Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
III. Upari Paṇṇāsa
2. Anupada Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
III. The Final Fifty Discourses
2. The Division of the Uninterrupted

Sutta 118

Ānāpāna-Sati Suttaɱ

Discourse on
Mindfulness when Breathing In and Out

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, O.B.E., M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

Scanned, digitized and proofread by Waiyin Chow.

 


[121]

[1][chlm][than][olds][ntbb][upal] Thus have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying near Sāvatthī
in the Eastern Monastery
in the palace of Migāra's mother,
together with a number of well known elders and disciples:
the venerable Sāriputta,[1]
the venerable Moggallāna the Great,
the Venerable Kassapa the Great,
the Venerable Kaccāyana the Great,
the venerable Koṭṭhita the Great,
the venerable Kappina the Great,[2]
the venerable Cunda the Great,
the venerable Anuruddha,
the venerable Revata,
the venerable Ānanda
and with other well known elders and disciples.

At that time
the monks who were elders
exhorted and instructed newly ordained monks.

Some monks who were elders
exhorted and instructed ten monks,
and some monks who were elders
exhorted and instructed twenty monks,
and some monks who were elders
exhorted and instructed thirty monks,
and some monks who were elders
exhorted and instructed forty monks.

And these newly ordained monks,
while being exhorted [122] and instructed
by the monks who were elders,
were aware of excellent successive attainment.[3]

"Now at that time
on an Observance day,
the fifteenth,
on the night of the full moon
after the "Invitation"[4]
the Lord was sitting down in the open air
surrounded by an Order of monks.

Then the Lord,
having looked round at the Order of monks
which had become quite silent,
addressed the monks, saying:

"I am satisfied,[5] monks,
with this course,
I am satisfied in mind, monks,
with this course.

Wherefore do you, monks,
stir up energy to a still greater degree
for attaining the unattained,
for winning what is not yet won,
for realising the unrealised.

Now I will wait[6] here in Sāvatthī itself
for Komudī (the festival in) the fourth month."[7]

Monks who lived in the country
heard that the Lord had said
that he would wait there in Sāvatthī itself
for Komudī (the festival in) the fourth month.

And these monks who lived in the country
resorted to Sāvatthī
to see the Lord.[8]

And those monks who were elders
were exhorting and instructing
the newly ordained monks
still more.

Some monks who were elders
were exhorting and instructing
ten newly ordained monks,
and some monks who were elders
were exhorting and instructing
twenty newly ordained monks,
and some monks who were elders
were exhorting and instructing
thirty newly ordained monks,
and some monks who were elders
were exhorting and instructing
forty newly ordained monks.

And these newly ordained monks,
while being exhorted and instructed
by the monks who were elders,
were aware of excellent successive attainment.

 

§

 

Now at that time
on an Observance day,
the fifteenth,
on the night of the full moon
at (the time of Komudī
(a festival in) the fourth month,
the Lord was sitting down in the open air
surrounded by an Order of monks.

Then the Lord,
having looked round at the Order of monks
which had become quite silent,
addressed the monks, saying:

"This assembly,[9] monks,
is without idle words,
this assembly, monks,
has no idle words,
it is established on the pure pith.

Monks, an Order of monks
such as this company
is a company worthy of veneration,
of honour,
of gifts,
of salutation with joined palms,
[123] (with the thought):

'It is an incomparable field of merit
for the world.'

Monks, an Order of monks
such as this company
is a company to which
if a little is given
it becomes much,
if much is given
it becomes more.

Monks, an Order of monks
such as this company
is a company that is hard to see in the world.

Monks, in order to see
an Order of monks such as is this company,
it is fitting to go many a yojana
with one's foodbag on one's shoulder.[10]

Such, monks, is this Order of monks;
such, monks, is this company.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who are perfected ones,
their cankers destroyed,
who have lived the life,
done what was to be done,
laid down the burden,
attained their own goal,
whose fetters of becoming
are utterly destroyed,
and who are freed
by right profound knowledge.

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
in whom the five fetters binding to the lower (shore)
are utterly destroyed,
who are of spontaneous uprising,
attainers of nibbāna there,
not liable to return from that world.

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
in whom the three fetters are utterly destroyed,
in whom attachment,
aversion
and confusion are reduced;
they are once-returners
who, having come back once to this world,
will make an end of anguish.

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
in whom the three fetters are utterly destroyed;
they are stream-attainers,
not liable to the downfall,
but assured,
bound for awakening.

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who live intent on the practise
of the (mind-)development
of the four applications of mindfulness.

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who live intent on the practice
of the (mind-)development
of the four right efforts.

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who live intent on the practice
of the (mind-)development
of the four bases of psychic power.

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who live intent on the practice
of the (mind-)development
of the five controlling faculties.

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who live intent on the practice
of the (mind-)development
of the five powers.

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who live intent on the practice
of the (mind-)development
of the seven links in awakening.

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who live intent on the practice
of the (mind-)development
of the ariyan eightfold Way.

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who live intent on the [124] practice
of the (mind-)development
that is friendliness.[11]

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who live intent on the practice
of the (mind-)development
that is compassion

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who live intent on the practice
of the (mind-)development
that is sympathetic joy

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who live intent on the practice
of the (mind-)development
that is equanimity.

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who live intent on the practice
of the (mind-)development
that is on the foul.[12]

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who live intent on the practice
of the (mind-)development
that is perception of impermanence.

There are, monks,
such monks in this Order of monks.

 

§

 

Monks, there are monks in this Order of monks
who live intent on the practice
of the (mind-)development
that is that is mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing.

Mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing, monks,
if developed and made much of,
is of great fruit,
of great advantage.

Mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing, monks,
if developed and made much of,
brings to fulfilment
the four applications of mindfulness;

the four applications of mindfulness,
if developed and made much of,
bring to fulfilment
the seven links in awakening;

the seven links in awakening,
if developed and made much of,
bring to fulfilment
freedom through knowledge.[13]

And how, monks
is mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing developed?

How is it made much of?

How is it of great fruit,
of great advantage?

Herein, monks, a monk[14] who is forest-gone
or gone to the root of a tree
or gone to an empty place,
sits down cross-legged,
holding his back erect,
arousing mindfulness in front of him.

Mindful he breathes in,
mindful he breathes out.

Whether he is breathing in a long (breath)
he comprehends,

'I am breathing in a long (breath)';

or whether he is breathing out a long (breath)
he comprehends,

'I am breathing out a long (breath)';

or whether he is breathing in a short (breath)
he comprehends,

'I am breathing in a short (breath)';

or whether he is breathing out a short (breath)
he comprehends,

'I am breathing out a short (breath).'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breath in
experiencing the whole body.'[15]

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breath out
experiencing the whole body.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breath in
tranquillising the activity of body.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breath out
tranquillising the activity of body.'

He trains [125] himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in experiencing rapture.'

'I will breathe out experiencing rapture.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in experiencing joy.'

'I will breathe out experiencing joy.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in experiencing the activity of thought.'

'I will breathe out experiencing the activity of thought.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in tranquillising the activity of thought.'

'I will breathe out tranquillising the activity of thought.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in experiencing thought.'

'I will breathe out experiencing thought.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in rejoicing in thought.'

'I will breathe out rejoicing in thought.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in concentrating thought.'

'I will breathe out concentrating thought.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in freeing thought.'

'I will breathe out freeing thought.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in beholding impermanence.'

'I will breathe out beholding impermanence.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in beholding detachment.'

'I will breathe out beholding detachment.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in beholding stopping.'

'I will breathe out beholding stopping.'

He trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in beholding casting away.'

'I will breathe out beholding casting away.'

Monks, mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing
when developed thus,
made much of thus,
is of great fruit,
of great advantage.

 

§

 

And how, monks,
when mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing is developed,
how
when it is made much of,
does it bring the four applications of mindfulness
to fulfilment?

At the time, monks,
when a monk breathing in a long (breath)
he comprehends,

'I am breathing in a long (breath)';

or when he is breathing out a long (breath)
he comprehends,

'I am breathing out a long (breath)';

or when he is breathing in a short (breath)
he comprehends,

'I am breathing in a short (breath)';

or when he is breathing out a short (breath)
he comprehends,

'I am breathing out a short (breath).'

or when he trains himself, thinking,

'I will breath in
experiencing the whole body.'

or when he trains himself, thinking,

'I will breath out
experiencing the whole body.'

or when he trains himself, thinking,

'I will breath in
tranquillising the activity of (breath-)body.'

or when he trains himself, thinking,

'I will breath out
tranquillising the activity of (breath-)body,'

at that time, monks,
the monk is faring along
contemplating the body in the body,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of it),
mindful (of it)
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection
in the world.

I say, monks,
that of bodies[16] this is one,
that is to say breathing-in and breathing-out.[17]

Wherefore,[18] monks,
at the time when a monk is faring along
contemplating the body in the body,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of it),
mindful (of it)
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection
in the world,
at that time, monks,
the monk trains himself,
thinking,

'I will breathe in experiencing rapture.'[19]

'I will breathe out experiencing rapture.'

trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in experiencing joy.'

'I will breathe out experiencing joy.'

trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in experiencing the activity of thought.'

'I will breathe out experiencing the activity of thought.'

trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in tranquillising the activity of thought.'

'I will breathe out tranquillising the activity of thought,'

at that time, monks,
the monk is faring along
contemplating the feelings in the feelings,
ardent
clearly conscious [126] (of them),
mindful (of them)
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection
in the world.

I say, monks,
that of feelings
this is one,[20]
that is to say proper attention
to breathing-in and breathing-out.

Wherefore, monks,
at the time when a monk is faring along
contemplating the feelings in the feelings,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of them),
mindful (of them)
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection
in the world,
at that time, monks,
the monk trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in experiencing thought.'

'I will breathe out experiencing thought.'

trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in rejoicing in thought.'

'I will breathe out rejoicing in thought.'

trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in concentrating thought.'

'I will breathe out concentrating thought.'

trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in freeing thought.'

'I will breathe out freeing thought.'

at that time, monks,
the monk is faring along
contemplating the mind in the mind,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of it),
mindful (of it)
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection
in the world.

I, monks, say that the (mind-)development
that is mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing
is not for one of muddled mindfulness,
not for one not clearly conscious.

Wherefore, monks,
when a monk is faring along
contemplating the mind in the mind,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of it),
mindful (of it)
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection
in the world,
at that time, monks,
the monk trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in beholding impermanence.'

'I will breathe out beholding impermanence.'

trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in beholding detachment.'

'I will breathe out beholding detachment.'

trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in beholding stopping.'

'I will breathe out beholding stopping.'

trains himself, thinking,

'I will breathe in beholding casting away.'

'I will breathe out beholding casting away.'

at that time, monks,
the monk is faring along
contemplating mental states in mental states,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of them),
mindful (of them)
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection
in the world.

He, by getting rid of[21]
that which is covetousness and dejection,[22]
having seen it
by means of wisdom,[23]
is one who looks on
with proper care.[24]

Wherefore, monks, at this time
a monk is faring along
contemplating the mental states
in the mental states,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of them)
mindful (of them)
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection
in the world.

[127] Monks, mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing
when developed thus,
made much of thus,
brings to fulfilment
the four applications of mindfulness.

 

§

 

And how, monks,
when the four applications of mindfulness
have been developed,
how
when they have been made much of,
do they bring to fulfilment
the seven links in awakening?

At the time, monks,
when a monk is faring along
contemplating the body in the body,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of it),
mindful (of it)
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection
in the world,
at that time
unmuddled mindfulness
is aroused in him.

At that time, monks,
when unmuddled mindfulness
is aroused in the monk,
at that time
the link in awakening
that is mindfulness
is stirred up in the monk;
at that time
the monk develops
the link in awakening
that is mindfulness;
at that time
the link in awakening that is mindfulness
comes to fulfilment of development
in the monk.

He, faring along mindful thus,
examines,
inquires into,
brings this thing forward for investigation
by means of wisdom.

At the time, monks, when a monk,
faring along mindful thus,
examines,
inquires into,
brings this thing forward for investigation
by means of wisdom,
at that time
the link in awakening
that is investigation into things
is stirred up in the monk;
at that time
the monk develops
the link in awakening
that is investigation into things;
at that time
the link in awakening
that is investigation into things
comes to fulfilment of development
in the monk.

While he is examining,
inquiring into,
bringing this thing forward for investigation
by means of wisdom,
unsluggish energy
is stirred up in him.

At the time, monks,
when unsluggish energy
is stirred up
in a monk who is examining,
inquiring into,
bringing this thing forward for investigation
by means of wisdom,
at that time
the link in awakening
that is energy
is stirred up in the monk;
at that time
the monk develops
the link in awakening that is energy;
at that time
the link awakening that is energy
comes to fulfilment of development
in that monk.

When he has stirred up energy
unsullied rapture arises.

At the time, monks,
when unsullied rapture arises
in the monk of stirred up energy,
at that time
the link in awakening
that is rapture
is stirred up in the monk;
at that time
the monk develops
the link in awakening that is rapture;
at that time
the link in awakening that is rapture
comes to fulfilment of development
in the monk.

The body of one
whose mind is rapturous
is tranquillised
and thought is tranquillised.

At the time, monks,
when both the body of a monk
whose mind is rapturous
is tranquillised
and thought is tranquillised,
at that time
the link in awakening
[128] that is tranquillity
is stirred up in the monk;
at that time
the monk develops
the link in awakening that is tranquillity;
at the time
the link in awakening that is tranquillity
comes to fulfilment of development
in the monk.

The thought of one
whose body is tranquil
and at ease
is concentrated.

At the time, monks,
when thought is concentrated
in a monk whose body is tranquil
and at ease,
at the time
the link in awakening that is concentration
is stirred up in the monk;
at that time
the monk develops
the link in awakening that is concentration;
at that time
the link in awakening that is concentration
comes to fulfilment of development
in the monk.

He is one
who looks on
with proper care
at the thought concentrated thus.

At the time, monks,
when a monk looks on
with proper care
at the thought concentrated thus,
at that time
the link in awakening that is equanimity
is stirred up in the monk;
at that time the monk develops
the link in awakening that is equanimity;
at that time
the link in awakening that is equanimity
comes to fulfilment of development
in the monk.

At the time, monks,
when a monk is faring along
contemplating the body in the body
ardent,
clearly conscious,
mindful
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection
in the world;

At the time, monks,
when a monk is faring along
contemplating the feelings in the feelings
ardent,
clearly conscious (of them),
mindful (of them)
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection
in the world;

At the time, monks,
when a monk is faring along
contemplating the mind in the mind
ardent,
clearly conscious,
mindful
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection
in the world;

At the time, monks,
when a monk is faring along
contemplating mental states in mental states,
ardent,
clearly conscious (of them),
mindful (of them)
so as to control the covetousness
and dejection
in the world,

at that time
unmuddled mindfulness is aroused in the monk,
at that time
the link in awakening
that is mindfulness
is stirred up in the monk;
at that time
the monk develops
the link in awakening
that is mindfulness;
at that time
the link in awakening that is mindfulness
comes to fulfilment of development
in the monk.

At the time, monks, when a monk,
faring along mindful thus,
examines,
inquires into,
brings this thing forward for investigation
by means of wisdom,
at that time
the link in awakening
that is investigation into things
is stirred up in the monk;
at that time
the monk develops
the link in awakening
that is investigation into things;
at that time
the link in awakening
that is investigation into things
comes to fulfilment of development
in the monk.

At the time, monks,
when unsluggish energy
is stirred up
in a monk who is examining,
inquiring into,
bringing this thing forward for investigation
by means of wisdom,
at that time
the link in awakening
that is energy
is stirred up in the monk;
at that time
the monk develops
the link in awakening that is energy;
at that time
the link awakening that is energy
comes to fulfilment of development
in that monk.

At the time, monks,
when unsullied rapture arises
in the monk of stirred up energy,
at that time
the link in awakening
that is rapture
is stirred up in the monk;
at that time
the monk develops
the link in awakening that is rapture;
at that time
the link in awakening that is rapture
comes to fulfilment of development
in the monk.

At the time, monks,
when both the body of a monk
whose mind is rapturous
is tranquillised
and thought is tranquillised,
at that time
the link in awakening
that is tranquillity
is stirred up in the monk;
at that time
the monk develops
the link in awakening that is tranquillity;
at the time
the link in awakening that is tranquillity
comes to fulfilment of development
in the monk.

At the time, monks,
when thought is concentrated
in a monk whose body is tranquil
and at ease,
at the time
the link in awakening that is concentration
is stirred up in the monk;
at that time
the monk develops
the link in awakening that is concentration;
at that time
the link in awakening that is concentration
comes to fulfilment of development
in the monk.

At the time, monks,
when a monk looks on
with proper care
at the thought concentrated thus,
at that time
the link in awakening that is equanimity
is stirred up in the monk;
at that time the monk develops
the link in awakening that is equanimity;
at that time
the link in awakening that is equanimity
comes to fulfilment of development
in the monk.

Monks, the four applications of mindfulness,
when developed thus,
made much of thus,
bring to fulfilment the seven links in awakening.

 

§

 

And how, monks,
when the seven links in awakening
are developed,
how
when they are made much of,
do they bring to fulfilment
freedom through knowledge?

Herein,[25] monks,
a monk develops
the link in awakening
that is mindfulness
and is dependent on aloofness,
dependent on detachment,
dependent on cessation,
ending in abandoning;

he develops
the link in awakening
that is investigation into things
and is dependent on aloofness,
dependent on detachment,
dependent on cessation,
ending in abandoning;

the link in awakening
that is energy
[129] and is dependent on aloofness,
dependent on detachment,
dependent on cessation,
ending in abandoning;

the link in awakening
that is rapture
and is dependent on aloofness,
dependent on detachment,
dependent on cessation,
ending in abandoning;

the link in awakening
that is tranquillity
and is dependent on aloofness,
dependent on detachment,
dependent on cessation,
ending in abandoning;

the link in awakening
that is concentration
and is dependent on aloofness,
dependent on detachment,
dependent on cessation,
ending in abandoning;

the link in awakening
that is equanimity
and is dependent on aloofness,[26]
dependent on detachment,
dependent on cessation,
ending in abandoning.[27]

Monks, when the seven links in awakening
are developed thus,
are made much of thus,
they bring to fulfilment
freedom through knowledge."

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, these monks rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

Discourse on Mindfulness when Breathing In and Out

 


[1] Cf. other lists of theras at Vin. i. 354 f., ii. 15 f., iv. 66, and see B.D. ii. 245 for references.

[2] Mentioned also at Vin. i. 105.

[3] During meditation on the "devices," MA. iv. 137. Cf. D. i. 233, A. iv. 47, S. v. 154.

[4] A monastic ceremony held at the end of the rains. See Vin. i. 160, ii. 32; B.D. i. 283, 292, ii. 153, n. 2.

[5] āraddha, explained by tuṭṭha at MA. iv. 137.

[6] MA. iv. 137 reads āgamessāmi; text āgamissāmi.

[7] Komudiɱ cātumāsiniɱ, cf. B.D. ii. 157, n. 3. MA. iv. 137 says it is called komudī because of the existence of white lotuses, and cātumāsinī because it is at the conclusion of the four months of the rains.

[8] After the full moon of Kattika.

[9] Cf. A. ii. 183.

[10] putosenā pi. MA. iv. 139 also gives another reading, putaŋsena. See G.S. ii. 192, n. 1.

[11] For this and the following cf. M. i. 424 f.

[12] The reference is probably to the cemetery meditations.

[13] vijjāvimutti, as at S. v. 28, 335. See also Pts. ii. 243, SA. iii. 275.

[14] For the following see M. Sta. 10; also M. i. 425, A. v. 111, and Ānāpānasaɱyutta (S. v. 311).

[15] I.e. the breath-body

[16] kāyesu. MA. iv. 140, among the four bodies of extension and so on, this is one (aññatara), I say it is the body of mobility (vāyokāya). Or, the body that is material shape consists of twenty-five classes of rūpa (mentioned at Dhs. 585); rūpāyatanam ... pe ... kabiḷiŋkaro āhāro. Of these, breathing is a body because it is included in the field of touch.

[17] assāsapassāsa here

[18] He either beholds that the body of mobility is one of the four bodies, or that breathing is one of the twenty-five classes of material shape.

[19] On the experience of rapture being two-fold see Vism. 287, and Pts. i. 187.

[20] It is a certain feeling of pleasantness among the three kinds of feeling, MA. iv. 140.

[21] By contemplating impermanence, he gets rid of the perception of permanence; getting rid is a form of knowledge, ñāṇa.

[22] The hindrance of sensual desire is covetousness; the hindrance of ill-will is shown by dejection.

[23] After the knowledge of getting rid of, there is insight into what constitutes impermanence, detachment, stopping and casting away.

[24] ajjhupekkhitar, perhaps meaning with mastery, so that he looks at the objects of thought or meditation, ārammaṇa, or at sense-impressions unmoved by them and indifferent to them, MA. iv. 142. Cf. S. v. 69, etc.

[25] Cf. M. iii. 275.

[26] MA. iv. 144 says that in this Discourse mindfulness on breathing, which is worldly, brings to fulfilment the applications of mindfulness which are worldly; these bring to fulfilment the seven links in awakening which are worldly; and these bring to fulfilment the supermundane nibbāna and fruit of freedom through knowledge.

[27] vossaggapariṇāmi, maturing (or, mature) (pariṇāmin) in relinquishing, letting go of, abandoning, ejecting (vossagga). This abandonment is two-fold: of the defilements and to the mind's leap into nibbāna, see SA. i. 159, Pts. i. 194.


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