Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
II. Majjhima-Paṇṇāsa
5. Brāhmaṇa Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
II. The Middle Fifty Discourses
5. The Division on Brahmans

Sutta 95

Caŋkī Suttaɱ

Discourse with Caŋkī[1]

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, O.B.E., M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

Scanned, digitized and proofread by Waiyin Chow.

 


 

[1][chlm][than][ntbb][upal] Thus have I heard:

At one time the Lord, walking on tour among the Kosalans together with a large Order of monks, arrived at a brahman village of the Kosalans called Opasāda.

While he was there near Opasāda the Lord stayed to the north of Opasāda in the Devas' Grove, the Sāl Grove.[2]

At that time in Opasāda – a place teeming with life, (a place of) grass, wood and water and of corn, in fief to the King – there dwelt the brahman Caŋkī as overlord, on a royal gift, a gift with full powers[3] that had been made to him by King Pasenadi of Kosala.

Then the brahman householders of Opasāda heard:

"Verily the recluse Gotama ...[4]... Good indeed is the sight of perfected ones like this."

Then the brahman householders of Opasāda, having set forth from Opasāda, went in companies, crowds and groups by the northern entrance to the Devas' Grove, the Sāl Grove.

At that time the brahman Caŋkī was lying down in the upper part of the palace during the heat of the day.

And the barman Caŋkī saw the brahman householders of Opasāda who, [355] having set forth from Opasāda, were going in companies, crowds and groups by the northern entrance to the Devas' Grove the Sāl Grove; and seeing them, he addressed an adviser, saying:

"Why, good adviser, do the brahman householders of Opasāda, having set forth from Opasāda, go in companies, crowds and groups by the northern entrance to the Devas' Grove, the Sāl Grove?"

"There is, good Caŋkī, the recluse Gotama, a son of the Sakyans, gone forth from a Sakyan family ...[5] an Awakened One, a Lord.

These are approaching this honoured Gotama."

"Well then, good adviser, approach the brahman householders of Opasāda; having approached, speak thus to the brahman householders of Opasāda:

'Sirs, the brahman Caŋkī speaks thus:

Please let the revered ones wait; Caŋkī the brahman will also approach to see the recluse Gotama.'"

"Yes, sir," and when that adviser had answered the brahman Caŋkī [165] in assent, he approached the brahman householders of Opasāda; having approached, he spoke thus to the brahman householders of Opasāda:

"Sirs, the brahman Caŋkī speaks thus:

Please let the revered ones wait; Caŋkī the brahman will also approach to see the recluse Gotama.'"

Now at that time at least five hundred brahmans from various brahman districts[6] were residing at Opasāda on some business or other.

These brahmans heard that the brahman Caŋkī would approach to see the recluse Gotama.

Then these brahmans approached the brahman Caŋkī; having approached, they spoke thus to the brahman Caŋkī:

"Is it indeed true that the good Caŋkī will approach to see the recluse Gotama?"

"That is my intention,[7] sirs; I will approach to see the recluse Gotama."

"Do not, good Caŋkī, approach to see the recluse Gotama.

It is not right[8] that the good Caŋkī should approach to see the recluse Gotama; it is right that the recluse Gotama should himself approach to see the honoured Caŋkī.

For the good Caŋkī is of pure birth on both sides, of pure descent from his mother and father back through seven generations, unchallenged, irreproachable in respect of birth.[9]

And because the good Caŋkī is of pure birth on both sides ... [356] irreproachable in respect of birth, that is a reason why it is not right for the good Caŋkī to approach to see the recluse Gotama; it is right that the recluse Gotama should himself approach to see the honoured Caŋkī.

For the good Caŋkī is prosperous, very wealthy, very rich.

Then, the good Caŋkī is master of the three Vedas, versed in the vocabularies and rituals together with the phonology and exegesis and the legendary tradition as the fifth; he is learned in idioms, a grammarian, proficient in popular philosophy and the marks of a Great Man.

Then the good Caŋkī is lovely, good to look upon, charming, possessed of the greatest beauty of complexion, of a sublime colour,[10] a sublime stature,[11] stately in appearance.

Then the good Caŋkī is of moral habit, one who has grown in moral habit, he is possessed[12] of a moral habit that has grown.[13]

Then the good Caŋkī has a lovely voice, a lovely delivery, he is possessed of urbane speech, distinct, not mumbling, he is able to make his meaning clear.

Then the good Caŋkī, the teacher of many teachers, instructs three hundred brahman youths in mantras.

Then the good Caŋkī is respected revered, esteemed, venerated by King Pasenadi of Kosala.

Then the good Caŋkī is respected ... venerated by the brahman Pokkharasāti.[14]

Then the good Caŋkī dwells as overlord in Opasāda – a place teeming with life, (a place of) grass, wood and water ... on a royal gift, a gift with full powers that has been made to him by King Pasenadi of Kosala.

And because the good Caŋkī dwells as overlord ... on a gift with full powers that has been made to him by King Pasenadi of Kosala, this is a reason why it is not right for the good Caŋkī to approach to see the recluse Gotama; it is right that the recluse Gotama should himself approach to see the honoured Caŋkī."

When this had been said, the brahman Caŋkī spoke thus to those brahmans:

"Well then, sirs, hear from me why it is right that we ourselves should go to see the honoured Gotama and why it is not right that the revered Gotama should himself come to see us.

Indeed, sirs, the recluse Gotama is of pure birth on both sides, of pure descent [357] from his mother and father back through seven generations, unchallenged, irreproachable in respect of birth.

And because the recluse Gotama is of pure birth on both sides ... irreproachable in respect of birth, this is a reason why it is not right for the good Gotama to come to see us, while it is right that we ourselves should go to see the honoured Gotama.

Indeed the recluse Gotama has gone forth giving up an abundance of unwrought and wrought gold[15] both in the ground and above it.[16]

Indeed, sirs, the recluse Gotama while he was a young man with lovely coal-black hair, endowed with radiant youth, in the prime of his life, went forth from home into homelessness.

Indeed, sirs, although his parents were unwilling and tears poured down their cheeks the recluse Gotama, having cut off his hair and beard and donned saffron robes, went forth from home into homelessness.

Indeed, sirs, the recluse Gotama is lovely, good to look upon, charming, possessed of the greatest beauty of complexion, [167] of a sublime colour, a sublime stature, stately in appearance.

Indeed, sirs, the recluse Gotama is of moral habit, one who is ariyan in moral habit, one who is skilled in moral habit, possessed of a moral habit that is skilled.

Indeed, sirs, the recluse Gotama has a lovely voice, a lovely delivery, he is possessed of urbane speech, distinct, not mumbling, he is able to make his meaning clear.

Indeed, sirs, the recluse Gotama is the teacher of many teachers.

Indeed, sirs, the recluse Gotama has destroyed attachment to sense-pleasures, has put away frivolity.[17]

Indeed, sirs, the recluse Gotama teaches kamma, teaches effective kamma,[18] desiring no evil for the brahman race.[19]

Indeed, sirs, the recluse Gotama has gone forth from a distinguished family, a leading noble family.[20]

Indeed, sirs, the recluse Gotama has gone forth from a prosperous family, very wealthy, very rich.

Indeed, sirs, (people) come from distant kingdoms, distant regions to question the recluse Gotama.

Indeed, sirs, various thousands of devatās have gone to the recluse Gotama for refuge for breathing things.

Indeed, sirs, a lovely report has gone abroad concerning the recluse Gotama:

He [358] is indeed Lord, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One, endowed with knowledge and (right) conduct, Well-farer, knower of the worlds, the matchless charioteer of men to be tamed, teacher of devas and mankind, the Awakened One, the Lord.

Indeed, sirs, the recluse Gotama is endowed with the thirty-two marks of a Great Man.

Indeed, sirs, King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha with his wife and children has gone to the recluse Gotama for refuge for breathing things.

Indeed, sirs, King Pasenadi of Kosala with his wife and children has gone to the recluse Gotama for refuge for breathing things.

Indeed, sirs, the brahman Pokkharasāti with his wife and children has gone to the recluse Gotama for refuge for breathing things.

Indeed, sirs, the recluse Gotama has arrived at Opasāda and is staying near Opasāda, to the north, in the Devas' Grove, the Sāl Grove.

Whatever recluses and brahmans come to our villages or fields, they are our guests.

And guests must be revered, reverenced, esteemed, honoured by us.

So, sirs, because the recluse Gotama has arrived at Opasāda and is staying near Opasāda, to the north, in the Devas' Grove, the Sāl Grove, the recluse Gotama is our guest.

The guest must be revered, reverenced, esteemed and honoured by us.

This too is a reason why it is not right that the revered Gotama should come and see us.

But it is right that we ourselves should go and see the honoured Gotama.

To this extent I, sirs, know the good Gotama's splendour,[21] but this is not the (full) extent of the good Gotama's splendour – immeasurable is the splendour of the good Gotama.

It is not right that the good Gotama, possessed as he is of each one of these qualities, should come to see us.

But it is right that we ourselves should go to see the honoured Gotama.

Well then, sirs, all of us will go ourselves to see the recluse Gotama."

Then the brahman Caŋkī together with a large group of brahmans approached the Lord; having approached, he exchanged greetings with the Lord; and having conversed in a friendly and courteous way, he sat down at a respectful distance.

Now at that time the Lord was sitting down talking in a courteous way on this topic and that with a number of venerable brahmans.

Now at that time a brahman youth called Kāpaṭhika, young, with shaven head, sixteen years of age since his birth, master of the three Vedas, versed in the vocabularies and rituals together with the phonology and exegesis with the legendary tradition as the fifth; learned in idioms, a grammarian, proficient in popular philosophy and the marks of a Great Man, was [359] sitting down in that company.

At intervals he interrupted the conversation that the Lord was holding with the venerable brahmans.

Then the Lord reprimanded the brahman youth Kāpaṭhika, saying:

"Do not let the venerable Bhāradvāja interrupt at intervals the conversation being held with the venerable brahmans: let the venerable Bhāradvāja wait until the end of the conversation."

When this had been said the brahman Caŋkī spoke thus to the Lord:

"Do not let the good Gotama reprimand the brahman youth Kāpaṭhika.

The brahman youth Kāpaṭhika is a young man of a respectable family, and the brahman youth Kāpaṭhika is very learned, and the brahman youth Kāpaṭhika has a lovely delivery, and clever is the brahman youth Kāpaṭhika, and the brahman youth Kāpaṭhika is capable of arguing about this speech together with the good Gotama."

Then it occurred to the Lord:

"Certainly, [169] the brahman youth Kāpaṭhika must be 'finished'[22] in the threefold Vedic lore since brahmans honour him."

Then it occurred to the brahman youth Kāpaṭhika:

"If the recluse Gotama catches my eye, then I will ask the recluse Gotama a question."

Then the Lord, knowing with his mind the reasoning in the mind of the brahman youth Kāpaṭhika, caught his eye.

Then it occurred to the brahman youth Kāpaṭhika:

"The recluse Gotama is paying respect to me.

Suppose I were to ask the recluse Gotama a question?"

Then the brahman youth Kāpaṭhika spoke thus to the Lord:

"Good Gotama, that which is an ancient mantra[23] of the brahmans according hearsay and tradition, according to the authority of the collections[24] and in regard to which brahmans inevitably come to the conclusion:

'This alone is the truth, all else is falsehood' – what does the good Gotama say about this?"

"But, Bhāradvāja, is there even one brahman among them who speaks thus:

'I know this, I see this: this alone is the truth, all else is falsehood'?"

"No, good Gotama."

"But, Bhāradvāja, is there even one teacher of brahmans, even [360] one teacher of teachers back through seven generations of teachers who speaks thus:

'I know this, I see this; this alone is the truth, all else is falsehood'?"

"No, good Gotama."

"But, Bhāradvāja, those who were formerly seers of the brahmans,[25] makers of mantras, preservers of mantras, whose ancient mantras[26] as sung, taught and composed the brahmans of today still sing, still speak; they still speak what was spoken, they still teach what was taught – that is to say (by) Aṭṭhaka, Vāmaka, Vāmadeva, Vessāmitta, Yamataggi, Aŋgirasa, Bhāradvāja, Vāsseṭṭha, Kassapa, Bhagu – do even these speak thus:

'We know this, we see this: this alone is the truth, all else is falsehood'?"

[170] "No, good Gotama."

"So it comes to this, Bhāradvāja: there is not a single brahman who speaks thus to a brahman:

'I know this ... all else is falsehood.'

There is not a single teacher of brahmans, not a single teacher of teachers back through seven generations of teachers who speaks thus:

'I know this ... all else is falsehood.'

And those who were formerly seers of the brahmans, makers of mantras ... that is to say (by) Aṭṭhaka ... Bhagu, not even those speak thus:

'We know this, we see this: this alone is the truth, all else is falsehood.'

The Blind Leading the Blind

Bhāradvāja, it is like a string of blind men[27] holding on to one another - neither does the foremost one see, nor does the middle one see, nor does the hindmost one see.

Even so, methinks, Bhāradvāja, do the words of the brahmans turn out to resemble a string of blind men: neither does the foremost one see nor does the middle one see nor does the hindmost one see.

What do you think about this Bhāradvāja?

This being so, does not the faith of the brahmans turn out to be groundless?"

"But, good Gotama, brahmans do not merely go by[28] faith in this matter; brahmans also go by report."

"First you, Bhāradvāja, set off about faith, now you are speaking of report.

These five things, Bhāradvāja, have a twofold maturing[29] here-now.

What five?

Faith,
inclination,
report,
consideration of reasons,
reflection on and approval of an opinion.[30]

These, Bhārad- [361] vāja, are five things having a twofold maturing here-now.

Moreover, Bhāradvāja, even although something may be thoroughly believed in, it may be empty, void, false; on the other hand, something not thoroughly believed in may be fact, truth, not otherwise.

Moreover, [171] Bhāradvāja, even although something may be thoroughly inclined towards ... well reported ... well considered ... well reflected upon, it may be empty, void, false; on the other hand, even although something is not well reflected upon, it may be fact, truth, not otherwise.

Preserving a truth, Bhāradvāja, is not enough for an intelligent man inevitably to come to the conclusion:

'This alone the truth, all else is falsehood.'"

"But to what extent, good Gotama, is there preservation of a truth?

To what extent does one preserve a truth?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about preservation of a truth."

"Bhāradvāja, if a man has faith and says:

'Such is my faith,'

speaking thus he preserves a truth, but not yet does he inevitably come to the conclusion:

'This alone is the truth, all else is falsehood.'

To this extent, Bhāradvāja, is there preservation of a truth, to this extent does one preserve a truth, and it is to this extent that we lay down the preservation of a truth; but not yet is there awakening to truth.

And if, Bhāradvāja, a man has an inclination ... a report ... a consideration of reasons ... a reflection on and approval of an opinion and says:

'Such is my reflection on and approval of the opinion,'

speaking thus he preserves a truth, but not yet does he inevitably come to the conclusion:

'This alone is the truth, all else is falsehood.'

To this extent, Bhāradvāja, is there preservation of a truth, to this extent does one preserve a truth, and it is to this extent that we lay down the preservation of a truth; but not yet is there awakening to truth."

"To this extent, good Gotama, is there preservation of a truth, to this extent one preserves a truth, to this extent do we behold the preservation of a truth.

But to what extent, good Gotama, is there awakening to truth?

To what extent does one awaken to truth?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about awakening to truth."

"As to this, Bhāradvāja, suppose a monk is living depending on a village or market town; a householder or a householder's son, having approached him, examines him concerning three states: states of greed, states of aversion and states of confusion.[31]

He thinks:

'Does the venerable one have such states of greed that, his mind obsessed by [362] such states of greed, although not knowing, he would say, "I know," or although not seeing, he would say, "I see," or would he incite another to such a course as for a long time would be for his woe and ill?'

While examining him, he knows thus:

'This venerable one does not have such states of greed that, his mind obsessed by such states of greed, while not knowing he would say, "I know," or while not seeing he would say, "I see," nor would he incite another to such a course as would be for a long time for his woe and ill.'

As is that venerable one's conduct of body, as is his conduct of speech, so is it not that of a greedy person.

And when this venerable one teaches dhamma, that dhamma is deep, difficult to see, difficult to understand, peaceful, excellent, beyond dialectic, subtle, intelligible to the wise; it is not a dhamma that could be well taught by a greedy person.

After examining him and beholding that he is purified of states of greed, then he examines him further on states of aversion.

He thinks:

'Now, does this venerable one have such states of aversion that, his mind obsessed ... or would he incite another to such a course as for a long time would be for his woe and ill?'

... As is that venerable one's conduct of body,

... of speech, so is it not that of a person with aversion.

And when this venerable one is teaching dhamma, ... it is not a dhamma that could be well taught by a person with aversion.'

After examining him and beholding that he is purified of states of aversion, then he examines him further on states of confusion.

He thinks:

'Now does this venerable one have such states of confusion that, his mind obsessed ... it is not a dhamma that could be well taught by a confused person.'

After examining him
and beholding that he is purified of states of confusion,
then he reposes faith in him;
with faith born he draws close;[32]
drawing close he sits down near by;
sitting down near by he lends ear;
lending ear he hears dhamma;
having heard dhamma he remembers it;
he tests the meaning of the things he remembers;
while testing the meaning the things are approved of;
if there is approval of the things desire is born;
with desire born he makes an effort;
having made an effort he weighs it up;
having weighed it up he strives;
being self-resolute he realises with his person the highest truth itself;
and penetrating it by means of intuitive wisdom,
he [363] sees.

It is to this extent, Bhāradvāja, that there is an awakening to truth; it is to this extent that one awakens to truth; it is to this extent that we lay down an awakening to truth; but not yet is there attainment of truth."

"To this extent, good Gotama, is there awakening to truth, to this extent does one awaken to truth, and to this extent do we behold an awakening to truth.

But to what extent, good Gotama, is there attainment of truth?

To what extent does one attain truth?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about attainment of truth."

[174] "There is attainment of truth, Bhāradvāja,
by following,
developing
and continually practising
these things themselves.

To this extent, Bhāradvāja, is there attainment of truth, to this extent does one attain truth, and to this extent do we lay down the attainment of truth."

"To this extent, good Gotama, is there attainment of truth, to this extent does one attain truth, and to this extent do we behold the attainment of truth.

But what thing, good Gotama, is of much service in the attainment of truth?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about a thing that is of much service in the attainment of truth."

"Striving, Bhāradvāja, is of much service in the attainment of truth; for whoso should not strive after truth would not attain it; but if he strives, then he attains truth; therefore striving is of much service in the attainment of truth."

"But what thing, good Gotama, is of much service to striving?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about a thing that is of much service to striving."

"Weighing (things up), Bhāradvāja, is of much service to striving; for whoso should not weigh (things up) would not strive; but if he weighs up, then he strives; therefore weighing up is of much service to striving."

"But what thing, good Gotama, is of much service to weighing up?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about a thing that is of much service to weighing up."

"Making an effort, Bhāradvāja, is of much service to weighing up; for whoso should not make an effort would not weigh up; but if he makes an effort, then he weighs up; therefore making an effort is of much service to weighing up."

"But what thing, good Gotama, is of much service to making an effort?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about a thing that is of much service to making an effort."

[364] "Desire, Bhāradvāja, is of much service to making an effort; should desire for it not be born, one could not make an effort for it; but if desire is born, then he makes an effort; therefore desire is of much service to making an effort."

"But what thing, good Gotama, is of much service to desire?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about a thing that is of much service to desire."

"Approving of the things, Bhāradvāja, is of much service to desire; should the things not be approved of, desire for them could not be born; but if there is approval of the things, then desire is born; therefore approval of the things is of much service to desire."

"But what thing, good Gotama, is of much service to (reflection on and) approval of the things?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about a thing that is of much service to (reflection on and) approval of the things."

"Testing the meaning, Bhāradvāja, is of much service to reflection on and approval of the things.

If one did not test that meaning, the things could not seem right for this reflection; but if one tests the meaning, then the things seem right for reflection; therefore testing the meaning is of much service to reflection on and approval of the things."

"But what thing, good Gotama, is of much service to testing the meaning?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about a thing that is of much service to testing the meaning."

"Remembering dhamma, Bhāradvāja, is of much service to testing the meaning; for whoso should not remember that dhamma could not test that meaning; but if he remembers dhamma, then he tests the meaning; therefore remembering dhamma is of much service to testing the meaning."

"But what thing, good Gotama, is of much service to remembering dhamma?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about a thing that is of much service to remembering dhamma."

"Hearing dhamma, Bhāradvāja, is of much service to remembering dhamma.

Whoso should not hear that dhamma could not remember that dhamma; but if he hears dhamma, then he remembers dhamma,[33] therefore hearing dhamma is of much service to remembering dhamma."

"But what thing, good Gotama, is of much service to hearing [365] dhamma?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about a thing that is of much service to hearing dhamma."

"Lending ear, Bhāradvāja, is of much service to hearing dhamma; [176] for whoso should not lend ear to it could not hear this dhamma; but if he lends ear, then he hears dhamma; therefore lending ear is of much service to hearing dhamma."

"But what thing, good Gotama, is of much service to lending ear?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about a thing that is of much service to lending ear."

"Drawing close, Bhāradvāja, is of much service to lending ear; for whoso should not draw close to him could not lend ear to him; but if he draws close, then he lends ear; therefore drawing close is of much service to lending ear."

"But what good thing, good Gotama, is of much service to drawing close?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about a thing that is of much service to drawing close."

"Approaching, Bhāradvāja, is of much service to drawing close; for whoso should not approach him could not draw close to him; but if he approaches, then he draws close; therefore approaching is of much service to drawing close."

"But what thing, good Gotama, is of much service to approaching?

We are asking the honoured Gotama about a thing that is of much service to approaching."

"Faith, Bhāradvāja, is of much service to approaching; for should faith in him not be born, one could not approach him; but if faith is born, then he approaches; therefore faith is of much service to approaching."

"We asked the honoured Gotama about the preservation of truth;
the good Gotama explained the preservation of truth;
and we approved of it and were pleased, and so we are delighted.

We asked the honoured Gotama about awakening to truth; the good Gotama explained ... we are delighted.

We asked the honoured Gotama about the attainment of truth ...

We asked the honoured Gotama about a thing that is of much service to the attainment of truth ... we are delighted.

Whatever it was that we asked the honoured Gotama, that very thing the good Gotama explained; and we approved of it and were pleased, and so we are delighted.

For, formerly, good Gotama, we used to know (a distinction) thus:

'And who are these little shaveling recluses, menials, black, off-scourings of our Kinsman's heels?[34]

And who are the knowers of [366] dhamma?'[35]

Indeed the good Gotama has aroused in me a recluse's regard[36] for recluses, a recluse's satisfaction in recluses, a recluse's respect for recluses.

It is excellent, good Gotama, it is excellent, good Gotama; ... May the revered Gotama accept me as a lay-disciple going for refuge from this day forth for as long as life lasts."

Discourse with Caŋkī: The Fifth

 


[1] This discourse, which should be compared with the Soṇadaṇḍa Suttanta at D. i. 111 ff., might be called "prompted by Caṅkī," the main part being delivered not to him but to Kāpaṭhika.Cf. M. Sta. 51.

[2] MA. iii. 414: it is said that oblations were offered here to the devas.

[3] Brahmadeyya. MA. iii. 455 explains as seṭṭhadeyya, the best gift; and then says: "having raised the parasol, it was to be enjoyed as if he were a king; once given, this gift could not be taken back again." Cf. D. i. 87 for this description of a royal gift, and see Dial. i. 108, n. 1.

[4] As at M. ii. 54-55, (above, p. 251) substituting Opasāda for Thullakoṭṭhita.

[5] As at M. ii. 55, above, p. 251.

[6] Lit. kingdoms, raja; MA. iii. 416 instances Kāsi and Kosala.

[7] evaṃ kho me bho hoti, lit. it is thus by me.

[8] na arahati, not fit.

[9] Stock. See under akkhitta (unchallenged) in PTC. Cf. D. i. 120 for five things that brahmans declare make a brahman.

[10] brahmavaṇṇī, with the best golden colour of the pure castes, MA. iii. 418.

[11] brahmavaccasī. MA. iii. 418 says his body is like that of Mahā-Brahmā – one of the marks of a Great Man (see Sta. 91).

[12] MA. iii. 418 gives yutta, intent on, in explanation of the text's samannāgata, possessed of.

[13] MA. iii. 418 says that these last two attributes are synonymous.

[14] A very rich brahman, evidently also of spiritual integrity. See M. Sta. 99.

[15] On hiraññasuvaṇṇa see B.D. i. 28, n. 1.

[16] See B.D. i. 79, n. 6.

[17] cāpalla. At M. i. 470, Vbh. 351, Vism. 106 cāpalya.

[18] Kammavādī kiriyavādī

[19] MA. iii. 422 says that Sāriputta, Moggallāna, Mahākassapa and so on belong to this race. 'Brahman' is therefore taken in the Buddhist sense above.

[20] Ādīnakhattiyakulā. On ādīna in this compound see Dial. i. 148, n. 2.Cf. ādīnamānaso at S. v. 74 and see K.S. v. 61, n. 5.

[21] vaṇṇa as at end of M. Sta. 56.

[22] kataṃ, in the sense of perfect, finished, and therefore master; cf. kataṃkaranīyaṃ where kataṃ means both 'ended' or 'concluded' and 'concluded well or properly'; thus finished (as ended) and finished (as in "a finished product").

[23] mantapada. MA. iii. 424 says this as well as manta means Veda. Some of the seers mentioned below have Vedic verses traditionally ascribed to them. See B.D. iv. 337.

[24] Cf. M. i. 520.

[25] Down to the name Bhagu cf. Vin. i. 245; D. i. 104, 238, 242; A. iii. 224, 229; M. ii. 200.

[26] See note 23.

[27] As at M. ii. 200, D. i. 239.

[28] Parirūpāsanti, to pay homage, usually with the acc.

[29] MA. iii. 426 says a maturing that has been and that has not (yet) been.

[30] On the five also see S. ii. 115, iv. 138. Cf. A. i. 190, ii. 191.

[31] Cf. A. i. 190 f.

[32] The text reads saddhājāto upasaṃkamanto payirūpāsati. But to agree with the manner of the wording in the rest of the passage, I think upasaṃkamanti should be inserted after saddhājāto as at M. i. 480. Otherwise these two passages are similar.

[33] Text reads: yasmā ca kho dhammaṃ dhāreti, instead of, as would seem more correct, yasmā ca kho dhammaṃ suṇāti tasmā dhammaṃ dhāreti.

[34] As at M. i. 334; see M.L.S. i. 397.

[35] Cf. M. i. 480.

[36] pema, liking, affection.


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