Aŋguttara Nikāya


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Aŋguttara-Nikāya
III. Tika Nipāta
IV. Deva-Dūta Vagga

The Book of the Gradual Sayings
or
More-Numbered Suttas

III. The Book of the Threes
IV. Messengers of the Devas

Sutta 40

Ādhipateyya Suttaɱ

Dominance

Translated from the Pali by
F.L. Woodward, M.A.

Copyright The Pali Text Society
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[130]

[1][than][bodh] Thus have I heard:

On a certain occasion the Exalted One addressed the monks, saying:

"Monks."

"Yes, Lord," replied those monks to the Exalted One.

The Exalted One said this:

"Monks, there are these three forms of dominance.[1]

What three?

Dominance of self,
of the world
and of Dhamma.

 

§

 

And of what sort
is dominance of self?

In this case a monk who has gone to the forest,
the root of a tree
or a lonely spot,
thus reflects:

'It was not for the sake of [131] robes
that I went forth from the home
to the homeless life,
not for alms
or lodging,
not for the sake of becoming such and such (in future lives).[2]

Nay, it was with this idea:

"Here am I, fallen on birth,
old age
and death,
on sorrows,
lamentation
and woes,
on despair
and tribulations.

I am fallen on Ill,
foredone with Ill.

Perhaps so doing
some ending of all this mass of Ill
may be revealed to me."

Yet if I,
who have forsaken the passions
by going forth from home
to the homeless life,
should pursue passions still worse than before,[3]
that were unseemly in me.'

Then he thus reflects:

'Energetic shall be my striving
and my attention shall be established unshaken.

Calmed shall my body be,
not turbulent.

My mind shall be controlled
and one-pointed.'

Thus making self predominant,[4]
he abandons evil,
cultivates goodness,
abandons things blameworthy,
cultivates things blameless,
and keeps himself in perfect purity.[5]

This, monks, is called
'dominance of self.'

 

§

 

2. And of what sort, monks,
is dominance of the world?

In this case a monk who has gone to the forest,
the root of a tree
or a lonely spot,
thus reflects:

'It was not for the sake of robes
that I went forth from the home
to the homeless life,
not for alms
or lodging,
not for the sake of becoming such and such (in future lives).

Nay, it was with this idea:

"Here am I, fallen on birth,
old age
and death,
on sorrows,
lamentation
and woes,
on despair
and tribulations.

I am fallen on Ill,
foredone with Ill.

Perhaps so doing
some ending of all this mass of Ill
may be revealed to me."

Yet if I,
who went forth thus from home
to the homeless life,
should indulge sensual thoughts,
indulge in malicious thoughts,
in harmful thoughts, -
great is this company of men in the world -
surely in this great company
there are recluses and brahmins,
possessed of supernormal powers,
clairvoyant,
able to read the thoughts of others.

Even from afar
they can see me.

Though close at hand
they may be invisible
and they can read my mind with theirs.

They would know me thus:

"Behold this clansman here, my friends,
who, though in faith he went forth from the home
to the homeless life,
yet lives his life mixed up [132]
with things evil and unprofitable."[6]

There must be devas, too,
of supernormal powers,
clairvoyant,
able to read the thoughts of others.

Even from afar
they can see me.

Though close at hand
they may be invisible
and they can read my mind with theirs.

They would know me thus:

"Behold this clansman here, my friends,
who, though in faith he went forth from the home
to the homeless life,
yet lives his life mixed up
with things evil and unprofitable."'

Then he thus reflects:

'Energetic shall be my striving
and my attention shall be established unshaken.

Calmed shall my body be,
not turbulent.

My mind shall be controlled
and one-pointed.'

Thus likewise making the world predominant
he abandons evil,
cultivates goodness,
abandons things blameworthy,
cultivates things blameless,
and keeps himself in utter purity.

This, monks, is called
'dominance of the world.'

 

§

 

3. And of what sort is dominance of Dhamma?

In this case a monk who has gone to the forest,
the root of a tree
or a lonely spot,
thus reflects:

'Well proclaimed by the Exalted One is Dhamma,
seen in this very life,
a thing not involving time,
inviting one to come and see,
leading onward,
to be known for themselves by the wise.

Now I have fellows in the righteous life
who abide in knowledge and insight (of Dhamma).[7]

If I, who am one that went forth
under this well-proclaimed Dhamma-Discipline,
should dwell in sloth and negligence,
it would be unseemly for me.'

Then he thus reflects:

'Energetic shall be my striving
and my attention shall be established unshaken.

Calmed shall my body be,
not turbulent.

My mind shall be controlled
and one-pointed.'

Thus likewise making Dhamma predominant
he abandons evil,
cultivates goodness,
abandons things blameworthy,
cultivates things blameless
and keeps himself in utter purity.

This, monks, is called
'dominance of Dhamma.'

These then are the three regards."

 


 

Nowhere can any cover up his sin.[8]
The self[9] in thee, man! knows what's true or false.
[133] Indeed, my friend, thou scorn'st[10] the noble self,
Thinking to hide the evil self in thee
From self who witnessed it. Tāthagatas
And devas see the fool who in the world
Walks crookedly. Thus he who has the Self
As master, let him walk with heed,[11] for whom
The world is master — shrewdly walk,
for whom Dhamma is master, muser (let him walk).
Who lives as Dhamma bids him never fails.
He presses on to find the truth,[12] a sage,
He conquers Māra, death he vanquishes,
By striving he has reached the end of births.
Keen is his insight: lust and views perverse,[13]
Whatever happens,[14] touch not such a sage.

 


[1] Text should read ādhipaieyyāni. Comy. here and at UdA. 406 takes the word as equivalent to seṭṭha-bhāva, issariyaɱ (to put in the first place, to regard as chief, hence 'to be influenced by'). Aaḷ. 125 has attādhipati = hiri; lokādhipati = ottappaɱ. See note below.

[2] Iti-bhavā-bhava-hetu.

[3] Reading with Comy. kāme pāpiṭṭhatare for pāpiṭṭhataro of text.

[4] Text adhipateyyaɱ. Comy. adhipatiɱ (which I follow).

[5] Cf. Expos. i, 165.

[6] Cf. Expos. i, 166.

[7] Jānaɱ passaɱ = taɱ dhammaɱ jānantā passantā. Comy. I cannot account for the singular form.

[8] This line occurs at JA. iii, 19, where Comy. takes raho as 'place of concealment.'

[9] As Dhamma, 'conscience.' Cf. Buddh. Psych. 28; Gotama, 55 f.

[10] Here atimaññesi ia unmetrical: read atimaññasi.

[11] Cf. Sn. 1054, sato caraɱ.

[12] Sacca-parakkamo. Cf. JA. iv, 383; Brethren, 224, 311.

[13] Text reads atamma yo munī. Comy. atammayo = tammaiāya abhāvena khīṇāsavo. Cf. A. iii, 444, sabbaloke ca atammayo bhavissāmi; M. i, 319. For tammayatā cf. M. iii, 42, 220, where Comy. has atammayo ti tammayā vuccanti taṇhā-diṭṭhiyo: tāhi rahito. It is nittaṇhatā.

[14] Sabbesu dhammesu.


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