Index of the Suttas of the
PTS: Aŋguttara Nikāya, The html formatted Pali Text Society edition of the Pali text.
Volume II Fours, ed. by R. Morris,
London: Pali Text Society 1888, second edition 1961.
BJT: Aŋguttara Nikāya, The Sri Lanka Buddha Jayanti Tripitaka Series Pali text
Volume II Fours.
The Pali text for individual suttas listed below is adapted from the Sri Lanka Buddha Jayanti Tripitaka Series [BJT]. Pali vagga titles are links to this version of the Pali. Each translation is linked to it's Pali version and to the PTS, Olds and where available to the WP Bhk. Bodhi and ATI Bhk. Thanissaro translation, and each of these is in turn linked back to each of the others. Much, but not all the Pali has been checked against the Pali Text Society edition, and many of the suttas have been reformatted to include the original Pali (and/or organizational) phrase and sentence breaks.
PTS: The Book of the Gradual Sayings or More-Numbered Suttas, Volume II. F.W. Woodward translation
ATI: Translations of Bhikkhu Thanissaro and others originally located on Access to Insight
WP: The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha, Bhikkhu Bodhi translation
BD: The M. Olds translations
4. Catukka Nipāta II.1
PTS: The Book of the Fours
ATI: Book of the Fours
WP: The Book of the Fours
The Book of the Gradual Sayings, Vol. II, Introduction, by Mrs. Rhys Davids, and Translator's Preface, by F.L. Woodward. Mrs. Rhys Davids Introduction and F.L. Woodward's Preface to The Book of the Gradual Sayings, Volume II: The Book of the Fours. I recommend you stay away from this Introduction until such a point as the tendency to anger, tearing your hair out, pounding your desk and throwing a brick at your computer is well under control. The arrogance and 'superiority' of this woman is beyond comprehension. If she had stuck to her own discipline she would have emerged a hero, but she has felt a need to 'explain Buddhism' to the world and has by that ventured into territory where she is simply an incompetent. She has passionately embraced her own view of what Gotama's teaching 'must' have been all about and is defending that view against all comers. What she has done is explained from a theoretical intellectual viewpoint based on her own experience and preconceptions what can only be explained properly by a practitioner. It's like a lawyer, untrained and inexperienced in any aspect of medicine, who writes an introductory text on medicine. For her, everything that does not agree with her view is a later 'monkish' construction (she wants Gotama, who spent most of his time addressing bhikkhus, to have directed his teaching pimarily to the less interested common man), and by that she manages to ignore incalculably more than is accommodated by her view.
I include this work here because it is both the basis of controversy and of historical interest and it has been referenced by Woodward in a sutta in his translation of this volume.
I. Bhanṭagāma Vagga, I.1
PTS: At Bhandagama, I.1
WP: Bhaṇṭagāma, 387
Four reasons beings have been tied to the round of rebirths this long time.
Four factors that when missing indicate that one has fallen away from the path, when present that one is on the path: ethical conduct, serenity, wisdom, freedom.
Four types of action which amount to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four types of action which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma. See also: AN 3. 145, 146, 147 148 and many others.
Poor behavior towards four persons amounts to having uprooted and spoiled one's self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which results in much bad kamma; while good behavior towards four persons does not uproot, does not spoil the self, surrounds one with purity, brings praise by the wise, and results in much good kamma. A variation of the previous.
The Buddha describes the commoner, the Streamwinner, the Non-returner and the Arahant in terms of their relationship to the stream or natural flow of life.
Whether one's learning be great or small it profits not if one does not understand either the words or the point, does not follow the teachings within the Dhamma, but whether one's learning be great or small it profits well if one understands the words and the point and one follows the teaching within the Dhamma. This sutta has in it an unmistakable work of later editing in the list of works that are supposed to be read by one who is to be called well read (having 'heard much'). The list includes books known to be much later in origin than the Suttas. This is both discouraging and hopeful. It is discouraging because seeing work of this sort it is clear that there was some tampering with even the suttas. It is discouraging because it has tainted this work with bias (the desire to have works that are not original documentation considered as original documentation) and allowed in doubt. It is hopeful because it shows the childish stupidity of the tamperers. They could not see that it would be easy to see what they have done. What they do is always clumsy and obvious and consequently if one keeps alert they will not lead one astray. (But clearly they have already lead many astray!).
Four who are accomplished in wisdom, disciplined, confident, deeply learned, Dhamma-bearers, who live according to Dhamma, that illuminate the Order.
Being able in mind to answer four charges of self-deception that could be made against him the Buddha is confident he is Awakened and teaches a doctrine that will lead those who follow it to the end of Pain. See also MN 12, AN 6.64.
If craving arises in a bhikkhu it arises from one or another of these four sources.
The Buddha explains the way that sense pleasures, existence, opinions and blindness are yokes to the constant round of rebirths. This is a crime in the translations of many of Gotama's suttas: the utter lack of a sense of humor.
II. Cara Vagga, II.11
PTS: Deportment, II.13
WP: Walking, 399
Whether walking, or standing, or sitting, or lying down, a bhikkhu who does not wish to be known as a slacker, who does not wish to deprive himself of his opportunity for attaining the goal, should rid himself of lustful, deviant, or cruel thoughts.
Woodward notes that the Pali word used for the title of this sutta, 'cara' means 'walking' but he is then forced to say that this includes all the postures. PED: "[from car, carati] 1. the act of going about, walking; one who walks or lives." We say 'carries on'. This is also 'carriage' the manner in which one carries oneself ... whether walking, or standing still, or sitting or lying down ... or acting with mind and speech. The term has wide use and is worth remembering. It has come down even to us in our: 'carriage' (both the vehicle and the way one carries oneself) 'cart' 'car' 'carry'.
In the Satipatthana Sutta we learn to pay attention to the four postures. Here we see what we should be observing and doing as we make ourselves aware of the postures. I harp on the mistake of thinking this is a practice intended to focus solely on observation of the posture (or sensations, mental states and Dhamma) and noting 'standing, standing, standing' etc. but this is the extent of the practice as taught by huge numbers of followers of Mahasi Sayadow. We have to acknowledge such persons as pioneers in bringing us Dhamma, but simultaneously we must avoid blindly following what they have taught when the shortcomings of what they have taught become obvious when compared to the greater body of information available later. The goal is not observation of the present moment, it is freedom from identification with the existing. One notes the body, etc., (what is there in front of the eyes) but in context (internal, one's own and what is thought of as one's own, and external, what does not pertain to the self or comes from the outside the 'whole body of available information') relative to sensation, mental state and Dhamma, and all this, even, only to the extent (i.e., not to be made the point of the practice) that it serves the purpose of calming down to such a degree as enables attaining insight through the lens of the Dhamma into the validity of the Four Truths or the Paticca Smuppada, and further to that insight, to determine what needs to be done to attain the freedom from the existing moment that is the ultimate goal.
Whether walking, or standing, or sitting, or lying down, a bhikkhu who has trained himself in ethical practices has overcome the hindrances. Then, to become one known as energetic, careful and resolute, he must develop energy, establish his memory, calm his body and concentrate and tranquillize his mind.
This sutta builds on the previous sutta further developing the satipatthanas by way of the postures.
An exposition in brief of the four consummate efforts.
A detailed exposition of the four consummate efforts.
An important sutta: we do not get what is encompassed by the four consummate efforts described in detail very often.
Be careful to note Bhk. Bodhi's translation of vossagga as 'release' at the culmination of each of the seven dimensions of self-awakening. Do not confuse with either vimutti or vimokkha. 'Release' really doesn't work here. PED has: "Vossagga: relinquishing, relaxation; handing over, donation, gift". So the meaning is 'releasing the world', not 'attaining release.' "letting go" "giving up".
The Buddha lists the Four major chiefs of beings in the world.
Woodward translates 'chief types', but these are not the chief types of beings, but the four major chiefs of beings.
Both Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi translate the individuals in the list in this sutta as being spoken of in the present tense. This creates a small problem when it comes to Mandhata. In the Jataka story, Mandhata is identified with The Buddha. So from these two sources of information, as translated, we are told: Gotama is his own early ancestor. (Not a problem given the nature of rebirth.) Gotama was two of the pre-eminant beings he is describing. (Somewhat of a problem as they are incompatible, for this would be telling us that The Buddha (as Tathāgata) is one who possesses or enjoys sense-pleasures when it is clearly stated in numerous places that one does not speak of the 'Tathāgata' in this way.) But if Gotama is not to be identified with Mandhata, how can Mandhata be being spoken of in the present tense as the mythical Mandhata is long dead?
Trying to resolve this problem if we conclude that the Jataka story, as a story of a previous life of the Buddha is a later invention, but that the story of Mandhata was likely one well known to at least the Sakyans, we are left thinking that the mention of Mandhata in the present tense in this sutta is hardly a useful example of what it means to be supreme in the enjoyment or possession of sense-pleasures as we know 1. that he is dead, and 2. we know nothing about his current location or experiences. Either we have here a case where the teaching of the Buddha is not well done, or that this is not a true sutta given by the Buddha, or we have to conclude that the Jataka story is a true story of one of the Buddha's former lives and that the point of using Mandhata as an example was to create this question in our minds and force us to see that Gotama and Mandhata were one and the same individuality and that this is a way for the Buddha to tell the bhikkhus that a Tathāgata enjoys sense-pleasures. (Just a little too twisted even in my view of Gotama's subtlety, and still amounting to a view rejected by the Buddha.) I suggest a different construction:
etad aggaɱ bhikkhave kāmabhogīnaɱ yad idaɱ rājā Mandhātā;
At the top, beggars, that is to say of sense-pleasure possessors/enjoyers: King Mandhata.
'At the top' meaning 'at the all-time top'.
The Buddha describes four 'exquisites.'
Careful reading will show that the three different translations will yield three different modes of practice.
The Buddha describes four ways to not get there. In this and the next three suttas Woodward translates 'gati' as 'bourn' which has the effect in these cases, where the term is 'agati' of turning these suttas upside down. One way of describing the aim of the system is to say that it is to achieve the state where there are no further 'bourns' and one sure way not to achieve that goal is to take hold of desires, hatred, stupidity and give reign to fear. But by Woodwards phrasing this is just what one is to do. Of course the meaning is that these are the four ways of going wrong or getting things or behaving incorrectly or the acting against 'good form' that is mentioned in the gāthās.
If the gāthās were eliminated, the possible meanings for each sutta are dual and opposite depending on whether one understands the intent to be pointing to the goal of the arahant or a worldly goal and whether one is to understand the subject as 'ways of going wrong' or 'what you get from going wrong' i.e., destinies. Aside from the gāthās there is no reason to think that these double meanings were not deliberate, if not, perhaps, hidden to most under the meaning as we hear it now. This sutta paints half of a picture. The other half is in the next sutta, and the sutta following that combines the two. I have translated that sutta just to put in my thought about how it should be read. Otherwise Bhk. Thanissaro's translation would do. The fourth in the series gives a variation which looks to my eye as though it was intended to point to what is to be understood in the lot as it gives an every-day example. (see also on this subject, Ms. Horner's translation of MN 12
The Buddha describes four ways of getting there. There is a difference here between translators in their understanding of 'agati' 'gati' and 'nāgati', but both understand the essential idea: the previous sutta describes how not to get to Nibbana, this sutta describes how not to not get to Nibbana.
The Buddha describes four ways of not getting there and four ways of getting there. Combines the previous two suttas.
The Buddha describes four ways the distributor of food in the Saŋgha goes wrong whereby he ends up in Hell and four ways that he does not go wrong and thereby ends up in Heaven.
III. Uruvela Vagga, III.20
PTS: Uruvelā, III.20
WP: Uruvelā, 406
Shortly after his enlightenment Gotama sees no person to whom he should pay reverance and serve. Seeing danger in this situation he decides to place the Dhamma in this position.
Four things more important than age that make a person an elder.
The Buddha declares his freedom from all things worldly and lists the attributes of the Tathāgata. Followed by verses of admiration which have been added to the Renga.
The Buddha explains that his statement that he knows and understands whatsoever in the world, with its Maras, Brahmas, hosts of recluses and brahmins, devas and mankind, is seen, heard, sensed, cognized, attained, searched into, pondered over by the mind, is to be understood as a simple statement of fact and is not a brag and that because he does know these things, to say otherwise would be a lie.
The Brahmacariya or Holy Life is lived for the sake of finding the self-control, letting-go, detachment, and bringing to a conclusion to the problem of pain in existence not for the worldly advantages of fame, gains and favors.
The Buddha states that pretend bhikkhus, stubborn persons, gosips, crafty and undisciplined individuals are not followers of what he has taught and have no chance to gain, grow, or prosper in this system, but those whose interest is genuine, who are open-minded, wise, flexible, not gosips, who exercise self-control are followers of what he has taught and will gain, grow, and prosper in this system.
The Buddha praises contentment with basics of clothing, food, shelter and medicine that are worthless, easy to obtain, and blameless.
Among the ancient story-lines running down through the history of mankind — The Warrior's path, the practitioner of the holy life, ordinary people, shaman (sorcerers, wisemen, witch-doctors, curers), powerful families, and Kings — there is also the lineage of the Ariyan, a warrior, holy man, ordinary man, shaman, powerful person, and king all wrapped up in the seeker after the solution to the problem of pain in existence. Here Gotama speaks of the four ancient practices of this latter group. Woodward speaks of four lineages, but what is being spoken of is four practices of one lineage.
Four paths of good form that are ancient, long standing, traditional, primeval, pure and unadulterated, unconfused, respected by the wise.
The Buddha visits a Wanderer's park and teaches the four paths of good form that are ancient, long standing, traditional, primeval, pure and unadulterated, unconfused, respected by the wise, and he adds emphasis by showing that disparaging these four subjects one to ridicule.
IV. Cakka Vagga, IV.32
PTS: The Wheel, IV.35
WP: The Wheel, 419
The Buddha describes the four wheels on which rolls prosperity for gods and men.
The four bases for making friends. Woodward translates 'Saŋgaha' as 'sympathy' in the sense of 'being of the same mind', 'in sympathy', 'simpatico'. Bhk. Thanissaro: 'fellowship.' See also: DN 33.4.40 - Olds, trans.
The Buddha compairs the fear and trembling inspired in animals by the lion's roar to the fear and trembling inspired in beings when the teaching of impermanence is heard taught by the Tathāgata.
A good word for those who go by faith. Four ways in which faith is placed in the best of things and having been placed in the best yield the best of results.
Brahman Vassakarā visits Gotama and describes what the brahmins call a great man and Gotama replies with what is called a great man in his Dhamma-discipline.
Brahmin Dona is walkiing along behind the Buddha when he notices the mark of the Wheel in gotama's footprints. Drawing near he asks Gotama about what sort of being he may be and is told that he is beyond 'being' and is Buddha.
The Buddha enumerates four practices which ensure that one will not fall back.
Three conditions which must be fulfilled for one to be called 'Withdrawn': having put away personal beliefs, having abandoned ambitions, and having pasified the own-made body. The Buddha defines each of these conditions. The sutta is classed under the fours because 'withdrawl' is analyzed along with the three conditions.
Brahmin Ujjaya asks if Gotama praises sacrifices and is told that he does not praise bloody sacrifices and that they are of little worth but that he does praise traditional charitable sacrifices and that they are of much worth. Woodward footnotes the commentary describing a time previous to the Buddha in which sacrifices were not bloody, a story told in KD.SNP.2.7: Brāhmaṇadhammika Sutta.
Brahmin Udayi asks if Gotama praises sacrifices and is told that he does not praise bloody sacrifices and that they are of little worth but that he does praise traditional charitable sacrifices and that they are of much worth. Identical to the previous sutta but with different concluding verses.
V. Rohitassa Vagga, II.44
PTS: Rohitassa, V.51
WP: Rohitassa 431
The Buddha describes four methods of cultivating serenity: one that leads to happiness here; one that leads to insight; one that leads to mental development; and one that leads to the elimination of the corrupting influences.
The four ways of dealing with questions. See also on this subject: AN 3.67. Just one of thousands of seemingly simple ways of dealing with ordinary situations that we are not usually taught but which are very helpful in clarifying one's thinking.
Eight sorts of persons. Those governed by wrath, hypocrisy, gains, and fame, and those governed by Dhamma. These lists of persons found throughout the suttas are very helpful when it comes to controlling one's reactions to what feels like unreasonable behavior. Not everyone is governed by the reasonableness of the Dhamma. It is not likely, for example, that one will find success in dealing with a person governed by wrath by responding directly to any given episode of wrath. One must approach strategically, understanding the basis from which the person operates, and making one's response appear rational from that perspective.
PTS: Wrath (a), 54
WP: 43. Anger (1), 433
Eight sorts of respect; respect for wrath, hypocrisy, gains, and fame; and respect for true good form as opposed to each of these.
PTS: Wrath (b), 55
WP: 44. Anger (2), 434
Gotama converses with the Deva Rohitassa who asks if it is possible to reach the end of the world where there is no more birth and aging and death and rebirth. Gotama explains that it is not possible to get to that end of the world by 'going' but it is not possible to make an end of birth and aging and death and rebirth without reaching the end of the world. The world, he says, the origin of this world, the end of this world, and the way to go to go to the end of this world is to be got by understanding this body with it's perceptions and thoughts.
Gotama relates to the bhikkhus his conversation with the Deva Rohitassa who asks if it is possible to reach the end of the world where there is no more birth and aging and death and rebirth. Gotama explains that it is not possible to get to that end of the world by 'going' but it is not possible to make an end of birth and aging and death and rebirth without reaching the end of the world. The world, he says, the origin of this world, the end of this world, and the way to go to go to the end of this world is to be got by understanding this body with it's perceptions and thoughts.
This sutta looks like it should just be the second half of the previous sutta. It might be interesting to some to note that in the Pali there is an unusual effort made to make this repetition of the sutta read like a modern narative. Where usually what we find in such cases is an exact repetition of the events as they were previously told, here there is inserted such transitional phrases as: "When he had said that, I responded ..." So now we have three ways repetitions are found: strict repetition, encapsulation ('and they repeated all that had happened') and this narative form. I suggest none of them existed in the original event; that originally exact repetition was the expected form.
PTS: Rohitassa (b), 57
WP: 46. Rohitassa (2), 436
Farther apart than the earth and the sky, the two shores of the oceans, the place of the sun's rise and it's setting are the values of the good from those of the bad.
PTS: Very Far Away, 58
WP: 47. Far Apart, 436
The Buddha bestows high praise on Visakha for teaching Dhamma with great skill.
PTS: Visākha, 59
WP: 48. Visākha, 436
The Buddha teaches that holding that the changing is not changing, that pain is not pain, that not-self is self, that what is foul is fair is a perversion of perception, the heart, and point of view, but that to hold that the changing changes, that pain is pain, that what is not-self is not-self, and that what is foul is foul is not a perversion of perception, the heart, and point of view. Seems straight-forward enough ... until you start to examine what you are being told in the news, in ads, by teachers and by example of the leaders of men and of nations. Then you can see that without being taught such basic ideas as are found in this sutta sorting out without bias what is and what is not worth listening to and following is no easy task.
Four slimes that slime the life of the recluse, preventing it from blazing up and shining forth: drinking alcohol, sexual indulgence, handling money, and earning a living other than by begging. Kilesa, slime; as in the slime left by a snail.
VI. Puññābhisanda Vagga, II.54
PTS: Flood of Merit, VI.63
WP: Streams of Merit, 440
Four gifts that when given to a bhikkhu who is able to attain unbounded serenity yield incalculably rich results. This sutta serves the double purpose of encouraging the layman to give and to admonish the bhikkhus to be worthy to receive. It illustrates the fact that the consequences of kamma do not rely solely on the actor.
Unwavering confidence in the awakening of the Buddha, the teachings of the Buddha, and respect for the followers on the four stages of progress along with possession of high standards of ethical behavior — each of these things produces a flood of good kamma.
The Buddha describes four sorts of couples found in the world: a bad man living with a good woman, a good man living with a bad woman, a bad man living with a bad woman, and a good man living with a good woman.
The Buddha describes four sorts of couples found in the world: a bad man living with a good woman, a good man living with a bad woman, a bad man living with a bad woman, and a good man living with a good woman. A variation of the previous.
Nakula's mother and father each approach the Buddha and each, in identical words, states that they are not aware of the other ever having transgressed against them either in thought or deed and then state that they are desirous of seeing each other in lives to come. The Buddha instructs them in how such a thing is to be attained.
This is an excellent example of the performance of an act of truth: A wish put in the form of: "If this is true, let this wish be granted."
PTS: Well matched (a), 69
ATI: Samajivina Sutta: Living in Tune Thanissaro Bhk, trans.
BD: Matched Lives, Olds, trans.
MNL: Living on Equal Status, Sister Upalivana, trans.
WP: 55. The Same in Living (1), 445
The Buddha describes the way a couple that desires to find each other in the next life may do so. This sutta was prompted by the events described in the previous sutta.
Suppavasa of the Koliyans gives a meal to the Buddha and is told that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability. Think of it this way: 2500 years later we are still hearing about this woman because of her carefully prepared acts of charity.
Part of a remarkable story in which Suppavasa is pregnant for seven years and a day and when the child (Sivali) is born it is ordained by Sariputta seven days later and becomes Arahant a day after that.
Anāthapiṇṭika visits the Buddha and is told that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability.
The Buddha tells the bhikkhus that the food giver both gives and gets, life, beauty, happiness and ability.
The Buddha tells Anāthapiṇṭika serving the Order is a layman's path to a good reputation here and a good rebirth hereafter. Gihī-sāmīci-paṭipadā, Householders High Road, Consummate Path to Walk. Not 'Duty.'
VII. Pattakamma Vagga, II.65
PTS: Deeds of Merit, VII.73
WP: Worthy Deeds, 449
The Buddha teaches Anāthapiṇṭika a wise way to manage accumulated wealth such that at the end it will be seen to have been well used.
The Buddha teaches Anāthapiṇṭika four sorts of joy to be experienced by a householder: The joy of ownership, the joy of wealth, the joy of debtlessness, and the joy of blamelessness. So in these last three suttas we get a whole course in money management ... completely untained by guilt or fear.
Four terms of admiration applied to families where mother and father are honored and treated with respect: 'With Brahma', 'with Teachers of Old', 'with the Gods of Old', and 'Worthy of Offerings.'
The veneration given to parents in the Buddha's time is almost unimaginable today — to our great disadvantage when it comes time to review one's life and think about those who have been of great service to us ... not to mention the guilt emanating from neglect or actual mistreatment. The names for mother and father given here are of deep psychological importance. For the infant, the parents are indeed the Creator, the first teachers, the first gods and for the service they do for their child when it is young and helpless they are indeed worthy of offerings. Even the most neglectful parents have given their child life, food, clothing and much else. Most parents will have done more for their child than anyone else in the world will ever do. Those ideas which were not well articulated in infancy do not abandon the individual but underlie and support his entire relationship with the world throughout his life and returning again in old age they ask for their due and for the one who has neglected his parents this is a heavy debt to pay. If you have living parents now, make an effort now. Do not regret hereafter.
PTS: Equal with Brahma, 79
WP: 63. With Brahma, 453
Four behaviors that land one in Niraya. Hell. Woodward's translation 'Purgatory' reflects his understanding that Hell is permanent and endless where Purgatory is temporary. For the Buddhist all states are temporary including rebirth in Hell.
PTS: Purgatory, 80
WP: 64. Hell, 454
Four ways people take measure: those who judge by outer appearances and trust in outer appearances; those who judge by hearsay and trust in hearsay; those who judge by self-abjigation and trust in self-abjigation; those who judge by good form and trust in good form.
See also: Designation of Human Types, Division of human Types by Four, Chapter 22 which is referenced by this sutta as an explanation of the terms. I question the definitions for the latter two types. In the first of those two, what is being spoken about is the sort of person who looks for humility, modesty, self-deprication, and such sorts of traits and where finding them judges the person to be a good person; for the second type as Woodward points out the Abhidhamma is focused too closely on "Dhamma" with a capital "D" where what is being spoken of is 'Good Form' which absent Dhamma would be based roughly on a refined view of the prevailing morality, not, as Woodward would have it on one's personal standard (though it would be one's personal standard, that personal standard would have a basis in some sort of common agreement as to right and wrong. All of these are in the end judging by personal standard. Standard that has been made personal. See on this subject the discussion: Understanding the Disstinctions between Kamma, Ethics, Morality, the Rules of the Saŋgha, and the Behavior Required of One Seeking Awakening.
PTS: Outer Form, 80
WP: 65. Form, 454
Four types of persons: the lustful, the hateful, the deluded, and the proud. See also the previous sutta.
PTS: Lustful, 81
WP: 66. Lustful, 455
A bhikkhu has died of snake-bite so the Buddha gives the bhikkhus a 'charm' to project friendliness towards snakes. Footnote 4 in Ms. Horner's Vinaya version (below) gives a good idea of what is at work:
Loving-kindness or love, mettā, and the three other modes of the brahmavihāras are transferred from the mind of the suffuser to that of the being who is suffused or infused.
This is a phenomena that is the inverse of mind-reading: Thought projection. Ideas are things. They float around out there available to everyone and only become 'one's own' with identification. If a thought is strongly generated by one person (being) it can be identified with by others. Think of the universe as a gigantic brain in which signals are ever-present and where beings are like signal-receiving, but also signal-boosting stations.
I recommend reading this sutta in the Pali even if you do not understand the Pali ... though having the translation right there it is a simple matter to see what is what. The actual charm is the centered verses below the short introductory story. I also believe this 'charm' will be much more effective if said with comprehension in the Pali if only because it is really 'charming' to the ear. Relax and you can see how a snake would find it so.
And see also Vinaya-Pitaka, Cullavagga 5 #6 the Vinaya version of this story which was (apparently) the reason for allowing bhikkhus to shed (let) blood in order to cure snake bite.
See also: DN 32, Jat. #203
The Buddha likens the fate of Devadatta to several things that bear fruit to their own destruction.
There seems to me to be a problem here with Woodward's translation of 'parābhavāya'. The plantain, bamboo, reed and mule are said to 'attavadhāya' 'destruction of self' and 'parābhavāya' which Woodward translates 'destruction of others'. That Devadatta brought about problems for others is obvious, but not so obvious is the harm done to others by these other things. PED just has 'destruction.' 'Others' is not found in the word or outside it. Bhk. Bodhi has 'to his own ruin and destruction' which looks to be the better translation. Maybe 'to his own ruin and general (para) destruction. The problem here is holding on to 'atta' as 'self'. (little joke).
PTS: Devadatta, 83
WP: 68. Devadatta, 457
The Buddha defines the four best ways of making effort. Here is a good opportunity to see the way Gotama has constructed his system so as to make it 'helpful in the beginning, helpful in the middle and helpful at the end'. What he has done is worded the formula so as to make it generic. Taken as it is, in the beginning, the idea of what is an 'unprofitable state' and what is a 'profitable state' is left undeclared so that it applies to each individual as he himself defines it. That in turn will be a value which is under a constant state of upward revision because no matter how low the individual begins, by pointing himself to what he believes at that point is a profitable state, he moves himself forward to some degree. That is true even in the case of very low ideas of 'profit' such as increase in pleasure or wealth. In no long time success in the pursuit of a low level profit will be seen as the pursuit of the unprofitable. It is a natural course of things, for example, that the sensualist will discover that sensual pleasure is enhanced by abstinance. And if initially only to increase his pleasure he will turn to letting go and the track from there is steadily in the upward direction. It is also the natural course of things that the acquisition of wealth leads to the perception that there are higher degrees and forms of wealth. Because making the effort will result in the gain of profit or the elimination of the unprofitable, etc. there will be instilled faith in the formula and further effort, and so on. Just by beginning a benevolent cycle is set rolling. At a later point one will discover that what is considered 'profitable' in this system is the further set of generic instructions found in the Eightfold Path and later still in the Seeker's Path. Always the particulars will be left to the perception of the indiviual even when these latter are given in detail: the details are themselves generic in form.
PTS: Effort, 83
WP: 69. Striving, 457
A wonderful sutta though of a sort likely to be discredited by many of 'modern' thought. The Buddha outlines the effects of leaders of men both good and bad. It has been pointed out here a few times that what needs to be seen is that this world is a work of the collective imagination and the laws of physics that govern it are, so far from being immutable, highly subject to agreement as to what is and what is not possible. However much there is currently disagreement that there is such a thing as the influence on natural events of the behavior of men, what we have today is a corrupt leadership leading a corrupt populace into further corruption while at the same time there is drastic weather alteration, alteration of the position of the earth's pole and the manner in which that alters perception of the courses of the moon and sun, stress on food production and a deterioration of over-all health in the populous. Some will argue with that last, but I would say that what we have, in so far as there is an increase in longevity, is the prolongation of the lives of a much weaker people through mechanical means. Left to nature, the lifespan of people would be decreasing. People are for the most part trading quality of life for length of life.
As cattle when the lead bull swerves,
All of a mind to follow, swerve as well,
So with men, if he who is the leader be corrupt,
so much the more will those who follow be.
Th'unrighteous king to all the realm brings pain.
As cattle when the lead bull's course is straight
All of a mind to follow, go straight as well,
So with men, if he who is the leader be upright,
so much the more will those who follow be.
The righteous king to all the realm brings peace.
VIII. Apaṇṇaka Vagga, II.76
PTS: The Sure, VIII.85
WP: Unmistakable, 460
Four things indicating assurance that one is on the way to Nibbana: being of high ethical behaior, learned, energetic and wise. See also: Points of Controversy IV.8, Of entering on the Path of Assurance
Points of Controversy Appendix 6a: Niyama, Niyāma: 'Assurance.'
PTS: Effort, 85
WP: 71. Striving, 460
Four things indicating assurance that one is on the way to Nibbana: thoughts of giving up, non-deviant thought, thoughts of harmlessness, and High View.
PTS: View, 86
WP: 72. View, 460
The Buddha describes four modes of speaking about the self and others which lead to a reputation as a 'fellow man' and four that lead to the reputation of not being a 'fellow man'. The word for the 'fellow man' is 'sappurisa'. Woodward: Worthy; Bhk. Thanissaro: Person of integrity. Bhk. Bodhi: Good person. I have used 'good man' and also 'wiseman, shaman, preacherman, etc.' where the context seemed to speak of a person of more than ordinary good qualities.
The bhikkhus are told to train themselves in sense of shame and fear of blame like the newlywed bride when she is first brought home to the family. This was in the days when several generations of a family might be living together in one home and where the parents of the groom would be the actual heads of the household. This was at a time when there was a lively sense of the respect due to elders. Further, the bride might be almost a stranger to her husband and if she were found unacceptable could be sent home which would bring great shame on her family.
PTS: The Young Wife, 87
2 sets of four things to be perfected. This should be 2 suttas.
PTS: Perfections, 88
WP: 74. Foremost (1), 462 WP: 75. Foremost (2), 462
In the final moments of Gotama's life he asks the bhikkhus if there is any one of them that is in doubt about him or his teaching. There is no one in the assembly that has any doubts.
PTS: Kusinārā, 88
WP: 76. Kusinārā, 462
The Buddha lists four topics which are imponderable, whose scope is so vast as to cause madness in anyone who allowed them to obsess the mind. A good sutta to read alongside this one is SN 5.56.41 where pondering the world is defined and contrasted with pondering the four truths and where it becomes clear that when the Buddha does not respond to requests for opinions on these subjects it is not a case of keeping things a mystery, but a matter of retaining one's sanity or at least not giving others good reason to doubt of it. The important phrase to understand in this sutta is 'na cintetabbāni.' Woodward's 'unthinkable', Bhk. Thanissaro: 'unconjecturables'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'inconceivable. Childers: 'regard'. Cinteti is the idea of thinking when the mind is conceived of as 'the heart'. "You see?" + abbāni, meaning ? to draw out. To draw out from the heart? That is actually what one does when one does this. You sit down with the intent to see the full scope of a topic and drag out first one train of thought then another.
The four states of purity of gifts. The idea here is that the returning good kamma from a gift depends not only on the character of the giver and the nature of the gift, but also on the character of the receiver. Think of the difference between the result of a wet rag thrown by a weak man against a hanging blanket versus a rubber ball thrown by a strong man against a smooth hard wall. 'Purity' is fundamentally a matter of detachment. 'Virtue' is the not-doing of unvirtuous deeds. Detachment allows the force of the deed to be fully discharged on the part of the giver and returned with amplified force to the giver by the receiver.
PTS: Gifts, 90
WP: 78. Offerings, 463
The explanation in terms of Kamma of why the enterprises of individuals fail, while others turn out differently than expected, others turn out as expected and still others turn out beyond their expectations.
Four reasons women do not occupy stations of importance, engage in commerse or trade. Both Woodward's and Bhk. Bodhi's translations have problems which will put women's backs up. I have done my translation hoping to show an alternative way the sutta can be read. The common problem is the categorical statement "Women are ... x,y,z bad trait. Which is why they do not do x,y,z, manly things." The Pali must be 'heard' without the implication that these are absolute states. The construction is: "Wrath Ananda womenfolk" etc. To translate: "Women are wrathful" must be heard as 'women being ~' or 'if a woman be', or 'are for the most part', 'are generally', 'some women are' etc. Bhk. Bodhi has attempted to mitigate the issue by inserting the words 'are prone,' but 'prone' is not in the Pali and his translation still comes across as an irrational statement on the part of the Buddha. Separately, Woodward has changed the statement 'go to Kamboja' to 'reach the essence of the deed' reading 'kamm'ojaɱ' for 'Kambojam'. The original PTS Pali (since changed), the BJT and the CSCD, the commentary and whatever Pali is being used by Bhk. Bodhi all have 'Kamboja.' Woodward has footnoted the commentary statement that this is to be understood as an idiom standing for 'foreign trade,' but he cannot see the sense of that. But there are too many examples in the suttas of women who have become Arahant to think that the meaning could be that women do not penetrate through to the essence of the deed. The bias of his translation has blinded Woodward to this contradiction in his understanding. As it stands to defend these translations would be to say that Gotama did not forsee the state of women in future time, or even outside the local area at that time and, additionally, or, to put it another way, this would be to say that this sutta was not 'timeless'. I believe my translation overcomes these drawbacks.
IX. Macala Vagga, II.83
PTS: Unshaken, IX.93
WP: Unshakable, 465
Four behaviors that land one in Hell; four that land one in heaven. Identical to AN 4.64.
PTS: Stealing, 93
WP: 81. The Destruction of Life, 465
Four behaviors that land one in Hell; four that land one in heaven. A different set of four from the previous.
PTS: Lying, 93
WP: 82. False Speech, 465
Four behaviors that land one in Hell; four that land one in heaven. A different set of four from the previous.
PTS: Praise, 93
WP: 83. Dispraise, 466
Four behaviors that land one in Hell; four that land one in heaven. A different set of four from the previous.
PTS: Wrath, 94
WP: 84. Anger, 466
Four sorts of persons characterized with the terms 'dark' and 'light': one born with all the advantages who is of bad behavior, one who is born with all the advantages who is of good behavior; one born with all the disadvantages who is of bad behavior, and one born with all the disadvantages who is of good behavior. A good sutta to remember if you find yourself 'judging a book by it's cover' or if you find yourself being complacent, thinking things will always be as they are. Outward circumstances depended on past behavior, future circumstances depend on current behavior. You know if you're being bad or good — so be good for goodness sake!
Four sorts of persons characterized with the terms 'high' and 'low': one born with all the advantages who is of bad behavior, one who is born with all the advantages who is of good behavior; one born with all the disadvantages who is of bad behavior, and one born with all the disadvantages who is of good behavior.
The PTS Pali and translation omit the definitions which I have included in italics and indented. It appears in full in BJT, abridged in CSCD, and abridged by Bhk. Bodhi.
PTS: Of Low Estate, 95
WP: 86. Bent Down, 468
Gotama takes the names commonly given at the time to various sorts of shaman and re-defines them in terms of his Dhamma.
PTS: Kinds of Recluses (a), 96
WP: 87. The Son, 468
Gotama takes the names commonly given at the time to various sorts of shaman and re-defines them in terms of his Dhamma.
PTS: Kinds of Recluses (b), 98
WP: 88. Fetters, 470
Gotama takes the names commonly given at the time to various sorts of shaman and re-defines them in terms of his Dhamma.
PTS: Kinds of Recluses (c), 99
WP: 89. View, 471
PTS: Kinds of Recluses (d), 100
WP: 90. Aggregates, 472
If the four previous suttas were intended to be taken together as a puzzle, there seem to be errors in Blue-Lotus 1 and White-Lotus 1. Both should have been that 'he weakened the asavas', not destroyed them. The releases are attainable by even the Streamwinner but still there is a distinction there that would make the relationship rational. Then all four groups would have the structure: Streamwinner, Once Returner, Non-returner, Arahant. Blue Lotus 3 could be experiencing temporary release. Otherwise perhaps Woodward's speculation that the first group only was original and the others made up (carelessly) to form the usual group of four pairs of men (those on the four paths). Or there is also the (doubtful) possibility that there was no intention of making the four sets parallel each other.
Then there is the problem with the translation of 'appattamānaso' (appatta-mānaso) in the situation in Immovable Shaman 4. Woodward translates: 'has not made up his mind', Bhk. Bodhi: 'has not attained his mind's ideal'. Both of these appear to me at least as highly shakable. I sugest taking the word back a step: appa pa atta māmaso 'a little past mastering his mind'. Or 'mastering the mind' could be understood as a higher state than the certainty of attaining the goal of the Streamwinner. To be 'unshakable' he must have got at least this far.
Bhk. Bodhi argues from an assumption that Blue-Lotus 1 and White-Lotus 1 are correct that there appears to be a weakening of the standards for Arahantship involved. It could be that or it could be an error in the understanding of the situation on the part of the commentator or as I suggest, an error in the recollection of the sutta.
The Immovable Shaman
The Blue-lotus Shaman
The White-lotus Shaman
The Sweet-faced Shaman among Shaman
|1||He aspires to the goal of ultimate release.||He has destroyed the āsavas; is released in heart, released by wisdom; but does not attain the eight releases.||He has destroyed the āsavas; is released in heart, released by wisdom; and does abide in the eight releases||He receives the necessities, good health, and good will when desired and not when not desired; he attains the jhānas; has destroyed the āsavas; and is released in heart, released by wisdom.|
|2||He has broken the three saŋyojana and has become a Streamwinner||He has broken the three saŋyojana and warn down lust, hate and stupidity and has become a Once-Returner.||He has completely destroyed the five yokes to lower births will re-appear where he will attain Arahantship without returning to this world.||He has destroyed the āsavas; is released in heart, released by wisdom|
|3||He lives following the eight dimensional way [not so named]||He lives following the ten dimensional way [not so named]||He lives following the ten dimensional way [not so named] and abides in the eight releases||He receives the necessities, good health, and good will when desired and not when not desired; he attains the jhānas; has destroyed the āsavas; and is released in heart, released by wisdom.|
|4||He is a little developed in mind and aspires to the goal of ultimate release.||He lives observing the appearance and disappearance of the stockpiles, but does not experience the releases.||He lives observing the appearance and disappearance of the stockpiles, but does experience the releases.||He receives the necessities, good health, and good will when desired and not when not desired; he attains the jhānas; has destroyed the āsavas; and is released in heart, released by wisdom.|
X. Asura Vagga, II.91
PTS: Asuras, X.101
WP: Asuras, 473
Four sorts of persons and their followers likened to Monsters and Dieties in four combinations.
PTS: Asuras, 101
WP: 91. Asuras, 473
Four sorts of persons classified according to their attainment of calm of heart and the higher wisdom of insight into things. Note that niether of these things by itself is termed 'samādhi'.
PTS: Concentration (a), 101
WP: 92. Concentration (1), 473
An expansion of the previous sutta. The Buddha describes four sorts of persons classified according to their attainment of calm of heart and the higher wisdom of insight into things and then urges the bhikkhus to make effort to establish their accomplishments and eliminate their deficiencies and further to press on to the elimination of the corrupting influences. Note that neither is calm the goal nor is insight the goal nor are the two together the goal, but that with the two together the corrupting influences may be eliminated and the goal attained. Calm of heart is not exclusively the jhānas. Consummate 'samādhi' is the jhānas, but along the way a serene calm should be the goal throughout the day in every activity. If one's practice is to create insight over here and practice creating serenity over there between the hours of x and y, or while a candle burns down one inch, or during the time a stick of incense burns down, or the effects of a joint wear off, by the sole technique of jhāna, it is likely that the whole practice will suffer. Whether walking or standing still or sitting or lying down, still, calm, tranquillize the entire experience of embodied living.
PTS: Concentration (b), 102
WP: 93. Concentration (2), 474
The Buddha describes four sorts of persons classified according to their attainment of centered internal calm and insight into things of higher wisdom. A variation on the previous sutta. This one points to the lines of investigation which should be pursued to overcome deficiencies. The difference in the descriptive paragraph given here compared to the previous two follows my new translation. I do know that the title should be: 'Serenity, the Third'.
The Buddha ranks four persons according to their pursuit of personal profit and the profit of others. The one who pursues neither his own profit nor the profit of others is likened to a stick burning at both ends, smeared with dung in the middle: no good for nuth'n. The one who pursues both his own profit and the profit of others is likened to 'the cream of the cream.'
Types of individuals classed according to whether they are of benefit to themselves only or others only or to both or neither.
Types of individuals classed according to whether they are of benefit to themselves only or others only or to both or neither.
PTS: Profit of self (b), 106
WP: 97. Quick-Witted, 478
Types of individuals classed according to whether they are of benefit to themselves only or others only or to both or neither.
PTS: Profit of self (c), 107
WP: 98. One's Own Welfare, 479
Types of individuals classed according to whether they are of benefit to themselves only or others only or to both or neither. This sutta defines what is of benefit as being the five precepts.
Gotama convinces Potaliya that of four sorts of persons the one who speaks timely, truthful praise of the praiseworthy and timely, truthful dispraise of what deserves dispraise is the most excellent of the four. I have edited this sutta somewhat to eliminate ambiguities in several places in Woodward's translation. The final result follows the Pali and comes closer to Bhk. Bodhi's translation which is clear. The very interesting thing in this sutta (once it is unabridged and straigtened up) is the visibility here of the way in which at least one style of dialog was conducted (there are many examples of this style in the suttas). Gotama lays out four cases and asks Potaliya to say which he thinks is best. Potaliya chooses one which is not the one which Gotama thinks is best. Gotama states that of the choices, a certain one is best. (No "you are wrong, I am right", but no waffling either. He makes the statement "This is the best, and for such and such a reason." In response Pataliya does not say "you are right, I am wrong," but indicates his acceptance of Gotama's case by stating it as Gotama has stated it explaining it as Gotama has explained it. This is the combat of two ideas without bringing in the personalities. Potalia might have disagreed up to three times and Gotama repeated the case up to a third time before Potaliya's head split into seven pieces.
PTS: Potaliya, 107
WP: 100. Potaliya, 480
XI. Valāhaka Vagga, II.103
PTS: Rain-Cloud, XI.109
WP: Clouds, 482
Gotama likens four sorts of persons to four sorts of rain-clouds: one that thunders but doesn't rain, one that rains but doesn't thunder, one that neither rains nor thunders, one that both rains and thunders.
PTS: Rain-cloud (a), 109
WP: 101. Clouds (1), 482
Gotama likens four sorts of persons to four sorts of rain-clouds: one that thunders but doesn't rain, one that rains but doesn't thunder, one that neither rains nor thunders, one that both rains and thunders. He defines mastery of Dhamma as thundering, understanding the Four Truths as raining.
In this sutta Gotama compares four sorts of persons to the conditions of four waterpots: one that is covered and empty, one that is uncovered and full; one that is both uncovered and empty; and one that is covered and full. He defines 'covered' as charming comportment, 'full' as knowledge of the Four Truths.
The Pali has:
pūro pihito.|| ||
empty and covered
full and uncovered
empty and uncovered
full and covered,
which is followed by Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi:
In the first case the person is charming but has no knowledge,
in the second case he is not charming but has knowledge,
in the third case he has neither charm nor knowledge
and in the fourth case he has both charm and knowledge.
The two good qualities are (according to the order of the details as we find them in the Pali): 'full' of water which stands for charming comportment; and 'covered' which stands for comprehension of the Four Truths.
In the case of water-pots, 'empty' and 'uncovered' are not good things.
So following the details as they are presented, the order should have been:
full and uncovered,
empty and covered,
empty and uncovered,
and full and covered.
If we take it that the headings as they are found are correct and the details have been reversed, we would have comportment standing for 'covered' and knowledge standing for 'full'. This would more closely parallel the thinking in the previous two suttas where 'thunder' stands for speech in the one case and superficial book knowledge in the second, and rain (which, do I need to point out? is water) stands for understanding. This would also better satisfy the mind as indicating that 'full' points to the more significant aspect and 'covered' to the more superficial aspect.
But there is a further complication: The pattern in the previous suttas is that the first person's first quality is a positive one. The second person has the deeper quality but lacks the quality of lesser importance. And considering that, we cannot put understanding of the Four Truths in the place of the second place.
One way or the other the Pali is incorrect and Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi follow and to make the sutta make sense either the headings need to change or the order of the details needs to change. What to do? I have chosen to change the order in the headings from first full, second covered, to first covered and second full (using Woodwards terms 'closed' and 'open', 'full' and 'empty'.)
pihito pūro.|| ||
covered and empty
uncovered and full
uncovered and empty
covered and full,
This allows the details to remain in their current order and puts The Four Truths in the position given most respect.
Long explanation for a simple change, but in this case the Pali and all the translations agree but all are in error and in such as case I need to present all the reasoning in back of a change. I have not changed the Pali.
PTS: The Pot, 111
WP: 103. Pots, 484
The Buddha describes four pools of water. This sutta should be read with the next one.
PTS: Pools of water (a), 112
WP: 104. Pools of Water, 485
104 and 105 should be one sutta as in the previous and the following; the first is incorporated in the second. Otherwise we have The Buddha teaching people about pools of water. The Buddha compares four sorts of persons to the conditions of four pools of water: one that is shallow but looks deep, one that is deep but looks shallow, one that is shallow and looks shallow, and one that is deep and looks deep. This sutta is a twist on the use of the two sets of terms. Here deepness is a matter of understanding the Four Truths or not, appearing deep or not is a matter of having charming comportment or not.
PTS: Pools of water (b), 112
The Buddha compares four sorts of persons to conditions of mangoes: one that is unripe and looks ripe, one that is ripe and looks unripe, one that is unripe and looks unripe, and one that is ripe and looks ripe. Bhk. Bodhi's version of the Pali has two of these suttas on Mangoes one of which is in brief as per the "Pools of Water" suttas above where his text has only one of those. Both probems seem to arise from the summary index at the end of the chapter (uddāna) and are likely the result of an attempt to make the chapter have the usual ten suttas. But there is no sense to the brief versions of either of these suttas. When the Buddha teaches in brief, the brief teaching still makes good Dhamma.
PTS: Mangoes, 112
WP: 105. Mangoes, 486
WP: 106. Mangoes, 488 Bhk. Bodhi notes that there is no existing text of this sutta. He makes no mention of the second 'Pools of Water' sutta #105 above which he omits.
The Buddha compares four sorts of persons to the manners in which mice abide: one that digs a hole but does not live in it, one that lives in a hole it has not dug, one that neiter digs a hole nor lives in one, and one that lives in the hole it has dug.
I tend to think this is another sutta where the headings should be reversed and inverted as per 103 above, but a case can be made either way, so I have left it as it is.
PTS: Mice, 113
WP: 107. Mice, 488
The Buddha characterizes the behavior of leaders of sects as resembling the behavior of bulls leading herds of cattle: one is a terror to the cattle of another herd, not to his own; one is a terror to his own herd but not to other herds; one is a terror to both; and one is a terror to neither.
PTS: Oxen, 113
WP: 108. Bulls, 489
The Buddha likens persons to trees of sapwood or heartwood.
PTS: Trees, 114
WP: 109. Trees, 490
The Buddha likkens persons to snakes in the matter of their possession of venom and the potency of that venom. This one appears to rely on word-play similar to our double meaning for venom: poison and poisonous temperment. But the word for poisonous temperment means 'terribly-poisonous', which leaves us with the best case being 'not terribly poisonous' which is still poisonous. Bhk. Bodhi probably has the best solution to this one: 'one who'se venom is quick to come up but not virulent', etc. where the best case becomes 'neither quick to come up nor virulent.' But we still end up with a sutta that deals with sorts of people with anger.
PTS: Snakes, 115
WP: 110. Vipers, 491
XII. Kesi Vagga, II.113
PTS: Kesi, XII.116
WP: Kesi, 492
The Buddha compairs his training methods with those of Kesi the horse trainer.
The Buddha likens the straightness, speed, patience and docility of the bhikkhu worthy of offerings to the qualities of a king's thoroughbred horse.
PTS: Speed, 118
WP: 112. Speed, 494
The Buddha compares the reactions of various sorts of thoroughbred horses to the goad to the reactions of persons to knowledge of death.
The Buddha likens the qualities of a worthy bhikkhu to the qualities of a king's elephant.
PTS: The Elephant, 120
WP: 114. Bull Elephant, 496
The Buddha delineates the peramaters of the four choices one has on the occasion where action is contemplated. Another really handy piece of information, especially if you don't like thinking of your self as a fool and you do like thinking of yourself as one of manly strenth, manly vigour and energy.
Earnest effort should be made to abandon low behaviors and develop high behaviors in body, speech and mind and to abandon low view for high view. The result will be a life lived without fear
Four occasions when one's guard should be up: when the mind is harassed by lust, hatred, stupidity, and intoxicating pride.
PTS: On Guard, 124
WP: 117. Guarding, 499
Four places that stirr the emotions of a believing disciple of the Buddha.
PTS: Stirring emotion, 124
WP: 118. Inspiring, 500
Four basic fears.
PTS: Fears (a), 125
WP: 119. Perils (1), 500
Four basic fears.
PTS: Fears (b), 125
WP: 120. Perils (2), 501
XIII. Bhaya Vagga, II.121
PTS: Fears, XIII.125
WP: Perils, 501
Four reasons based in fear that make people resolve on good behavior. This sutta has that wonderful list of tortures it is always so inspiring to think about during meditation and contimplation of rebirth.
PTS: Self-reproach, 125
WP: 121. Self-Reproach, 501
The Buddha describes four fearful challenges that face the newly ordained bhikkhu who has gone forth in faith: the need to overcome anger at being instructed in proper forms of behavior for a bhikkhu; the need to overcome desire to indulge the appatite for food in ways that are not suitable for a beggar, the need to over come envy of householders enjoying the pleasure of the senses; and the need to overcome lust on the sight of attractive members of the opposite sex.
PTS: The Wave, 127
WP: 122. Waves, 502
The similarities and differences in experience and subsequent results of attaining jhana between the student of the Buddha and the ordinary person.
The special advantages to a student of the Buddha who attains jhana and applies it to the understanding of form, sense-experience, own-making, and consciousness.
The Buddha describes four paths to deva worlds based on the four devine lifestyles: friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment. Then he points out that the destiny of those who are students of the Dhamma is non-returnering while that of those of other beliefs is returning to the round of rebirths. Here is a case where it is clearly stated that practice of even just one of the devine states, as long as it is combined with an understanding of the goal of the Dhamma, leads to non-returning.
The Buddha describes four paths to the Pure Abodes based on the four devine lifestyles: friendliness, sympathy, empathy and detachment in combination with seeing that form, sense-experience, sense-perception, own-making, and sense-consciousness are changable, painful, a sickness, a boil, a dart, grief-ridden, an opression, another's, destined for destruction, empty, and not-self.
A Wonderous light appears when a Buddha descends into his mother's womb, at his birth, at his awakening and upon his first setting to roll the wheel of Dhamma. This may well be a literal light, but it is also a fit simile for the effects of the Dhamma. At other points he is said to have spoken metaphorically of his appearance as being a light brought into the world, which it certainly was, and that was certainly marvel enough. Also, this light that he brought is said to make it possible for beings living in darkness to see that there are other beings there. This is a remark very frequently made by those who have become converts. I suggest this is a reference to the breaking of Pajapati's problem which unbroken makes it impossible to prove to one's self that there are other beings there. The breaking of this problem does release a sort of vision which could be understood as light making visible other being here.
PTS: Marvels (a), 134
WP: 127. Astounding (1), 510
The appearance of a Buddha results in the miracle of an open mind and ready ear in beings overcome by habit, pride, excitement, and blindness.
PTS: Marvels (b), 135
WP: 128. Astounding (2), 512
The Buddha points out the marvelous way bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, laymen and lay women take delight when Ananda approaches and teaches.
PTS: Marvels (c), 135
WP: 129. Astounding (3), 513
The Buddha points out the marvelous way nobles, brahmins, householders and ascetics take delight when a Wheel-turning King approaches and speaks and then he compares this phenomena with the similar thing that happens when Ananda approaches and teaches bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, laymen and lay-women. With this sutta one can see the nature of seeing into the future. At another point Gotama says of Ananda that if he did not attain to Arahantship, he would become a Wheel-turning King. Although for most of us the memory of the last wheel-turning King will be somewhat faint, the mechanism is the same for seeing into the future by way of comparison with past events that are more easily called to mind. This is not the same thing as predicting the future from past events as it is practiced by the weatherman or the general or the political scientist. That is an intellectual exercise which is frequently incorrect. This is 'seeing' in a moment of intuition, the correspondence of two events and 'knowing' the significance. So after three suttas giving us marvels, we have a fourth telling us how to see such things for ourselves. That is, if you have an open mind and a ready ear. Otherwise you are, of course, free to think 'he is just talking through his hat.'
PTS: Marvels (d), 136
WP: 130. Astounding (4), 513
XIV. Puggala Vagga, II.133
PTS: On Persons, XIV.137
WP: Persons, 514
The Buddha describes four sorts of persons in relationship to the sorts of yokes to rebirth [samyogana] they have or have not yet got rid of.
A little four-liner about the facility and precision with which persons utter speech or engage in banter or repartee.
Four sorts of persons: one who grasps a matter intuitively, one who understands hearing the details, one to whom things must be explained and one who is only able to remember the text.
These are all learners, there is another sort of person who cannot even remember a thing from one minute to the next.
Four sorts of persons differentiated by whether or not they live depending on the fruit of their prior deeds or on present effort.
PTS: Effort, 138
WP: 134. Effort, 515
Four persons differentiated by the degree to which they are subject to blame.
PTS: Blameworthy, 139
WP: 135. Blameworthy, 516
Four sorts of persons distinguished by the thoroughness of their mastery of ethical conduct, concentration and wisdom.
PTS: Virtue (a), 139
WP: 136. Virtuous Behavior (1), 516
Four sorts of persons distinguished by the thoroughness of their mastery of and respect for ethical conduct, concentration and wisdom.
PTS: Virtue (b), 140
WP: 137. Virtuous Behavior (2), 516
Four sorts of persons sorted out according to their having mastered their body or their mind or neither or both.
It is interesting to note that mastering the body is put only in terms of living alone in the forest. This makes it probable that this was an early sutta. Later control of the body would have been phrased in broader terms of living in solitude. Bhk. Bodhi translates the term 'nikaṭṭha,' rendered by Woodward as 'subdued,' as 'retreat', "gone on retreat by" PED: brought down, debased, low. NI = down; KAṬṬHA= plowed. Plowed under.
PTS: Subdued, 140
WP: 138. Retreat, 517
Four sets of speakers and the ways they are judged to be Dhamma-talkers by their gatherings. Bhkkhu Bodhi's reading of this sutta is much the better but not freely available:
One that talks little and that is off point with a following that is incompetent to judge and so considers him a Dhamma-talker;
one that says much and that is off point with a following that is incompetent to judge and so considers him a Dhamma-talker;
one that says little but that is on point and his company is competent to judge and so considers him a Dhamma-talker;
one that says much and that is on point and his company is competent to judge and so considers him a Dhamma-talker.
Woodward would have the competancy of the company judged by the competancy of the speaker.
PTS: Dhamma-talk, 141
WP: 139. Dhamma Speakers, 518
Four persons: one able to convey the intent but not the letter; one able to convey the letter but not the intent; one able to do neither and one able to do both.
XV. Ābhā Vagga, II.139
PTS: Splendour, XV.142
WP: Splendors, 519
PTS: Splendours, 142
WP: 141. Splendors, 519
PTS: Radiances, 142
WP: 142. Radiances, 519
PTS: Lights, 142
WP: 143. Lights, 519
PTS: Lamps, 143
WP: 145. Luminaries, 519
The Buddha likens stages of progress towards the goal to four seasons: hearing Dhamma, Discussing Dhamma, calming down, and insight.
PTS: Seasons (a), 143
WP: 146. Times (1), 520
The Buddha likens stages of progress towards the goal (hearing Dhamma, Discussing Dhamma, calming down, and insight) to four seasons. An expansion of the previous sutta.
Note the order, first after hearing Dhamma is discussing it which is dhamma research. Then is developed all those practices under the heading of calming down: giving, developing ethical practices, developing self-control, and developing the jhānas. The final season is the development of insight. There is no problem with beginning any or all of these practices at the start, but one should understand how progress will unfold. Note that you have here four seasons, not just one or two.
PTS: Seasons (b), 143
WP: 147. Times (2), 520
Painful practice of speech. Note: not 'miccha vācā', 'vacī duccarita' painful vocal carrying on.
PTS: Wrong Practice, 144
WP: 148. Conduct (1), 520
Pleasant practice of speech. Note: not 'sammā vācā', 'vacī succarita' pleasant vocal carrying on.
PTS: Right Practice, 144
WP: 149. Conduct (2), 520
Four essentials: ethical practice, serenity, wisdom and freedom.
PED: Sāra 1. essential, most excellent, strong 2. the innermost, hardest part of anything, the heart or pith of a tree 3. substance, essence, choicest part.
PTS: Essences, 144
WP: 150. Conduct (3), 520
XVI. Indriya Vagga, II.141
PTS: Controlling Powers, XVI.144
WP: Faculties, 520
Four forces: faith, energy, mind, serenity.
PTS: Controlling Powers (a), 144
WP: 151. Faculties, 521
Four enabling powers: faith, energy, mind, serenity.
The distinction between the 'Indriyāni,' (forces) and the 'Balāni,' (enabling powers) is that the forces are impersonal external energy-fields, the enabling powers are personally cultivated uses of forces. When faith, energy, mind, and serenity are 'Indriyāni,' they are forces. When they are put to work, they are the forces as controlled by the individual.
PTS: Controlling Powers (b), 144
WP: 152. Faith, 521
Four enabling powers: faith, energy, faultlessness, and tenacity.
The meaning of the fourth one 'saŋgāha-balaɱ' here is uncertain. Woodward has 'collectedness', Bhk. Bodhi: 'the power of sustaining a favorable relationship'. It has something to do with grouping together by way of attachment or association. Where is the commentator when you need him? Oh, he's over here. He says it is mispelled and should be sangaṇha, 'showing kindness'. PED spells it sanga. If we just go by the word itself, it means SAṄ = with, own; GĀHA = grip as in 'in the grip of passion'; 'own-grip'. Get a grip on yourself mon! Stick-to-it-iveness?
PTS: Powers (a), 145
WP: 153. Wisdom, 521
Four enabling powers: mind, serenity, faultlessness, and tenacity. Everyone is sticking to their previous version of sangaṇha, for this one.
PTS: Powers (b), 145
WP: 154. Mindfulness, 521
Four enabling powers: reconsideration, development, faultlessness and tenacity.
PED spells the first one 'Paṭisankhāna' and defines it along the lines of reflection, judgment, consideration. This is the obvious meaning in the sutta noted by Woodward who nevertheless translates as 'computation'. Bhk. Bodhi: reflection.
PTS: Computation, 145
WP: 155. Reflection, 521
The evolution, stasis, devolution and stasis of the universe each described as taking a very long time.
PTS: The Aeon, 145
WP: 156. Eon, 521
The Buddha instructs the bhikkhus on disease, contrasting disease of body which can hardly be avoided to disease of the mind which should be kep disese-free.
PTS: Disease, 146
WP: 157. Illness, 522
Sariputta describes qualities which indicate backsliding or moving ahead.
PTS: Falling away, 147
WP: 158. Decline, 523
A Nun attempts to seduce Ananda and is given a discourse which causes her to see the error of her ways.
PTS: The nun, 147
ATI: Bhikkhuni Sutta: The Nun Thanissaro Bhk., trans.
WP: 159. The Bhikkhunī, 523
BD: Beggar Lady: An analysis of § 3 A comparison of the translations of Olds, Woodward, Bhk. Thanissaro and Bhk. Bodhi with regard to an obscure term. The issue comes up often with the question: How can one eliminate desire without desire and if one uses desire how does one eliminate desire? Here not only using desire is rationalized but also using food and the insanity of self-identification. A fourth, using sexuality, is singled out as not a good idea.
Four things which lead to the vanishing away of the True Teaching and four things which conduce to its preservation.
XVII. Paṭipada Vagga, II.149
PTS: Modes of Progress, XVII.153
WP: Modes of Practice, 528
Four ways individuals progress through the system in terms of ease and pleasantness.
PTS: In brief, 153
WP: 161. In Brief, 528
Four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences: the unpleasant slow path to higer knowledge; the unpleasant fast path to higher knowledge, the pleasant slow path to higher knowledge, and the pleasant swift path to higher knowledge. In detail.
Woodward characterizes these as 'modes of progress', but the word is 'paṭipada' which is 'path-stepping', or the practice itself. Bhks. Thanissaro and Bodhi both use 'practice'. The shift in meaning is necessary to understand that the emphasis is on the description of method not how the practice is experienced. The details in this case are the details of how each mode of practice works. Mechanism of action.
Four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences: the unpleasant slow path to higer knowledge; the unpleasant fast path to higher knowledge, the pleasant slow path to higher knowledge, and the pleasant swift path to higher knowledge.
A variation on the previous, with this sutta providing the methods of practice used by those following each path. Of note here is something that could be used to support the idea of arahantship without the jhānas. The first two modes of pratice do not use the jhānas as their samādhi practice; they use meditation on the foul. (If we stretch our minds all the way over to SN 5.54.9 we can see that it appears that meditation on the foul was at an early point the main practice employed by the bhikkhus to establish serenity (samādhi).) The distinction is clear. The difference is that by using the jhānas the practice is pleasant. All four paths depend on the practitioners powers (balāni) of faith, modesty, self-restraint, energy, and wisdom. Speed of insight depends on the degree to which the forces (indriya) of faith, energy, mind, serenity and wisdom are found in him. These latter are characterized (in the previous sutta) as 'givens' depending on the individual's basic nature in terms of the degree to which he is passionate, malicious, infatuated. ('Given' does not mean unalterable. It's just what you start with.)
So the method described here is that one who works at reducing his passionate, malicious, infatuated nature, controlling himself by way of faith, modesty, self-restraint, energy, and wisdom, would experience a proportionate rise in the forces of faith, energy, mind, serenity and wisdom and by that an increase in the speed of his attainment of higher knowledge. If he is indifferent as to whether or not his path is pleasant, he uses the meditation on the foul, if he wishes his path to be pleasant he uses the jhānas. Who would choose the unpleasant path? Maybe it is that jhāna practice requires great long stretches of solitude, calm, peace, quiet to develop. Such things are not always easy to come by. Meditation on the foul is a practice which can be worked into a more turbulant life situation.
Four paths of practice: marked by impatient reaction, marked by endurance, marked by self-control, marked by calming down.
Four paths of practice: marked by intolerant irritation, marked by endurance, marked by self-control, marked by calming down. A variation on the previous sutta. The word translated 'patience/impaience' by Woodward and Bhk. Bodhi, and 'tolerance' by Bhk. Thanissaro is 'Khamā/Akkhamā.' What is needed is a word for the impatience/intollerance/inability to endure things that give rise to emotional reactions. None of these quite works. The word also means 'earth' which in the simile does not react when filth is thrown at it, etc. Good/ill humored? Forgiving/unforgiving? Indulgent/unindulgent?
Four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences: the unpleasant slow path to higer knowledge; the unpleasant fast path to higher knowledge, the pleasant slow path to higher knowledge, and the pleasant swift path to higher knowledge. The factors of unpleasantness and slowness are considered less than advantageous while those factors of pleasantness and speed are considered advantageous. A development of AN 4.162.
PTS: In Further Detail, 159
WP: 166. Both, 532
Questioned by Sariputta, Moggallāna reveals that of the four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences his was the one that was unpleasant but with speedy attainment of higher knowledge.
PTS: Sāriputta and Moggallāna (a), 159
WP: 167. Moggallāna, 533
Questioned by Moggallāna, Sariputta reveals that of the four paths to the eradication of the corrupting influences his was the one that was pleasant and with speedy attainment of higher knowledge.
PTS: Sāriputta and Moggallāna (b), 160
WP: 168. Sāriputta, 533
The Buddha distinguishes between two sorts of persons in accordance with their path: one pair meditates on the foul and one pair uses the jhanas. Of each pair one attains extinguishment here and one hereafter. In the case of the first pair, meditating on the foul, extinguishment either here or hereafter comes after own-making (sankhara). In the case of the second pair, using the jhanas, extinguishment either here or hereafter comes without own-making.
In the description of the type of person Woodward translates 'saŋkhāra' as 'with- and without effort'; but in the list of contemplations, he translates it 'activities'. Bhk. Bodhi does a similar thing using 'exertion' and 'conditioned phenomena'. 'Saŋkhāra' does have the dual meaning of the activity used to create personal existence and the identified-with existing thing, but the translation should make it more obvious that it is the two sides of this one idea that are being spoken of. 'Confounding' and 'the confounded' or 'fabricating' and 'the fabricated'. And it is not 'conditioned'! (etymology cannot be just ignored! And this is just blindly following previous wrong translations.) (see the discussion: Is Nibbana Conditioned) And the idea is not just 'activity' but 'identification with the intent to create the experience of pleasure through action of thought, speech, and body; and the identified with result. It is essential to grasp this idea in order to understand how the Buddha is distinguishing the two sets of individuals. The contemplation of the unpleasant involves saŋkhāra (it involves personal, identified-with perceptions and thoughts and intentions and behavior), where the jhānas do not (or, at least they evolve towards and culminate in detachment precluding own-making). In other words both paths get one there, but the one using contemplation of the foul involves a battle with issues of the self which must be resolved first. This is a very important sutta to read when trying to understand the meaning of saŋkhāra. If you do not have the concept correctly, the sutta makes no sense.
Ananda describes four ways Arahantship is arrived at, stating that all those who declare Arahantship do so having followed one or another of these courses.
This sutta seems strangely out of context. It must have been spoken by Ananda some time after the Buddhas's death. Another sutta which points out the need to develop both calm and insight.
XVIII. Sañcetanika Vagga, II.157
PTS: Intentional, XVIII.163
WP: Volitional, 536
The Buddha describes how it is intent that is the mechanism of action of kamma of body, speech and mind that results in the personal experience of pleasure or pain in body, speech, or mind. Intent, in turn, is shown to be impersonal. The intent driving a deed can arise in the self or in another. Further, the groundwork for action can be known or unknown. In whatever combination of factors it is blindness that is at the bottom of it and the elimination of blindness that ends kamma.
An example of other-instigated (or motivated) intent and preparation for action would be the case of the soldier being commanded to act by the general, the employee by the boss, etc. In the case of an other-instigated intent, both the instigator and the one who is instigated experience the consequences in accordance with the intent. There is no escape by saying 'I was just following orders.' Better to refuse to act when the action (e.g., killing, lying, theft, etc., for whatever reason) deviates from one's own perspective on the kammic outcome and take the consequences than to follow orders and take consequences resulting from another's intent (e.g., to inflict pain from motives based in lust, hate, delusion)! At least you won't end up in hell from refusing to do some foul deed.
This sutta is, in some versions of the Pali and in Bhk. Bodhi's translation, combined with the next sutta. Whether or not it was at one time a single sutta, it should be read in conjunction with that sutta.
The Buddha describes how it is intent that is the mechanism of action of kamma of body, speech and mind that results in the personal experience of pleasure or pain in body, speech, or mind. Hearing this exposition, Sariputta explains the details of how this works for the self-instigated action that results in rebirth, the other-instigated action that results in rebirth, the both self and other-instigated action that results in rebirth and asks the Buddha for an explanation of how there can be rebirth or not in the case where there is neither self-instigation nor other instigation. Gotama explains.
Sariputta explains to the bhikkhus that although he early-on grasped both the spirit and the letter of logical analysis and teaches it in detail, still, if, while he is face-to-face with them, if any of them have doubts, they should ask the Buddha.
PTS: Analysis, 166
WP: 172. Analysis, 538
The bhikkhus are told to train themselves in sense of shame and fear of blame like the newlywed bride when she is first brought home to the family.
Upavana questions Sariputta about making an end of Pain. Sariputta makes the point that it is not by conduct or vision that and end of Pain is to be reached, but that it is by conduct resulting in knowing and seeing things as they really are that brings one to the end of Pain. Perfect theoretical knowledge, behavior that is in accordance with the Magga, and insight into the Four Truths is not sufficient to achieve the end of pain. This behavior and vision must be directed at and result in actual knowledge and actually seeing these things at work in the world. It is only upon this actually seeing that there can be the repulsion that results in letting go, freedom, and seeing freedom in freedom being free. See AN 4.177 for how this is put by Gotama.
PTS: Upavana, 169
WP: 175. Upavāṇa, 540
The Buddha points out role models for bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, upasakos and upasikas. The individuals named are linked to pages giving some biographical material and additional links.
PTS: Aspiration, 170
WP: 176. Aspiring, 541
The Buddha instructs his son Rāhula to regard the characteristics of solidity, liquidity, heat and motion, whether internal or external as not his, not an aspect of himself, not his real self so that seeing things as they really are, he will be repulsed, let go, and by that attain freedom and seeing freedom in freedom be free.
PTS: Rāhula, 170
WP: 177. Rāhula, 542
The Buddha describes two pairs of individuals. One pair is striving to get rid of 'own-body', the other is striving to break up 'blindness'. In each of the pairs the persons have attained peaceful states of mind and liberation of heart and work at their objective but in one case there is no excitement at the task while in the other there is. The Buddha states that where this excitement is missing, the task is unlikely to be accomplished.
The Elder Ananda asks the Elder Sariputta the reasons that some beings attain Nibbana in this life when others do not and is told that it depends on their awareness or the lack of awareness upon perception that a thing is or is not connected to deterioration, stability, advance, or attainment. See: How to Judge from Personal Experience where there are only two criteria: "Doing this will result in good conditions increasing and bad conditions decreasing," etc. One of the most handy bits of guidance you will ever find.
A well-known (and too little used) sutta. The Buddha tells the bhikkhus to determine whether or not a saying is to be considered as his word by comparing the phrases and their construction (padavyañjana: pada: phrase; vyañjana, lubrication, component parts; Woodward: 'words and syllables'; Bhk. Bodhi: 'words and phrases'. The precise meanings of this phrase is worth a deeper look. 'Pada' is literally 'foot', Pāda 'footstep' or 'path'. In the spoken language the 'letter' was a syllable, and the bhikkhus were on occasion remarked to take pride in repeating Gotama's word 'down to the syllable', but vyañjana means 'letter' only in the sense of 'as opposed to the spirit'. It does mean component part and derives from the idea of lubricant (enabling the letters to work together and make sense) and stretching out, drawing out or erecting, i.e. the construction of the phrase) with the phrases and their construction as found in the Suttas and in the Vinaya. This is to be done even in the case of four great authorities: Someone who has reportedly heard a saying face-to-face with the Buddha; some Saŋgha with a reportedly learned elder; some reportedly learned Saŋgha; a single reportedly learned monk.
Today this is taught with the idea that we are to accept it as the word of the Buddha if it comes from any of these four 'authorities'. This is exactly the opposite of the meaning found in the sutta. We should also add that this work of comparison should be done with any reportedly true saying heard from any 'authority' or read about (including any translation from the Pali) in any book or anywhere on the internet. 'Any' includes 'is'sef 'ere.
XIX. Yodhājīva Vagga, II.170
PTS: Fighting-Man, XIX.177
WP: Brahmins, 544
The Buddha likens the skills of the bhikkhu to those of a King's Warrior.
The Buddha states that there is no one, no shamen, no preacher, no god, no devil, no God, who can promise that that which is subject to aging, sickness, death and the consequences of deeds will not suffer aging, sickness, death and the consequences of deeds.
And what is subject to aging, sickness, death and the consequences of deeds? Any being whatsoever that has come into existence.
PTS: Surity, 179
WP: 182. Guarantor, 548
The Buddha explains that a statement should not only be true but should be profitable and not lead to trouble.
Another sutta using the logic found in How to Judge from Personal Experience. See also: AN 4.179.
The Buddha shows Brāhmin Jāṇussoni that not everyone is afraid of death. Those who have overcome desires and lusts, those who have overcome passion for living in a body, those who have done good deeds and abstained from bad deeds, and those who have no doubts as to Dhamma do not fear death.
Sacca: Maxim. 2a. A general truth, fundamental principle, or rule of conduct, especially when expressed in sententious form, a saying of proverbial nature. Sententious: full of meaning or wisdom. Websters
The Buddha approaches some eminant Wanderers and teaches them Four Brahmin maxims: 'All living things are not to be harmed'; 'all sense pleasures are impermanent, painful changeable'; 'all lives are impermanent, painful, changeable'; and 'I have no part in anything anywhere and here for me there is no attachment to anything'.
PTS: Brahmin Truths, 182
WP: 185. Brahmin Truths, 552
A lucky bhikkhu asks the Buddha a number of questions and gets answers that satisfy him.
PTS: Approach, 184
WP: 186. Acumen, 554
Gotama states that it is impossible for a bad man to be able to recognize a bad man or a good man, but that it is possible for a good man to do so. A story follows which illustrates the meaning.
Pay attention! The sutta is subtle. It illustrates all four cases although it appears to illustrate only one.
PTS: Vassakāra, 186
WP: 187. Vassakāra, 555
Upaka, tries to trap Gotama and ends up caught in the trap himself. Gotama then explains that what he teaches is simply what is profitable and what is not.
He tries to get Gotama to agree to the statement that having uttered abusive speech that one cannot back up, one is blameworthy. He is thinking that Gotama's having stated that Devadata was going to Hell was abuse whereas it was simply a statement of fact. But Gotama does not fall into the trap and in stead points out that by approaching him with the intent to trap him Upaka has himself uttered abusive speech which he cannot back up. There is a further twist in the story when Upaka tries to tell the story to King Ajatasattu, a former supporter of Devadata's, but who had recently been converted by Gotama. The King is not pleased to be associated with someone who thinks he can get the better of Gotama.
PTS: Upaka, 189
WP: 188. Upaka, 558
The Buddha describes four things that are to be realized by way of making them real. He describes how in the simplest most direct terms possible.
We do not see what is in front of our eyes and would not believe it if we were told so we must be told in words that excite our curiosity and yet directly reveal the method for seeing for ourselves. An invaluable sutta! There are more things under heaven than are acounted for in your vision of the world, my friends.
The Buddha praises the Saŋgha on a Full Moon Day observance.
PTS: The Sabbath, 191
WP: 190. Uposatha, 559
XX. Mahā Vagga, II.185
PTS: The Great Chapter, XX.193
WP: The Great Chapter, 561
The Buddha describes four advantageous situations that result in the future just from concentrated study of Dhamma.
Hope for those of us whose practice of Buddhism is lopsided concentration on study of the Suttas!
PTS: Heard with the Ear, 193
WP: 191. Followed by Ear, 561
Four ways of knowing a person: by association one knows a man's virtue; by living with him his integrity; in time of distress his courage; in conversation with him his wisdom.
Bhaddiya reports a rumor that Gotama knows a spell that converts followers of other sects. In stead of denying the rumor, he teaches Dhamma to Bhaddiya who is converted by the logic. Then Gotama asks him if he cast a spell on him. A wonderful sutta for showing Gotama's teaching skills.
PTS: Bhaddiya, 200
WP: 193. Bhaddiya, 567
Ananda instructs the men of the Tiger's Path Clan in four ways to exert energy to bring about perfection in ethical conduct, heart, point of view and freedom.
It is interesting that the four practices are introduced in words highly reminiscent of those used for the introduction of the Four Satipatthanas. Why was the Satipatthana not used in stead? It is also curious (as Woodward remarks) that this is a sutta which is a little advanced for laymen and is internally directed at bhikkhus. It seems out of place and awkward. Maybe it is an early attempt by Ananda to construct a sutta.
The Buddha describes how it is that by not doing unskillful deeds of mind, speech and body and by constant contact with one's on-coming kamma ones previously done deeds are warn out and prevent the inflow of corruptions in the future.
By way of similes the Buddha shows general Salha, that so called purification by way of self-mortification is a useless outward practice and cannot lead to overcoming blindness and the freedom gained through knowledge and vision and that what is needed is purification by both external and internal perfection.
PTS: Salha, 211
WP: 196. Sāḷha, 575
Queen Mallikā asks Gotama about the reasons some women have beauty, wealth, and power while others do not.
PTS: Mallikā, 214
Buddhism in Translations, How to Obtain Wealth, Beauty, and Social Position. Warren, trans.
WP: 197. Mallikā, 577
Four persons found in the world: One who torments himself, one who torments others, one who torments both and one who torments neither himself nor others. A very long, detailed sutta.
PTS: The Self-Tormentor, 218
WP: 198. Self-Torment, 580
The Buddha teaches about the craving that ensnares, that floats along, that is far-flung, that clings to one, by which this world is smothered, enveloped, tangled like a ball of thread, covered as with blight, twisted up like a grass-rope, so that it overpasses not the Constant Round (of rebirth), the Downfall, the Way of Woe, the Ruin.
Four ways liking and disliking arise and the way that jhana and the destruction of the corrupting influences bring about a condition where there is neither liking nor disliking. One who has attained such a state is said neither to attract nor to repel, neither to smoulder nor to blaze up, and is not incinerated. The Pali is full of play on the root jā = to burn, to be born, and to know.
XXI. Sappurīsa Vagga, II.217
PTS: The Worthy Man, XXI.230
WP: The Good Person, 590
The Buddha describes the attributes of the good man and the good man of good men and the bad man and the bad man of bad men. Based on ethics.
PTS: The Precepts, 230
WP: 201. Training Rules, 590
The Buddha describes the attributes of the good man and the good man of good men and the bad man and the bad man of bad men. Based on his development of various powers.
PTS: The Believer, 231
WP: 202. Devoid of Faith, 591
The Buddha describes the attributes of the good man and the good man of good men and the bad man and the bad man of bad men. Based on ethics. An expansion of AN 4.201, omitting the use of alcohol and adding three on speech.
PTS: Destroyer of Beings, 232
WP: 203. Seven Actions, 592
The Buddha describes the attributes of the good man and the good man of good men and the bad man and the bad man of bad men. Based on ethics. An expansion of the previous adding covetousness, deviance, and view.
PTS: The Ten Deeds, 232
WP: 204. Ten Actions, 593
The Buddha describes the attributes of the good man and the good man of good men and the bad man and the bad man of bad men. Based on the Eightfold Path.
PTS: The Eightfold Way, 232
WP: 205. Eightfold, 593
An exposition of the qualities of the four types of persons: the not-good, the not-good of the not-good, the good and the good of the good. A very important aspect of this sutta is it's description of a Tenfold Way. This tenfold path, usually called the Seeker's Path, in this sutta it is given no name at all.
The Buddha describes the attributes of the bad man and the bad man among bad men and the nice man and the nice man among nice men. Based on ethics. A variation of AN 4.203.
PTS: The Wicked (a), 233
WP: 207. Bad Character (1), 594
The Buddha describes the attributes of the bad man and the bad man among bad men and the nice man and the nice man among nice men. Based on the tenfold way. A variation of AN 4.206.
PTS: The Wicked (b), 233
WP: 208. Bad Character (2), 595
The Buddha describes the attributes of bad form and the bad form of bad forms and the attributes of nice form and the nice form among nice forms. Based on ethics. A variation of AN 4.207.
PTS: Of Wicked Nature (a), 233
WP: 209. Bad Character (3), 595
The Buddha describes the attributes of bad form and the bad form of bad forms and the attributes of nice form and the nice form among nice forms. Based on the tenfold path. A variation of AN 4.208.
PTS: Of Wicked Nature (b), 233
WP: 210. Bad Character (4), 596
XXII. Sobhaṇa Vagga, II.225
PTS: Corrupting, XXII.233
WP: Adornments of the Assembly, 596
Four who corrupt a group and four who lite up a groop.
PTS: The Company, 233
WP: 211. Assembly, 596
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavenly rebirth.
PTS: View, 234
WP: 212. View, 596
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavenly rebirth. A variation on the previous, substituting gratitude for view.
PTS: Ingratitude, 234
WP: 213. Ingratitude, 597
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavenly rebirth. A variation on the previous with different terms.
PTS: Taking Life, 234
WP: 214. Destruction of Life, 597
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavenly rebirth. A variation on the previous using the first four dimensions of the eight-dimensional way.
PTS: The Way (a), 235
WP: 215. Path (1), 597
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavenly rebirth. A variation on the previous using the second four dimensions of the eight-dimensional way.
PTS: The Way (b), 235
WP: 216. Path (2), 597
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavenly rebirth. A variation on the previous using statements about what one has seen, heard, sensed and cognized.
PTS: Modes of Speech (a), 235
WP: 217. Courses of Expression (1), 597
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavenly rebirth. A variation on the previous using the opposite statements about what one has seen, heard, sensed and cognized.
PTS: Modes of Speech (b), 235
WP: 218. Courses of Expression (2), 597
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavenly rebirth. A variation on the previous using belief, ethics, sense of shame, and fear of blame.
PTS: Shameless, 235
WP: 219. Morally Shameless, 598
Four things that carry one to Hell and four things that carry one to a heavenly rebirth. A variation on the previous using belief, ethics, energy and wisdom.
PTS: Of Weak Wisdom, 235
WP: 220. Unwise, 598
XXIII. Sucarita Vagga, II.225
PTS: Good Conduct, XXIII.235
WP: Good Conduct, 598
Four bad and four good habits of speech.
PTS: Good Conduct, 235
WP: 221. Misconduct, 598
Four characteristics of the foolish, incompetent, unworthy person that result in him having uprooted and spoiled his self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four characteristics of the wise, competent, worthy person which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma.
PTS: View, 236
WP: 222. View, 599
Four characteristics of the foolish, incompetent, unworthy person that result in him having uprooted and spoiled his self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four characteristics of the wise, competent, worthy person which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma. A variation on the previous, substituting gratitude for view.
PTS: Ingratitude, 236
WP: 223. Ingratitude, 599
Four characteristics of the foolish, incompetent, unworthy person that result in him having uprooted and spoiled his self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four characteristics of the wise, competent, worthy person which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma. A variation on the previous with different terms.
PTS: Taking Life, 236
WP: 224. Destruction of Life, 599
Four characteristics of the foolish, incompetent, unworthy person that result in him having uprooted and spoiled his self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four characteristics of the wise, competent, worthy person which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma. A variation on the previous using the first four dimensions of the eight-dimensional way.
PTS: The Way, 237. Note that in the PTS Pali and Woodward's translation this is not followed by another sutta with the second four dimensions. This appears to be a mistake as it occurs in BJT and CSCD as well as Bhk. Bodhi and so to include it, while preserving the sutta numbers of the PTS I have included it as the second half of this sutta using Woodward's translation of AN 4.116.
WP: 225. Path (1), 600
WP: 226. Path (2), 600
Four characteristics of the foolish, incompetent, unworthy person that result in him having uprooted and spoiled his self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four characteristics of the wise, competent, worthy person which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma. A variation on the previous using statements about what one has seen, heard, sensed and cognized.
PTS: Modes of Speech (a), 237
WP: 227. Courses of Expression (1), 600
Four characteristics of the foolish, incompetent, unworthy person that result in him having uprooted and spoiled his self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four characteristics of the wise, competent, worthy person which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma. A variation on the previous using the opposite statements about what one has seen, heard, sensed and cognized.
PTS: Modes of Speech (b), 237
WP: 228. Courses of Expression (2), 600
Four characteristics of the foolish, incompetent, unworthy person that result in him having uprooted and spoiled his self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four characteristics of the wise, competent, worthy person which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma. A variation on the previous using belief, ethics, sense of shame, and fear of blame.
PTS: Shamelessness, 237
WP: 229. Morally Shameless, 600
Four characteristics of the foolish, incompetent, unworthy person that result in him having uprooted and spoiled his self, being surrounded by impurity, subject to reproach by the wise, and which result in much bad kamma; and four characteristics of the wise, competent, worthy person which do not uproot, do not spoil the self, and which surround one with purity, bring praise by the wise, and which result in much good kamma. A variation on the previous using belief, ethics, energy and wisdom.
PTS: Weak in Wisdom, 237
WP: 230. Unwise, 600
Four types of poet. See also AN 4.132.
PTS: Poets, 237
WP: 231. Poets, 601
XXIV. Kamma Vagga, II.230
PTS: The Deed, XXIV.238
WP: Kamma, 601
The Buddha describes kamma in terms of dark and light deeds.
PTS: In Brief, 238
WP: 232. In Brief, 601
The Buddha describes kamma in terms of dark and light deeds. An expansion of the previous sutta. Very useful in clarifying the nature of the deed that ends kamma, that is, that it is the intentional not-doing of intentional deeds.
PTS: In Detail, 238
WP: 233. In Detail, 601
A brahmin questions Gotama about Sonakayana's misunderstanding of the meaning of Gotama's teaching about kamma that ends kamma. Gotama repeats what he has actually said about dark and light deeds and deeds that are neither dark nor light that result in the ending of kamma.
An important sutta for underscoring the idea that the Buddha is not teaching by this doctrine ineffectivness of kamma. Many in a certain dhamma study group on the internet would benefit greatly in seeing this sutta and understanding its point. Many others would benefit greatly in understanding how easily very dangerous ideas can arise from not paying careful attention to what Gotama is actually teaching. The view that kamma is ineffectual was taught by a contemporary of Gotama named Mikkhali, and was called the most pernicious of man-traps. (PS: anyone who recognizes this group and would bring benefit to it's members by showing them this sutta should do so with heightened wariness, careful crafting of his words, conscious compassion, complete suppression of any tendency to anger, and preparedness for a swift but dignified termination of the discussion when attacked. One can but give them the information, they must arrive at understanding on their own. They are heavily invested in their point of view.)
PTS: Soṇakāyana, 239
WP: 234. Soṇakāyana, 602
The Buddha describes kamma in terms of dark and light deeds.
This is two suttas inexplicably (and awkwardly) combined into one in the PTS Pali, and Woodward's translation follows. It substitutes two different sets of behaviors/beliefs for the first two types of deeds in each of the two suttas but it does not provide the outcomes of these deeds. It looks to me as though the outcomes should have been picked up from the previous suttas. As it is it leaves the names of these deeds making only partial sense.
PTS: Precepts, 240
WP: 235. Training Rules (1), 603
WP: 236. Training Rules (2), 604
The Buddha describes kamma in terms of dark and light deeds, using the Eight Dimensional Path for the kamma that is neither dark nor bright, with a result that is neither dark nor bright, kamma that ends kamma.
The Buddha describes kamma in terms of dark and light deeds, using the Seven Dimensions of Awakening for the kamma that is neither dark nor bright, with a result that is neither dark nor bright, kamma that ends kamma.
Note that this sutta (and similarly for the previous sutta the Eight Dimensional Way) is saying that the Seven Dimensions of Awakening is constructed of intentional not-doings. That includes 'Sati' (recollection, memory, attention) and 'Samādhi' (serenity). It is not too difficult to see that 'Samādhi' is constructed of a series of abandonings, each higher state being attained not by 'getting' but by 'letting go of the previous state,' but how do we understand 'Sati' to be intentional not-doing? Sati in this case is recollection of body, sensation, mental-states and things seen through the lens of Dhamma with the idea of observing how they come to be, are maintained, and come to an end with the further idea of becoming thoroughly objectively detached from them. The intentional not-doing is the not becomming attached or identified with such things as they come into awareness (or are recollected). Woodward and Mrs. Rhys Davids have both remarked how it must be a distortion of the system originally taught by Gotama that all virtues are negative ones (i.e., 'abstaining from'). This is the fact and it is an essential orientation required by anyone who would understand this system. The entire point of this series of suttas is that there is kamma which perpetuates kamma and living in the world and there is a sort of kamma which is the key to escaping kamma and that is intentionally not doing the sort of kamma that perpetuates kamma and living in the world. The Buddha's Methods always result in a good outcome, and on occasion and when asked Gotama does directly teach kamma that has positive worldly results (attaining beauty, wealth, health, long life, heavenly rebirth), but when the result is worldly gain, this is to be seen as a sort of failure in terms of the goal of his system ... a falling short of that which is higher and better.
PTS: Limbs of Wisdom, 241
WP: 238. Enlightenment Factors, 605
Blameworthy things that land one in Hell, praiseworthy things that land one in a good rebirth.
Note that the last factor, 'view' is not 'sammā-' (high) but 'anavajjāya-' (blameless). The former would end kamma, the latter is belief in kamma and related worldly things.
PTS: Blameworthy, 242
WP: 239. Blameworthy, 605
Harmful things that land one in Hell, harmless things that land one in a good rebirth.
Note that the last factor, 'view' is not 'sammā-' (high) but 'Avyāpajjha-' (harmless). The former would end kamma, the latter is apparently belief in kamma and behavior in accordance with kamma that is light with light result.)
PTS: Harmful, 242
WP: 240. Non-Afflictive, 606
Gotama teaches the bhikkhus a 'lion's roar' and describes the four sorts of ascetics found in this Dhamma and Discipline.
PTS: The Recluse, 242
WP: 241. Ascetics, 606
Four benefits from associating with the good man.
PTS: Profit by the Worthy Man, 243
WP: 242. Benefits of a Good Person, 607
XXV. Āpatti Vagga, II.239
PTS: Fear of Offence, XXV.243
WP: Perils of Offenses, 607
Four reasons a bad bhikkhu might think to profit from creating dissention in the order.
PTS: Offence (a), 243
WP: 243. Schism, 607
The Buddha extols the benefits of fear of punishment using a comparison between the fear of worldly persons of the punishments of evil-doers in the world with the awareness of bhikkhus and bhikkhunis of the punishments of recalcitrant members of the Order.
An interesting view is given in this sutta of the behavior of at least a portion of the society with regard to guilty deeds. That is that the guilty volunteer themselves for punishment. There was a similar practice in ancient China. There was apparently no expectation of leniancy because of volunteering in this way, nor was leniancy given. The issue was considered to be that by this behavior the honor of the individual was redeemed. Consider the state of affairs here today (USA Wednesday, June 04, 2014 5:48 AM) where the guilty are always advised to plead "not guilty" and to fight to evade punishment to the end. After all, why should the common criminal behave differently than the king and the ministers of state? After all, why plead guilty to having broken unjust and irrational laws? Perhaps following the example of the Japanese politician and high-ranking business executive, in the past few years there has been a tendency for persons of note to publicly apologize for misbehavior after being caught. That's not quite the same thing, and the motive is always seen to be self-serving rather than honor-redeeming.
PTS: Offence (b), 245
WP: 244. Offenses, 608
The Buddha explains that this holy life is lived for the sake of the advantages of the training, for higher wisdom, for the highest freedom, and for mastery of mind, and he describes how each of these things is arrived at.
The Buddha describes four personality types characterized by their lying down posture.
PTS: Postures, 249
WP: 246. Lying Down, 611
Restoration (by w. Simpson) of the Ahin Posh tope. [From the Proceedings of the R.I.B.A.] — Rhys Davids, Buddhist India.
Four individuals worthy of a Thupa (an elaborate burial mound).
PTS: Worthy of a cairn, 250
WP: 247. Worthy of a Stūpa, 612
Four things which conduce to the growth of wisdom and which are beneficial for one who has become human. This sutta is divided into two suttas in some versions of the Pali and understood to be two suttas by Bhk. Bodhi. On the surface making them into two suttas seems logical as, although the content of both halfs is identical, the point is directed at two different sorts of persons. There is another way to read this which is that the four helpful things can be understood at two different levels. One applied to the bhikkhus, and one applied to all 'beings who have become human' (where the possibility exists that there is no fully awakened one to follow and no Dhamma, capital 'D'.) In this latter case combining the two would serve to emphasize the double meanings.
PTS: Growth in Wisdom, 250
WP: 248. The Growth of Wisdom, 612
WP: 249. Helpful, 612
The Buddha lists four ignoble forms of speech.
PTS: Modes of Speech (a), 251
WP: 250. Declarations (1), 612
The Buddha lists four noble forms of speech.
PTS: Modes of Speech (b), 251
WP: 251. Declarations (2), 613
The Buddha lists four ignoble forms of speech.
PTS: Modes of Speech (c), 251
WP: 252. Declarations (3), 613
The Buddha lists four noble forms of speech.
PTS: Modes of Speech (d), 251
WP: 253. Declarations (4), 613
XXVI. Abhiññā Vagga, II.246
PTS: Higher Knowledge, XXVI.252
WP: Direct Knowledge, 613
Things to be comprehended, abandoned, developed, and realized through higher knowledge.
PTS: Higher Knowledge, 252
WP: 254. Direct Knowledge, 613
The Buddha's message in terms of quests: being yourself subject to aging, sickness, death and besliming seek that which is not subject to aging, sickness, death and besliming.
The four fundamentals for gathering together a group.
PTS: Sympathy, 253
WP: 256. Sustaining, 614
The elderly Malunkya's Son asks The Buddha for a teaching in brief and receiving it shortly thereafter becomes Arahant.
This is a good example of a teaching in brief. Essentially it amounts to 'get rid of any sort of wanting'. If the whole mass of the Dhamma is confusing or overpowering or if there is just no time to deal with it all, it is helpful to remember such a teaching and focus down on the essential problem.
PTS: Malunkya's son, 253
WP: 257. Māluṇkyāputta, 614
Four reasons great families decline and four where they prosper.
The Buddha likens the qualities of a worthy bhikkhu to the qualities of a king's thoroughbred horse.
PTS: The Thoroughbred (a), 255
WP: 259. Thoroughbred (1), 616
The Buddha likens the qualities of a worthy bhikkhu to the qualities of a king's thoroughbred horse. For 'speed' substitutes destruction of the asavas for the Four Truths.
PTS: The Thoroughbred (b), 256
WP: 260. Thoroughbred (2), 617
#258Bala Suttaɱ, 252
Four powers: energy, memory, serenity, and wisdom. This is just a list. It should be remembered that these are powers than enable control of forces in the world.
PTS: Powers, 256
WP: 261. Powers, 617
Four things that make a bhikkhu fit for living alone in the forest.
Four things that characterize the fool and four that characterize the wise man.
PTS: Action, 257
WP: 263. Action, 617
XXVII. Kammapatha Vaggo, II.253
PTS: Path of Action, XXVII. 257
WP: Courses of Kamma, 618
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of taking life lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from taking life lands one in a heavenly birth.
PTS: Approving (a), 257
WP: 264. Destruction of Life, 618
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of stealing lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from stealing lands one in a heavenly birth.
PTS: Approving (b), 258
WP: 265-273. Taking What Is Not Given, Etc., 618
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of sense-pleasure-indulgence misbehavior lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from sense-pleasure-indulgence misbehavior lands one in a heavenly birth.
PTS: Approving (c), 258
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of lying lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from lying lands one in a heavenly birth.
PTS: Approving (d), 258
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of slander lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from slander lands one in a heavenly birth.
PTS: Approving (e), 258
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of bitter speech lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from bitter speech lands one in a heavenly birth.
PTS: Approving (f), 258
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of idle babble lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from idle babble lands one in a heavenly birth.
PTS: Approving (g), 258
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of covetousness lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from covetousness lands one in a heavenly birth.
PTS: Approving (h), 258
Engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in praise of malicious mindedness lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others to, approving of, and speaking in prise of abstaining from malicious mindedness lands one in a heavenly birth.
PTS: Approving (i), 258
Engaging in, encouraging others in, approving of, and speaking in praise of contrary views lands one in hell; engaging in, encouraging others in, approving of, and speaking in prise of high view lands one in a heavenly birth.
PTS: Approving (j), 258
XXVIII. Rāgādi Peyyālaɱ II.256
PTS: Passion (and the rest), XXVIII.259
WP: Lust and So Forth Repetition Series, 619
The concluding Wheel style sutta of the Book of the Fours in which to gain higher knowledge, thorough understanding, utter destruction, letting go, eradication, fading away, dispassion, ending, giving up, and renunciation of lust, anger, stupidity, malevolence, hostility, hypocrisy, spite, denegration, deceit, treachery, obstinacy, vehemence, pride, arrogance, intoxication, and negligence, the practices of the Four Settings-up of Memory, the Four Consummate Efforts and the Four Power-Paths are to be applied.
The PTS has this as one sutta. Following the pattern set for other occurances of this conclusion to a book, it could also have been seventeen suttas, or five-hundred-and-ten suttas. I have left it as one. It does not seem reasonable that it would have been given in separate suttas. It's power is entirely in the challenge to remember the whole. The translation has been completely rolled out; for ease of reference, I have left the Pali abridged but formatted it for easy comprehension.
PTS: 271. Passions (and the Rest), 259
WP: 274. Four Establishments of Mindfulness, 619
275. Four Right Strivings, 619
276. Four Bases for Psychic Potency, 619
277-303. untitled, 620
304-783. untitled, 620