatory is declared,
birth in the womb of animals is declared,
the realm of ghosts is declared,
either that or some other form of ill-bourn.

 

§

 

But, Cunda, threefold is cleansing by body,
fourfold is cleansing by speech,
threefold is cleansing by mind.

 

§

 

And how is cleansing by body threefold?

Herein, Cunda, a certain one abandons taking life,
abstains therefrom;
he has laid aside the rod,
has laid aside the knife;
he dwells modest,
charitable,
feeling compassion towards every living creature.

He abandons taking what is not given,
abstains therefrom;
[179] the property of another,
situated in jungle or in village,
if not given,
he takes not with thievish intent.

In sexual desires
he abandons wrong action,
abstains therefrom.

He has no intercourse
with girls in ward of mother or father,
of brother,
sister
or relatives (or clan),
with girls lawfully guarded,
already plighted to a husband
and protected by the rod,
even with girls crowned
with the flower-garlands (of betrothal).

Thus, Cunda, threefold is cleansing by body.

 

§

 

And how is cleansing by speech fourfold?[ed2]

Herein, Cunda, a certain one abandons lying speech
he abstains therefrom.

When cited to appear before the council
or a company
or amid his relatives
or guild-men
or before the royal family
and asked to bear witness
with the words:

'Come, good fellow!
Say what you know.'

If he knows not, he says, 'I know not';
if he knows, he says, 'I know';
if he has not seen, he says 'I saw not';
if he saw, he says 'I saw'.

Thus neither for his own sake
or that of others
or to get some carnal profit or other
does he deliberately utter falsehood.

Abandoning slanderous speech
he abstains therefrom.

When he hears something at one place
he does not proclaim it elsewhere
to bring about a quarrel between the parties;
what he has heard here
he does not report there
to bring about a quarrel between the parties;
thus he brings together the discordant,
restores harmony,
harmony is his delight,
he exults in,
is passionately fond of harmony;
he utters speech that makes for harmony.

Also he abandons harsh speech,
abstains therefrom.

Whatsoever speech is blameless,
pleasant to the ear,
affectionate,
going to the heart,
urbane,
agreeable to many folk,
delightful to many folk,
of such speech he is a speaker.

Also abandoning idle babble
he abstains therefrom;
he speaks in season,
of facts,
of the aim,
of dhamma,
of discipline;
he utters speech worth treasuring up,
speech seasonable
and worth listening to,
discriminating
and concerned with the aim.

Thus, Cunda, fourfold is cleansing by speech.

 

§

 

And how is cleansing by mind threefold?

Herein a certain one is not covetous;
he covets not the property of another,
thinking:

'0 that what is another's were mine!'

He is not malevolent of heart,
the thoughts of his heart
are not corrupt.

He wishes:

'Let these beings carry about the self[10] in peace,
free from enmity,
free from sorrow
and in happiness.

Also he has right view;
he is reasonable in outlook,
holding that there are such things as gift,
offering,
oblation,
fruit and ripening of deeds
done well or ill;
that this world is,
[180] that the world beyond is;
that mother, father and beings of supernatural birth (in other worlds) do exist;
that there are in the world recluses and brāhmins
who have gone rightly,
who fare rightly,
men who of their own comprehension
have realized this world and the world beyond
and thus declare it.

Thus, Cunda, threefold is the cleansing by the mind.

So these are the ten ways of right doing.

 

§

 

One characterized by those ten ways
may rise up early
and at evening
touch the earth,
yet is he pure.

If he touch not the earth,
yet is he pure.

Whether he handle cowdung or not,
yet is he pure.

Whether he handle green grasses or not,
yet is he pure.

Whether he worship the fire or not,
yet is he pure.

Whether he clasp his hands and bow down to the sun or not,
yet is he pure.

Whether he descend in the evening into water for the third time or not,
yet is he pure for all that.

And why so?

Because, Cunda, those ten ways of right action
are pure
and work purity.

By being characterized by those ten ways of right action
(the state of) devahood is proclaimed,
of mankind is proclaimed,
or whatsoever other happy bourn there be.'

 

§

 

At these words Cunda, the son of the silversmith, exclaimed to the Exalted One:

"It is excellent, sir![11]

Let the Exalted One reckon me a follower of his
from this day forth
as long as life shall last,
as one who has so gone to him as resort."

 


"probably died". No. He died later on that day. Cunda was the donor of his last meal.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[1] Cunda, the silversmith, apparently, at whose house the Master probably died. Cf. D. ii, 120. Putta signifies membership of a clan or family, e.g. devaputta.

[2] Cf. S. iv, 312 = K.S. iv, 218.

[3] Sāyā-tatiyaka; cf. A. i, 296; ii, 206.

[4] For another comparison cf. G.S. i, 146.

[5] As at M. i, 286 = Further Dialog, i, 203. As our Comy. has no remarks, consult MA. ii, 330 ff.

[6] Dhamma-rakkhitā. M. i, 286 omits this term. PvA. 72, in the same context, adds gottarakkhitā, and has a list of ten such.

Daṇḍa. A symbol of authority. The threat of punishment. These are girls guarded by the king or state.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[7] Sa-paridaṇḍa, '?guarded by a stick,' according to P. Dict. and MA., but daṇḍa may be taken in the sense of penalty.

[8] Aṇḍakā (v.l. kaṇṭakā). MA. ganṇḍakā (excrescences or warts on a faulty tree).

[9] Text bajjhantu; M.MA. vajjhantu.

[10] Attānaɱ pariharantu: cf. G.S. ii, 3, 236, 257.

[11] As at § 119

 


[ed1] Woodward above 'betimes' below 'evening'. Bhk. Thanissaro "at the proper time" in all cases; Bhk. Bodhi: "having gotten up early you should stroke the ground from your bed" in all cases.

[ed2] Woodward omits the entire section on abstaining from lying speech.


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