Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
II. Majjhima-Paṇṇāsa
4. Rāja Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
II. The Middle Fifty Discourses
4. The Royal Division

Sutta 81

Ghaṭīkāra Suttaɱ

Discourse on Ghaṭīkāra

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
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[1][chlm][upal] THUS have I heard:

At one time[1] the Lord was walking on tour among the Kosalans
together with a large Order of monks.

Then the Lord, turning aside from the road,
smiled (when he came to a) certain place.

Then it occurred to the venerable Ānanda:

"What is the cause,
what the reason
that the Lord is smiling?

Not without motive
do Tathāgatas smile."

Then the venerable Ānanda,
having arranged his robe over one shoulder,
having saluted the Lord with joined palms,
spoke thus to the Lord:

"Now, revered sir, what is the cause,
what the reason
that the Lord is smihng?

Not without motive
do Tathāgatas smile."

"Once upon a time, Ānanda,
in this district
there was a village township called Vebhaḷiŋga,
prosperous and wealthy
and crowded with people.

And, Ānanda, the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
lived depending on the village township of Vebhaḷiŋga,.

At that time, Ānanda,
the monastery of the Lord Kassapa[2] was here.

At that time, ṭnanda,
the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
instructed an Order of monks while he was seated here."

Then the venerable Ānanda, having laid down an outer cloak folded into four,
spoke thus to the Lord:

"Well then, revered sir,
let the Lord sit down.

This self-same piece of ground
will (then) have been made use of
by two perfected ones,
fully Self-Awakened Ones."

Then the Lord sat down on the appointed seat.

As he was seated
the Lord spoke thus to the venerable Ānanda:

"Once upon a time, Ānanda,
in this district
there was a village township called Vebhaḷiŋga,
prosperous and wealthy
and crowded with people.

And, Ānanda,
the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
lived depending on the village township of Vebhaḷiŋga,.

At that time, Ānanda,
the monastery of the Lord Kassapa was here.

At that time, ṭnanda,
the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
instructed an Order of monks while he was seated here."

And, Ānanda,
in the village township of Vebhaḷiŋga,
the potter named Ghaṭīkāra was a supporter -
the chief supporter -
of the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One.

And, Ānanda,
a brahman youth named [244] Jotipāla[3] was a friend -
a dear friend -
of the potter Ghaṭīkāra.

Then, Ānanda,
the potter Ghaṭīkāra addressed the brahman youth Jotipāla, saying:

'Let us go, dear Jotipāla,
we will approach the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
so as to see him.

A sight of this Lord, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
would be greatly prized by me.'

When this had been said, Ānanda,
the brahman youth Jotipāla spoke thus
to the potter Ghaṭīkāra:

'Yes, dear Ghaṭīkāra,
but of what use is it
to see this little shaveling recluse?

And a second time, Ānanda,
the potter Ghaṭīkāra addressed the brahman youth Jotipāla, saying:

'Let us go, dear Jotipāla,
we will approach the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
so as to see him.

A sight of this Lord, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
would be greatly prized by me.'

When this had been said, Ānanda,
the brahman youth Jotipāla spoke thus
to the potter Ghaṭīkāra:

'Yes, dear Ghaṭīkāra,
but of what use is it
to see this little shaveling recluse?

And a third time, Ānanda, did Ghaṭīkāra the potter
speak thus to the brahman youth Jotipāla:

'Let us go, dear Jotipāla,
we will approach the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
so as to see him.

A sight of this Lord, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
would be greatly prized by me.'

When this had been said, Ānanda,
the brahman youth Jotipāla spoke thus
to the potter Ghaṭīkāra:

'Yes, dear Ghaṭīkāra,
but of what use is it
to see this little shaveling recluse?

'Well then, dear Jotipāla,
taking a back-scratcher and bath-powder,
we will go to the river to bathe.'

Ānanda, the brahman youth Jotipāla
answered the potter Ghaṭīkāra in assent, saying:

' Yes, dear.'

Then, Ānanda, the potter Ghaṭīkāra
and the brahman youth Jotipāla,
taking a back-scratcher and bath-powder,
went to the river to bathe.

Then, Ānanda,
the potter Ghaṭīkāra spoke thus
to the brahman youth Jotipāla:

'This, dear Jotipāla,
is near the monastery
of the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One.

Let us go, dear Jotipāla,
we will approach the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
so as to see him.

A sight of this Lord, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
would be greatly prized by me.'

When this had been said, Ānanda,
the brahman youth Jotipāla spoke thus
to the potter Ghaṭīkāra:

'Yes, dear Ghaṭīkāra,
but of what use is it
to see this little shaveling recluse?'

And a second time Ānanda,
the potter Ghaṭīkāra spoke thus
to the brahman youth Jotipāla:

'This, dear Jotipāla,
is near the monastery
of the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One.

Let us go, dear Jotipāla,
we will approach the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
so as to see him.

A sight of this Lord, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
would be greatly prized by me.'

When this had been said, Ānanda,
the brahman youth Jotipāla spoke thus
to the potter Ghaṭīkāra:

'Yes, dear Ghaṭīkāra,
but of what use is it
to see this little shaveling recluse?'

And a third time, Ānanda,
did Ghaṭīkāra the potter speak thus
to the brahman youth Jotipāla:

'This, dear Jotipāla,
is near the monastery
of the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One.

A sight of this Lord, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
would be greatly prized by me.'

And a third time, Ānanda,
did the brahman youth Jotipāla speak thus
to the potter Ghaṭīkāra:

'Yes, dear Ghaṭīkāra,
but of what use is it
to see this Httle shaveling recluse?'

Then, Ānanda, the potter Ghaṭīkāra,
having laid hold of the brahman youth Jotipāla by the waist-band,
spoke thus:

'This, dear [245] Jotipāla,
is near the monastery
of the Lord Kassapa.

Let us go, dear Jotipāla,
we will approach the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One
so as to see him.

A sight of this Lord, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
would be greatly prized by me.'

Then, Ānanda,
the brahman youth Jotipāla,
having disengaged his waist-band,
spoke thus to the potter Ghaṭīkāra:

'Yes, dear Ghaṭīkāra,
but of what use is it
to see this little shaveling recluse?

Then, Ānanda, the potter Ghaṭīkāra,
having laid hold of the brahman youth Jotipāla by the hair -
he had just performed an ablution of his head -
spoke thus:

'This, dear Jotipāla,
is near the monastery
of the Lord Kassapa.

Let us go, dear Jotipāla,
we will approach the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One
so as to see him.

A sight of this Lord, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
would be greatly prized by me.'

Then, Ānanda, it occurred to the brahman youth Jotipāla:

'Indeed it is wonderful,
indeed it is marvellous,
that this potter Ghaṭīkāra,
being of lowly birth,
should lay hold of my hair
although I have performed an ablution of my head,'
and thinking:[ed1]

'Indeed this[4] surely cannot be insignificant.'

he spoke thus to the potter Ghaṭīkāra:

'Is it really necessary,[5] dear Ghaṭīkāra?'

'It is really necessary, dear Jotipāla,
most surely a sight of this Lord, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
would be greatly prized by me.'

'Well then, dear Ghaṭīkāra,
let go (of my hair);
we will get along.'

Then, Ānanda, the potter Ghaṭīkāra
and the brahman youth Jotipāla
approached the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One.

When they had approached,
Ghaṭīkāra the potter greeted the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
and sat down at a respectful distance.

But the brahman youth Jotipāla exchanged greetings with the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
and having conversed in a friendly and courteous way,
he sat down at a respectful distance.

And, Ānanda,
as the potter Ghaṭīkāra was sitting down at a respectful distance,
he spoke thus to the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One:

'Revered sir, this brahman youth Jotipāla is my friend -
my dear friend.

Let the Lord teach him dhamma.

Then, Ānanda, the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
gladdened,
roused,
incited,
delighted the potter Ghaṭīkāra
and the brahman youth Jotipāla,
with talk on dham- [246] ma.[6]

Then, Ānanda, the potter Ghaṭīkāra
and the brahman youth Jotipāla,
gladdened,
roused,
incited,
delighted by the Lord Kassapa's talk on dhamma,
having rejoiced in what the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One, had said,
having given thanks
and risen from their seats,
greeting the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
they departed keeping their right sides towards him.

Then, Ānanda, the brahman youth Jotipāla spoke thus
to the potter Ghaṭīkāra:

'How is it that you, dear Ghaṭīkāra,
on hearing this dhamma,
do not go forth from home into homelessness?

'But, dear Jotipala, do you not know
that I look after my blind and ageing parents?

'Well then, dear Ghaṭīkāra,
I will go forth from home into homelessness.'

Then, Ānanda, the potter Ghaṭīkāra
and the brahman youth Jotipāla
approached the Lord Kassapa;
having approached and having greeted the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
they sat down at a respectful distance.

And, Ānanda, as Ghaṭīkāra the potter
was sitting down at a respectful distance,
he spoke thus to the Lord Kassapa:

'Revered sir, this brahman youth Jotipāla is my friend -
my dear friend.

May the Lord let him go forth.'

Ānanda, Jotipāla the brahman youth
received the going forth
in the presence of the Lord Kassapa,[7] perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
he received the ordination.

Then, Ānanda, not long after the brahman youth Jotipāla had received ordination -
half a month after his ordination -
the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
having stayed at Vebhaḷiŋga, for as long as he found suitable,
set out on tour for Benares;
walking on tour,
in due course he arrived at Benares.

While he was there, Ānanda,
the Lord Kassapa, stayed near Benares
at Isipatana in the deer-park.

Ānanda, Kikī, the king of Kāsi,
heard that the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One
had arrived at Benares
and was staying near Benares at Isipatana in the deer-park.

Then, Ānanda, Kikī, the king of Kāsi,
having had many lovely vehicles harnessed,
having mounted a lovely vehicle,
set off for Benares with the many lovely vehicles
and with great royal pomp
so as to see the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One.

For as long as the ground was possible for a vehicle
he went in the vehicle,
then having dismounted from it,
he approached the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One, on foot;
having approached
and having greeted the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
he sat down at a respectful distance.

Ānanda, as Kikī, the king of Kāsi,
was sitting down at a respectful distance,
the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
roused,
incited,
gladdened [247]
and delighted him with talk on dhamma.

Then, Ānanda, Kikī, the king of Kāsi,
roused,
delighted by the Lord Kassapa
with talk on dhamma,
spoke thus to the Lord Kassapa:

'Revered sir, may the Lord consent to a meal with me on the morrow
together with the Order of monks.'

Ānanda, the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One
consented by becoming silent.

Then, Ānanda, Kikī the king of Kāsi,
having understood the Lord Kassapa's consent,
rising from his seat
and greeting the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
departed keeping his right side towards him.

Then, Ānanda, towards the end of that night when Kikī, the king of Kāsi,
had had sumptuous foods,
solid and soft,
prepared in his own dwelling:
dry yellow rices,[8]
various curries,
the black grains removed,
and various condiments,
he had the time announced to the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One, saying:

'It is time, revered sir,
the meal is ready.'

Then, Ānanda, the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
having dressed in the morning,
taking his bowl and robe,
approached the dwelling of Kikī, the king of Kāsi;
having approached,
he sat down on the appointed seat
together with the Order of monks.

Then, Ānanda, Kikī, the king of Kāsi,
with his own hand served and satisfied
with sumptuous foods,
solid and soft,
the Order of monks
with the Awakened One at its head.

Then, Ānanda, when the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One
had eaten and had withdrawn his hand from the bowl,
Kikī, the king of Kāsi, taking a low seat,
sat down at a respectful distance.

As he was sitting down at a respectful distance,
Kikī, the king of Kāsi
spoke thus to the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One:

'Revered sir, may the Lord consent to (accept)
my rains-residence in Benares;
there will be suitable support for the Order.'

'No, sire, I have (already) consented
to (accept) a rains-residence.'

And a second time Kikī, the king of Kāsi
spoke thus to the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One:

'Revered sir, may the Lord consent
to (accept) my rains-residence in Benares;
there will be suitable support for the Order.'

'No, sire, I have (already) consented
to (accept) a rains-residence.'

And a third time, Ānanda, did Kikī, the king of Kāsi,
speak thus to the Lord Kassapa:

'Revered sir, may the Lord consent
to (accept) my rains-residence in Benares;
there will be suitable support for the Order.'

'No, sire, I have (already) consented
to (accept) a rains-residence.'

Then, Ānanda, Kikī, the king of Kāsi thought:

'The Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One does not consent
to (accept) my rains-residence in Benares,'
and he was depressed and grieved.[9]

Then, Ānanda, Kikī, the king of Kāsi,
spoke thus to the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One:

'Then, have you, revered sir,
some other supporter than me?

'There is, sire, a village township called Vebhaḷiŋga,.

There is a [248] potter there called Ghaṭīkāra;
he is my supporter -
the chief supporter.

But you, sire, think:

The Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One, does not consent
to (accept) my rains-residence in Benares,
and you are depressed and grieved.

This is not so with the potter Ghaṭīkāra
and nor can it be so.

For, sire, the potter Ghaṭīkāra has gone to the Awakened One for refuge,
he has gone to dhamma for refuge,
he has gone to the Order for refuge.

Ghaṭīkāra, the potter, sire,
is restrained from onslaught on creatures,
restrained from taking what has not been given,
restrained from wrong enjoyment of sense-pleasures,
restrained from lying speech,
restrained from occasions of sloth
engendered by strong drink and spirits.

Ghaṭīkāra the potter, sire,
is possessed of unwavering confidence in the Awakened One
unwavering confidence in dhamma
unwavering confidence the Order,
he is possessed of moral habits
that are dear to the ariyans.

Ghaṭīkāra the potter, sire, doubts not about anguish
he doubts not about the uprising of anguish
he doubts not about the stopping of anguish,
he doubts not about the course leading to the stopping of anguish.

Ghaṭīkāra the potter, sire, is a one-meal-man,
a Brahma-farer,
virtuous,
lovely in character.

Ghaṭīkāra the potter, sire,
is one who has laid aside jewels and wrought gold,
who is without gold and silver.

Ghaṭīkāra the potter, sire,
does not dig the earth either with a spade
or with his own hand;
willingly he makes a vessel
from the soil of a bank
that is crumbling
or scratched out by rats and dogs,
and he speaks thus:

"He that likes,
if he lays down fragments of husked rice here,
fragments of kidney-beans,
fragments of chick-peas,
may take whatever he likes."[10]

Ghaṭīkāra the potter, sire,
looks after his blind ageing parents.

Ghaṭīkāra the potter, sire,
by the destruction of the five fetters binding to this lower (shore),
is of spontaneous uprising,
he attains final nibbāna there,
he is not liable to return from that world.

At one time I, sire,
was staying in the village township of Vebhaḷiŋga.

Then I, sire,
having dressed in the morning,
taking my bowl and robe,
approached the parents of the potter Ghaṭīkāra;
having approached,
I spoke thus to the parents of the potter Ghaṭīkāra:

"Now, where has this potter[11] gone?

"Revered sir, your supporter has gone out, saying:

Now, having taken conjey from the pot,
having taken curry from the cauldron,
enjoy them."

Then I, sire,
having taken conjey from the pot,
having taken curry from the cauldron,
enjoyed them,
and rising up from my seat I departed.

Then, sire, Ghaṭīkāra the potter approached his parents;
having approached,
he spoke thus to his parents:

"Who is it that,
having taken conjey from the pot,
having taken curry from the cauldron
and having enjoyed them,
is going away?"

"It is the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One, dear,
that, having taken conjey from the pot,
having taken curry from the cauldron
and having enjoyed them,
is going away."

Then, sire, it occured to Ghaṭīkāra the potter:

"Indeed it is a gain for me,
indeed it is well gotten by me
that the Lord Kassapa,
has such trust in me."

Then, sire,
joy and happiness did not leave Ghaṭīkāra the potter
for half a month
or his parents for seven days.

At one time I, sire,
was staying in this very village township of Vebhaḷiŋga,.

Then I, sire,
having dressed in the morning,
taking my bowl and robe,
approached the parents of the potter Ghaṭīkāra;
having approached,
I spoke thus to the parents of the potter Ghaṭīkāra:

"Now, where has this potter gone?

"Revered sir, your supporter has gone out, saying:

Now, having taken boiled rice from the pan,
having taken curry from the cauldron,
enjoy them."

Then I, sire,
having taken boiled rice from the pan,
having taken curry from the cauldron,
enjoyed them,
and rising up from my seat I departed.

Then, sire, Ghaṭīkāra the potter approached his parents;
having approached,
he spoke thus to his parents:

"Who is it that,
having taken boiled rice from the pan,
having taken curry from the cauldron,
and having enjoyed them,
is going away?"

"It is the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One, dear,
that, having taken boiled rice from the pan,
having taken curry from the cauldron,
and having enjoyed them,
is going away."

Then, sire, it occured to Ghaṭīkāra the potter:

"Indeed it is a gain for me,
indeed it is well gotten by me
that the Lord Kassapa,
has such trust in me."

Then, sire,
joy and happiness did not leave Ghaṭīkāra the potter
for half a month
or his parents for seven days.

At one time I, sire, was staying in this very village township of Vebhaḷiŋga..

At that time the hut leaked.

So I, sire, addressed the monks, saving:

"Go, monks, and find out if there is grass
in the dwelling of Ghaṭīkāra the potter."

When this had been said, sire,
the monks spoke thus to me:

"There is no grass, revered sir,
in the dwelling of Ghaṭīkāra the potter,
but his house has a grass roof."

"Go, monks, and strip the grass
from the house of Ghaṭīkāra the potter."

Then, sire, these monks stripped the grass
from the house of Ghaṭīkāra the potter.

Then, sire, the parents of Ghaṭīkāra the potter
spoke thus to the monks:

"Who are they
that are stripping the grass from the house?"

"Sister,' the monks said,
"the Lord Kassapa's hut is leaking."

"Take it, revered sirs,
take it, my honourable friends."[12]

Then, sire, Ghaṭīkāra the potter
approached his parents;
having approached,
he spoke thus to his parents:

"Who are they
that have stripped the grass from the house?"

"Monks, [250] dear;
the hut of the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
is leaking."

Then, sire, it occurred to Ghaṭīkāra the potter:

"Indeed it is a gain for me,
indeed it is well gotten by me
that the Lord Kassapa, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One,
has such trust in me."

Then, sire,
joy and happiness did not leave the potter Ghaṭīkāra
for half a month
or his parents for seven days.

Then, sire,
for a whole three months[13]
that house stood with its roof open to the sky,
but it did not rain into it.

Such a one, sire, is Ghaṭīkāra the potter.'

'It is a gain, revered sir,
it is well gotten, revered sir,
by Ghaṭīkāra the potter
in whom the Lord has such trust.'

Then, Ānanda, Kikī, the king of Kāsi,
sent as many as five hundred cartloads
of husked rice to Ghaṭīkāra the potter,
dry yellow rices
and suitable curries.[14]

Then, Ānanda, these king's men,
having approached Ghaṭīkāra the potter,
spoke thus:

'These five hundred cartloads of husked rice, revered sir,
have been sent to you by Kikī, the king of Kāsi,
with dry yellow rices
and suitable curries.

Accept them, revered sir.

The king is very busy, there is much to be done.'

'I am quite satisfied
since this is for me from the king.'

It may be, Ānanda, that this will occur to you:

'Now, at that time
the brahman youth Jotipāla
was someone else.'

But this, Ānanda, should not be thought of in this way.

I, at that time,
was Jotipāla the brahman youth."

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, the venerable Ānanda rejoiced
in what the Lord had said.

Discourse on Ghaṭīkāra: The First

 


[1] Cf. A. iii. 214-215 for the opening of this Discourse. For the whole episode, told with some interesting variations, see Mhvu. i. 317 jf.i (Mhvu. Translation i. 265 ff. in S.B.B..).

[2] All references in this Discourse to "the Lord Kassapa" are followed by the terms "perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One." I have omitted this full designation for reasons of space. [Ed.: reinserted for this version.]

[3] At D. ii. 230 called the son of the brahman Govinda. At Jā. i. 43 called the Bodhisatta; see also the end of this Discourse. Cf. Budv. xxv. 10 ff., Miln. 221 ff. Also see the point of controversy at Kvu. 286 [Pts. of Contr. IV.8 p 167] as to whether the Bodhisatta was a Brahma-farer and following the (right) method at the time of the Buddha Kassapa.

[4] "This going (gamana) of ours (to visit the Lord) cannot be insignificant or small; it will be great," MA. iii. 281. The text here may be slightly confused, see v. ll. at M. ii. 47. But all the time Jotipāla was more and more coming over to the idea of visiting the Lord Kassapa.

[5] yāvetadohi pi. MA. iii. 281 gives the meaning as yāvetaparamaṁ, and the sense as: In order to go there, is all this exertion necessary; from pleading, seizing hold of my waist - band and letting it go, and then to the length of taking hold of my hair?

[6] MA. iii. 282 says that this was concerned with the attainment of mindfulness.

[7] MA. iii. 282 says that Bodhisattas go forth in the presence of Buddhas.

[8] paṇdumuṭikassa sālino. MA. iii. 283 says: muṭake katvā sukkhāpitassa rattasālino. Tassa kira sālino vappakālato paṭṭhāya ayam parīhāro.

[9] As at M. i. 448, 457.

[10] MA. iii. 284-5 says he does not trade in the vessels he has fired. But once people know they can take what they like, they bring him useful materials from the forest.

[11] bhaggava; cf. Kumbhakāra Jātaka, and see PED. This that "seems to have been a generic name for all potters" is here not "a special form of address," as suggested in DPPN.

[12] bhadramukha, as at M. ii. 210; S. i. 74. In translating the word thus, I follow the note at K.S. i. 100.

[13] MA. ill. 286 says that the Lord had already passed one of the four months of the rains before he sent for the grass thatch.

[14] These were to be for him and the Order of monks for three months, MA. iii, 287.

 


[ed1] Ms. Horner has here: 'and should think' which makes no sense.

 


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