Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
II. Majjhima-Paṇṇāsa
5. Brāhmaṇa Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
II. The Middle Fifty Discourses
5. The Division on Brahmans

Sutta 100

Saŋgārava Suttaɱ[1]

Discourse with Saŋgārava

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


 

[1][chlm][upal] Thus have I heard:

At one time the Lord was walking on tour among the Kosalans
together with a large Order of monks.

Now at that time the brahman lady called Dhānañjānī,[2]
who had confident belief in the Awakened One,
in dhamma
and in the Order,
was residing in Caṇḍalakappa.[3]

Then the brahman lady Dhānañjānī,
having tripped,[4]
three times uttered this solemn utterance:

"Praise to that Lord,
perfected One,
fully Self-Awakened One.

Praise to that Lord,
perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One.

Praise to that Lord,
perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One."

Now at that time the brahman youth Saŋgārava
was residing in Caṇḍalakappa;
he was master of the three Vedas,[5]
versed in the vocabularies and rituals
together with the phonology and exegesis
and the legendary tradition as the fifth;
he was learned in idioms,
a grammarian,
proficient in popular philosophy
and the marks of a Great Man.

The brahman youth Saŋgārava heard what the brahman lady [399] Dhānañjānī was saying;
on hearing it
he spoke thus to the brahman lady Dhānañjānī:

"This brahman lady Dhānañjānī is mean,
this brahman lady Dhānañjānī is disgraced
in that,
while there are brahmans in existence,
she speaks in praise
of this little shaveling recluse."

"But do not you, dear learned friend,[6]
know this Lord's moral habit and wisdom?[7]

If you, dear learned friend,
were to know this Lord's moral habit and wisdom,
you, dear learned friend,
would not consider that this Lord
should be abused and reviled."

"Well then, lady,
if the recluse Gotama arrives in Caṇḍalakappa,
you might let me know."

"Yes, learned friend,"
the brahman lady Dhānañjānī
answered the brahman youth Saŋgārava
in assent.

Then as the Lord was walking on tour among the Kosalans
he gradually arrived at Caṇḍalakappa.

While he was there
the Lord stayed in the mango grove
of the brahmans of Tudi.[8]

Then the brahman lady Dhānañjānī
heard that the Lord had arrived at Caṇḍalakappa
and was staying in the mango grove
of the brahmans of Tudi.

Then the brahman lady Dhānañjānī
approached the brahman youth Saŋgārava;
having approached,
she spoke thus to the brahman youth Saŋgārava:

"Dear learned friend,
this Lord has arrived at Caṇḍalakappa
and is staying in the mango grove
of the brahmans of Tudi.

Dear learned friend,
you must do now that
for which you think it the right time."

"Yes, lady,"
and the brahman youth Saŋgārava,
having answered the brahman lady Dhānañjānī in assent,
approached the Lord;
having approached,
he exchanged greetings with the Lord;
having conversed in a friendly and courteous way,
he sat down at a respectful distance.

As he was sitting down at a respectful distance,
Saŋgārava the brahman youth
spoke thus to the Lord:

"There are, good Gotama,
some recluses and brahmans who claim that,
in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,[9]
they [400] have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond
through super-knowledge.[10]

Among those recluses and brahmans, good Gotama,
who elaim that,
in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,
they have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond through super-knowledge -
of which (sort) is the revered Gotama?"

"I, Bhāradvāja, say
that there is a difference among those who claim that,
in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,
they have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond through super-knowledge.

There are, Bhāradvāja,
some recluses and brahmans who depend on report;[11]
these claim that it is through report
that, in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,
they have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond through super-knowledge -
such as the three-Veda-brahmans.

But there are, Bhāradvāja,
some recluses and brahmans
who with only mere faith
claim that,
in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,
they have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond through super-knowledge -
such as reasoners
and investigators.[12]

There are, Bhāradvāja,
some recluses and brahmans
who by fully understanding dhamma
of themselves only,[13]
although these truths had not been heard before,[14]
claim that,
in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,
they have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond through super-knowledge.

Now, Bhāradvāja,
I am one of those recluses and brahmans
who by fully understanding dhamma
of themselves only,
although these truths had not been heard before,
claim that,
in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,
they have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond through super-knowledge.

You must understand it in this way, Bhāradvāja,
that I am one of those recluses and brahmans
who by fully understanding dhamma
of themselves only,
although these truths had not been heard before,
claim that,
in regard to the fundamentals of the Brahma-faring,
they have attained here-now
to excellence
and to going beyond through super-knowledge.

As to this,[15] Bhāradvāja,
before my Self-awakening
while I was still [401] the bodhisatta,
not fully awakened,
it occurred to me:

Narrow ia the household life,
a path of dust,
going forth is in the open,
nor is it easy
while dwelling in a house
to lead the Brahma-faring
completely fulfilled,
completely purified,
polished like a conch-shell.

Suppose now that I,
having cut off hair and beard,
having donned saffron garments,
should go forth from home into homelessness?

So I, Bhāradvāja,
after a time,
being young,
my hair coal-black,
possessed of radiant youth,
in the prime of my life —
although my unwilling parents wept and wailed — having cut off my hair and beard, having put on yellow robes, went forth from home into homelessness.

I, being gone forth thus,
a quester for whatever is good,
searching for the incomparable,
matchless path to peace,
approached Āḷāra the Kālāma;
having approached,
I spoke thus to Āḷāra the Kālāma:

'I, reverend Kālāma, want to fare the Brahmā-faring
in this dhamma and discipline.'

This said, Bhāradvāja, Āḷāra the Kālāma spoke thus to me:

'Let the venerable one proceed;
this dhamma is such that an intelligent man,
having soon realised super-knowledge for himself
(as learnt from) his own teacher,
may enter on and abide in it.'

So I, Bhāradvāja, very soon,
very quickly,
mastered that dhamma.

I, Bhāradvāja, as far as mere lip service,
mere repetition
were concerned,
spoke the doctrine of knowledge,
and the doctrine of the elders,
and I claimed —
I as well as others —
that 'I know, I see.'

Then it occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'But Āḷāra the Kālāma does not merely proclaim this dhamma
simply out of faith:
Having realised super-knowledge for myself,
entering on it,
I am abiding therein.

For surely Āḷāra the Kālāma proceeds knowing, seeing this dhamma.'

Then did I, Bhāradvāja,
approach Āḷāra the Kālāma;
having approached,
I spoke thus to Āḷāra the Kālāma:

'To what extent do you, reverend Kālāma,
having realised super-knowledge for yourself,
entering thereon,
proclaim this dhamma?'

When this had been said, Bhāradvāja, Āḷāra the Kālāma proclaimed the plane of no-thing.

Then it occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'It is not only Āḷāra the Kālāma who has faith,
I too have faith.

It is not only Āḷāra the Kālāma who has energy,
I too have energy.

It is not only Āḷāra the Kālāma who has mindfulness,
I too have mindfulness.

It is not only Āḷāra the Kālāma who has concentration,
I too have concentration.

It is not only Āḷāra the Kālāma who has intuitive wisdom,
I too have intuitive wisdom.

Suppose now that I should strive
for the realisation of that dhamma
which Āḷāra the Kālāma proclaims:
'Having realised super-knowledge for myself,
entering on it
I am abiding therein?'

So I, Bhāradvāja, very soon,
very quickly,
having realised super-knowledge for myself,
entering on that dhamma,
abided therein.

Then I, Bhāradvāja,
approached Āḷāra the Kālāma;
having approached,
I spoke thus to Āḷāra the Kālāma:

'Is it to this extent
that you, reverend Kalama,
proclaim this dhamma,
entering on it,
having realised it by your own super-knowledge?'

'It is to this extent
that I, your reverence,
proclaim this dhamma,
entering on it,
having realised it by my own super-knowledge.'

'I too, your reverence,
having realised this dhamma
by my own super-knowledge,
entering on it
am abiding in it.'

'It is profitable for us,
it is well gotten for us, your reverence,
that we see a fellow Brahmā-farer
such as the venerable one.

This dhamma that I, entering on,
proclaim,
having realised it by my own super-knowledge,
is the dhamma that you,
entering on,
are abiding in,
having realised it by your own super-knowledge;
the dhamma that you,
entering on,
are abiding in,
having realised it by your own super-knowledge,
is the dhamma that I,
entering on,
proclaim,
having realised it by my own super-knowledge.

The dhamma that I know,
this is the dhamma that you know.

The dhamma that you know,
this is the dhamma that I know.

As I am,
so are you;
as you are,
so am I.

Come now, your reverence,
being just the two of us,
let us look after this group.'

In this way, Bhāradvāja,
did Āḷāra the Kālāma,
being my teacher,
set me — the pupil —
on the same level as himself
and honoured me with the highest honour.

Then it occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'This dhamma does not conduce to disregard
nor to dispassion
nor to stopping
nor to tranquillity
nor to super-knowledge
nor to awakening
nor to Nibbāna,
but only as far as reaching the plane of no-thing.'

So I, Bhāradvāja,
not getting enough from this dhamma,
disregarded and turned away from this dhamma.

 


 

Then I, Bhāradvāja,
a quester for whatever is good,
searching for the incomparable,
matchless path to peace,
approached Uddaka, Rāma's son;
having approached,
I spoke thus to Uddaka, Rāma's son:

'I, your reverence,
want to fare the Brahmā-faring
in this dhamma and discipline.'

This said, Bhāradvāja, Uddaka, Rāma's son,
spoke thus to me:

'Let the venerable one proceed;
this dhamma is such
that an intelligent man,
having soon realised super-knowledge for himself,
(as learnt from) his own teacher,
may enter on and abide in it.'

So I, Bhāradvāja, very soon,
very quickly,
mastered that dhamma.

I, Bhāradvāja, as far as mere lip service,
mere repetition were concerned,
spoke the doctrine of knowledge
and the doctrine of the elders,
and I claimed —
I as well as others —
that 'I know, I see.'

Then it occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'But Uddahka, Rāma's son, does not merely proclaim this dhamma
simply out of faith:
Having realised super-knowledge for myself,
entering on it,
I am abiding in it.

For surely Uddaka, Rāma's son,
proceeds knowing and seeing this dhamma.'

Then did I, Bhāradvāja,
approach Uddaka, Rāma's;
having approached,
I spoke thus to Uddaka, Rāma's son:

'To what extent do you, reverend Rāma,
having realised super-knowledge for yourself,
entering thereon
proclaim this dhamma?'

When this had been said, Bhāradvāja, Uddahka, Rāma's son,
proclaimed the plane of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.

Then it occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'It is not only Rāma who has faith,
I too have faith.

It is not only Rāma who has energy,
I too have energy.

It is not only Rāma who has mindfulness,
I too have mindfulness.

It is not only Rāma who has concentration,
I too have concentration.

It is not only Rāma who has intuitive wisdom,
I too have intuitive wisdom.

Suppose now that I should strive for the realisation of that dhamma
which Rāma proclaims:
'Having realised super-knowledge for myself,
entering on it
I am abiding in it?'

So I, Bhāradvāja, very soon,
very quickly,
having realised super-knowledge for myself,
entering on that dhamma,
abided therein.

Then I, Bhāradvāja,
approached Uddaka, Rāma's son;
having approached,
I spoke thus to Uddaka, Rāma's son:

'Is it to this extent
that you, reverend Rāma,
proclaim this dhamma,
entering on it,
having realised it by your own super-knowledge?'

'It is to this extent
that I, your reverence,
proclaim this dhamma,
entering on it,
having realised it by my own super-knowledge.'

'I too, your reverence,
having realised this dhamma by my own super-knowledge,
entering on it
am abiding in it.'

'It is profitable for us,
it is well gotten by us,
your reverence,
that we see a fellow-Brahmā-farer such as the venerable one.

This dhamma that I,
entering on,
proclaim,
having realised it by my own super-knowledge,
is the dhamma that you,
entering on,
are abiding in,
having realised it by your own super-knowledge;
the dhamma that you,
entering on,
are abiding in,
having realised it by your own super-knowledge,
is the dhamma that I,
entering on,
proclaim,
having realised it by my own super-knowledge.

The dhamma that I know,
this is the dhamma that you know.

That dhamma that you know,
this is the dhamma that I know.

As I am,
so are you;
as you are,
so am I.

Come now, your reverence,
being just the two of us,
let us look after this group.

In this way, Bhāradvāja, did Uddaka, Rāma's son,
being my teacher,
set me — the pupil —
on the same level as himself
and honoured me with the highest honour.

Then it occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'This dhamma does not conduce to disregard
nor to dispassion
nor to stopping
nor to tranquillity
nor to super-knowledge
nor to awakening
nor to Nibbāna,
but only as far as reaching the plane of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.'

So I, Bhāradvāja, not getting enough from this dhamma,
disregarded and turned away from this dhamma.

 


 

Then I, monka, a quester for whatever is good,
searching for the incomparable,
matchless path to peace,
walking on tour through Magadha
in due course arrived at Uruvela,
the camp township.

There I saw a delightful stretch of land
and a lovely woodland grove,
and a clear flowing river
with a delightful ford,
and a village for support nearby.

It occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'Indeed it it is a delightful stretch of land,
and the woodland grove is lovely,
and the river flows clear
with a delightful ford,
and there is a village for support nearby.

Indeed this does well
for the striving
of a young man set on striving.'

Moreover, Bhāradvāja, three similes occurred to me spontaneously,
never heard before:

It is as if there were a wet sappy stick placed in water;
then a man might come along
bringing an upper piece of fire-stick,
and thinking:

'I will hght a fire,
I will get heat.'

What do you think about this, Bhāradvāja?

Could that man, bringing an upper piece of fire-stick,
and rubbing that wet sappy stick
that had been placed in water (with it),
light a fire,
could he get heat?"

"No, good Gotama.

What is the cause of this?

It is, good Gotama,
that such a stick is wet and sappy
and that it was placed in water.

That man would only get fatigue and distress."

"In like manner, Bhāradvāja,
whatever recluses or brahmans dwell not aloof
from pleasures of the senses that are bodily,
then if that which is for them,
among the sense-pleasures,
desire for sense-pleasure,
affection for sense-pleasure,
infatuation with sense-pleasure,
thirst for sense-pleasure,
fever for sense-pleasure -
if that is not properly got rid of subjectively
nor properly allayed,
whether these worthy recluses and brahmans experience feelings which are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe,
they could not become those for knowledge,
for vision,
for the incomparable Self-awakening;
and whether these worthy recluses and brahmans do not experience feelings which are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe,
they could not become those for knowledge,
for vision,
for the incomparable Self-awakening.

This, Bhāradvāja, was the first parable
that occurred to me spontaneously,
never heard before.

Then, Bhāradvāja, a second parable
occurred to me spontaneously,
never heard before.

It is as if, Bhāradvāja, a wet, sappy stick
were placed on dry ground,
far from water.

Then a man might come along
bringing an upper piece of fire-stick,
and thinking:

'I will light a fire,
I will get heat.'

What do you think about this, Bhāradvāja?

Could that man,
bringing an upper piece of fire-stick,
and rubbing that wet sappy stick
that had been placed on the dry ground,
far from water,
light a fire,
could he get heat?"|| ||

"No, good Gotama.

What is the cause of this?

It is, good Gotama, that that stick is wet and sappy
although it had been placed on dry ground,
far from water.

So that man would only get fatigue and distress."

"In like manner, Bhāradvāja,
whatever recluses or brahmans dwell not aloof
from pleasures of the senses that are bodily,
then if that which is for them,
among the sense-pleasures,
desire for sense-pleasure,
affection for sense-pleasure,
infatuation with sense-pleasure,
thirst for sense-pleasure,
fever for sense-pleasure -
if that is not properly got rid of subjectively
nor properly allayed,
whether these worthy recluses and brahmans experience feelings which are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe,
they could not become those for knowledge,
for vision,
for the incomparable Self-awakeningi;
and whether these worthy recluses and brahmans do not experience feelings which are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe,
they could not become those for knowledge,
for vision,
for the incomparable Self-awakening.

This, Bhāradvāja, was the second parable
that occurred to me spontaneously,
never heard before.

Then, Bhāradvāja, a third parable
occurred to me spontaneously,
never heard before.

It is as if, Bhāradvāja, a dry sapless stick
were placed on the dry ground,
far from water.

Then a man might come along
bringing an upper piece of fire-stick,
and thinking:

'I will light a fire,
I will get heat.'

What do you think about this, Bhāradvāja?

Could that man, bringing an upper piece of fire-stiek,
and rubbing that dry sapless stick
that had been placed on dry ground,
far from water,
light a fire,
could he get heat?"

"Yes, good Gotama.

What is the cause of this?

It is, good Gotama,
that that stick was dry and sapless
and had been placed on dry ground
far from water."

"In like manner, Bhāradvāja,
whatever recluses or brahmans dwell aloof
from pleasures of the senses that are bodily,
then if that which is for them,
among the sense-pleasures,
desire for sense-pleasure,
affection for sense-pleasure,
infatuation with sense-pleasure,
thirst for sense-pleasure,
fever for sense-pleasure -
if this is well got rid of subjectively,
well allayed,
then whether these worthy recluses and brahmans experience feelings that are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe,
indeed they become those for knowledge,
for vision,
for the incomparable Self-awakening;
and whether these worthy recluses and brahmans do not experience feelings that are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe,
indeed they become those for knowledge,
for vision,
for the incomparable Self-awakening.

This, Bhāradvāja, was the third parable
that occurred to me spontaneously,
never heard before.

These, Bhāradvāja, were the three parables
that occurred to me spontaneously,
never heard before.

 


 

It occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'Suppose now that I,
with my teeth clenched,
with my tongue pressed against the palate,
by mind should subdue,
restrain and dominate my mind?'

So I, Bhāradvāja, with my teeth clenched,
with my tongue pressed against the palate,
by mind subdued,
restrained
and dominated my mind.

While I was subduing,
restraining
and dominating my mind,
with the teeth clenched,
the tongue pressed against the palate,
sweat poured from my armpits.

It is as if, Bhāradvāja,
a strong man,
having taken hold of a weaker man
by his head or shoulders,
would subdue,
restrain
and dominate him.

Even so, while I, Bhāradvāja,
was subduing,
restraining
and dominating my mind by mind,
with my teeth clenched,
with my tongue pressed against the palate,
sweat poured from my armpits.

Although, Bhāradvāja, unsluggish energy came to be stirred up in me,
unmuddled mindfulness set up,
yet my body was turbulent,
not calmed,
because I was harassed in striving
by striving against that very pain.

It occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'Suppose now that I should meditate
the non-breathing meditation?

So I, Bhāradvāja,
stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose.

When I, Bhāradvāja,
had stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose,
there came to be an exceedingly loud noise
of winds escaping by the auditory passages.

As there comes to be an exceedingly loud noise
from the roaring of a smith's bellows,
even so when I, Bhāradvāja, stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose,
there came to be an exceedingly loud noise
of wind escaping by the auditory passages.

Although, Bhāradvāja, unsluggish energy came to be stirred up in me,
unmuddled mindfulness set up,
yet my body was turbulent,
not calmed,
because I was harassed in striving
by striving against that very pain.

It occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'Suppose now that I should still meditate
the non-breathing meditation?'

So I, Bhāradvāja, stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears.

When I, Bhāradvāja, had stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears,
exceedingly loud winds rent my head.

As, Bhāradvāja, a strong man
might cleave one's head
with a sharp-edged sword,
even so when I, Bhāradvāja, stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears,
exceedingly loud winds rent my head.

Although, Bhāradvāja, unsluggish energy came to be stirred up in me,
unmuddled mindfulness set up,
yet my body was turbulent,
not calmed,
because I was harassed in striving
by striving against that very pain.

It occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'Suppose that I should still meditate
the non-breathing meditation?'

So I, Bhāradvāja, stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears.

When I, Bhāradvāja, had stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears,
I came to have very bad headaches.

As, Bhāradvāja, a strong man
might clamp a turban on one's head
with a tight leather strap,
even so when I, Bhāradvāja, stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears,
did I come to have very bad headaches.

Although, Bhāradvāja, unsluggish energy came to be stirred up in me,
unmuddled mindfulness set up,
yet my body was turbulent,
not calmed,
because I was harassed in striving
by striving against that very pain.

It occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'Suppose now that I should still meditate
the non-breathing meditation?'

So I, Bhāradvāja, stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears.

When I, Bhāradvāja, had stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears,
very strong winds cut through my stomach.

As, Bhāradvāja, a skilled cattle-butcher
or his apprentice
might cut through the stomach
with a sharp butcher's knife,
even so, Bhāradvāja, did very strong winds
cut through my stomach.

Although, Bhāradvāja, unsluggish energy came to be stirred up in me,
unmuddled mindfulness set up,
yet my body was turbulent,
not calmed,
because I was harassed in striving
by striving against that very pain.

It occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'Suppose now that I should still meditate
the non-breathing meditation?'

So I, Bhāradvāja, stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears.

When I, Bhāradvāja, had stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears,
there came to be a fierce heat in my body.

As, Bhāradvāja, two strong men,
having taken hold of a weaker man by his limbs,
might set fire to him,
might make him sizzle up
over a charcoal pit,
even so, Bhāradvāja,
when I had stopped breathing in and breathing out
through the mouth
and through the nose
and through the ears,
did there come to be a fierce heat in my body.

Although, Bhāradvāja, unsluggish energy came to be stirred up in me,
unmuddled mindfulness set up,
yet my body was turbulent,
not calmed,
because I was harassed in striving
by striving against that very pain.

In addition to this, Bhāradvāja,
devatās, having seen me, spoke thus:

'The recluse Gotama has passed away.'

Other devatās spoke thus;

'The recluse Gotama has not passed away,
but he is passing away.'

Other devatās spoke thus:

'The recluse Gotama has not passed away,
nor is he passing away;
the recluse Gotama is a perfected one,
the mode of living of a perfected one
is just like this.'

It occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'Suppose now that I should take the line
of desisting from all food?'

Then, Bhāradvāja, devatās,
having approached me,
spoke thus:

'Do not, good sir,
take the line of desisting from all food.

If you, good sir,
take the line of desisting from all food,
then we will give you deva-like essences
to take in through the pores of the skin;
you will keep going by means of them.'

Then, Bhāradvāja, it occurred to me:

'Suppose that I should take the line
of not eating anything,
and these devatās were to give me deva-like essences
to take in through the pores of the skin,
and that I should keep going by means of them,
that would be an imposture in me.'

So I, Bhāradvāja, rejected those devatās
I said,
'Enough.'

It occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'Suppose now that I were to take food
little by little,
drop by drop,
such as bean-soup
or vetoh-soup
or chick-pea-soup
or pea-soup?

So I, Bhāradvāja, took food
little by little,
drop by drop,
such as bean-soup
or veteh-soup
or chick-pea-soup
or pea-soup.

While I, Bhāradvāja, was taking food
little by little,
drop by drop,
such as bean-soup
or vetch-soup
or chick-pea-soup
or pea-soup,
my body became exceedingly emaciated.

Because I ate so little,
all my limbs became like the joints of withered creepers;
because I ate so little,
my buttocks became like a bullock's hoof;
because I ate so little,
my protruding backbone
became like a string of balls;
because I ate so little,
my gaunt ribs
became like the crazy rafters
of a tumble-down shed;
because I ate so little,
the pupils of my eyes
appeared lying low and deep;
because I ate so little,
my scalp became shrivelled and shrunk
as a bitter white gourd
cut before it is ripe
becomes shrivelled and shrunk by a hot wind.

If I, Bhāradvāja, thought:

'I will touch the skin of my belly,'
it was my backbone that I took hold of.

If I thought:

'I will touch my backbone,'
it was the skin of my belly that I took hold of.

For because I ate so little,
the skin of my belly, Bhāradvāja,
came to be cleaving to my backbone.

If I, Bhāradvāja, thought:

'I will obey the calls of nature,'
I fell down on my face then and there,
because I ate so little.

If I, Bhāradvāja, soothing my body,
stroked my limbs with my hand,
the hairs,
rotted at the roots,
fell away from my body
as I stroked my limbs with my hand,
because I ate so little.

And further, Bhāradvāja, men,
having seen me,
spoke thus:

'The recluse Gotama is black.'

Other men spoke thus:

'The recluse Gotama is not black,
the recluse Gotama is deep brown.'

Some men spoke thus:

'The recluse Gotama is not black,
he is not even deep brown,
the recluse Gotama is of a sallow colour.'

To such an extent, Bhāradvāja,
was my clear pure complexion
spoilt because I ate so little.

This, Bhāradvāja, occurred to me:

'Some recluses and brahmans
in the past
have experienced feelings that were acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe;
but this is paramount,
nor is there worse than this.

And some recluses and brahmans
in the future
will experience feelings that are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe;
but this is paramount,
nor is there worse than this.

And some recluses and brahmans
are now
experiencing feelings that are acute,
painful,
sharp,
severe;
but this is paramount,
nor is there worse than this.

But I,
by this severe austerity,
do not reach states of further-men,
the excellent knowledge and vision
befitting the ariyans.

Could there be another way to awakening?

This, Bhāradvāja, occurred to me:

'I know that while my father, the Sakyan,
was ploughing,
and I was sitting in the cool shade of a rose-apple tree,
aloof from pleasures of the senses,
aloof from unskilled states of mind,
entering on the first meditation,
which is accompanied by initial thought
and discursive thought,
is born of aloofness,
and is rapturous and joyful,
and while abiding therein,
I thought:

'Now could this be a way to awakening?'

Then, following on my mindfulness, Bhāradvāja,
there was the consciousness:

'This is itself the Way to awakening.'

This occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'Now, am I afraid of that happiness
which is happiness
apart from sense-pleasures,
apart from unskilled states of mind?'

This occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'I am not afraid of that happiness
which is happiness
apart from sense-pleasures,
apart from unskilled states of mind.'

This occurred to me, Bhāradvāja:

'Now it is not easy to reach that happiness
by thus subjecting the body
to extreme emaciation.

Suppose I were to take material nourishment -
boiled rice
and sour milk?'

So I, Bhāradvāja, took material nourishment -
boiled rice
and sour milk.

Now at that time, Bhāradvāja,
five monks were attending me
and (they thought):

'When the recluse Gotama wins dhamma
he will announce it to us.'

But when I, Bhāradvāja, took material nourishment -
boiled rice
and sour milk -
then these five monks turned on me in disgust,
saying:

'The recluse Gotama lives in abundance,
he is wavering in his striving,
he has reverted to a life of abundance.'

But when I, Bhāradvāja, had taken some material nourishment,[16]
having picked up strength,
aloof from pleasures of the senses,
aloof from unskilled states of mind,
I entered on
and abided in
the first meditation
which is accompanied by initial thought
and discursive thought,
is born of aloofness,
and is rapturous and joyful.

By allaying initial thought
and discursive thought,
with the mind subjectively tranquillised
and fixed on one point,
I entered on
and abided in
the second meditation
which is devoid of initial and discursive thought,
is born of concentration,
and is rapturous and joyful.

By the fading out of rapture
I dwelt with equanimity,
attentive and clearly conscious,
and I experienced in my person
that joy of which the ariyans say:
'Joyful lives he who has equanimity and is mindful,'
and I entered on
and abided in
the third meditation.[17]

By getting rid of joy
and by getting rid of anguish,
by the going down of former pleasures and sorrows,
I entered into
and abided in
the fourth meditation
which has neither anguish nor joy
and which is entirely purified
by equanimity and mindfulness.

 


 

With the mind composed thus,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
fixed,
immovable,
I directed my mind
to the knowledge and recollection
of former habitations:

I remembered a variety of former habitations, thus:
one birth,
two births,
three births,
four births,
five births,
ten births,
twenty births,
thirty births,
forty births,
fifty births,
a hundred births,
a thousand births,
a hundred thousand births,
and many an eon of integration
and many an eon of disintegration
and many an eon of integration-disintegration;
such a one was I by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so was I nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I came to be in another state
where such a one was I by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so was I nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I arose here.

Thus I remember divers former habitations
in all their modes and detail.

This, Bhāradvāja,
was the first knowledge attained by me
in the first watch of the night;
ignorance was dispelled,
knowledge arose,
darkness was dispelled,
light arose,
even as I abided diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute.

Then with the mind composed,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
fixed,
immovable,
I directed my mind
to the knowledge of the passing hence
and the arising of beings.

With the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men
I see beings as they pass hence
or come to be;
I comprehend that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going,
according to the consequences of their deeds,
and I think:

Indeed these worthy beings
who were possessed of wrong conduct in body,
who were possessed of wrong conduct of speech,
who were possessed of wrong conduct of thought,
scoffers at the ariyans,
holding a wrong view,
incurring deeds consequent on a wrong view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a sorrowful state,
a bad bourn,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell.

But these worthy beings
who were possessed of good conduct in body,
who were possessed of good conduct in speech,
who were possessed of good conduct in thought,
who did not scoff at the ariyans,
holding a right view,
incurring deeds consequent on a right view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a good bourn,
a heaven world.

Thus with the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men
do I see beings as they pass hence,
as they arise;
I comprehend that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going
according to the consequences of their deeds.

This, Bhāradvāja,
was the second knowledge attained by me
in the middle watch of the night;
ignorance was dispelled,
knowledge arose,
darkness was dispelled,
light arose,
even as I abided diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute.

Then with the mind composed
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
fixed,
immovable,
I directed my mind
to the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers.

I understood as it really is:

This is anguish,
this is the arising of anguish,
this is the stopping of anguish,
this is the course leading to the stopping of anguish.

I understood as it really is:

These are the cankers,
this is the arising of the cankers,
this is the stopping of the cankers,
this is the course leading to the stopping of the cankers.

Knowing this thus,
seeing thus,
my mind was freed
from the canker of sense-pleasures,
and my mind was freed
from the canker of becoming,
and my mind was freed
from the canker of ignorance.

In freedom
the knowledge came to be:

I am freed;

and I comprehended:

Destroyed is birth,
brought to a close is the Brahma-faring,
done is what was to be done,
there is no more of being such or such.

This, Bhāradvāja,
was the third knowledge attained by me
in the last watch of the night;
ignorance was dispelled,
knowledge arose,
darkness was dispelled,
light arose
even as I abided diligent,
ardent,
self-resolute.

When this had been said,
the brahman youth Saŋgārava spoke thus to the Lord:

"Indeed the good Gotama's striving was steadfast,[18]
indeed it was that of a true man[19]
such as that of a perfected one,
a fully Self-Awakened One.

But now, good Gotama,
are there devas?"[20]

"Certainly, Bhāradvāja,
it is known to me that there are devas."

[402] "But why do you, good Gotama,
on being asked if there are devas
say that it is certainly known to you
that there are devas?

Even if this is so, good Gotama,
is it not a vain falsehood?"

"If on being asked, Bhāradvāja,
'Are there devas?
one should say:
'There are devas'
and should say:
'Certainly they are known to me,'
then the conclusion to be reached
by an intelligent person
is indubitable,
namely that there are devas."

"But why did not the revered Gotama
explain this to me at the beginning?"

"It is commonly[21] agreed in the world, Bhāradvāja,
that there are devas."

When this had been said,
the brahman youth Saŋgārava
spoke thus to the Lord:

"It is excellent, good Gotama,
excellent, good Gotama.

It is as if, good Gotama,
one might set upright what had been upset,
or might disclose what was covered,
or point out the way
to one who had gone astray,
or might bring an oil-lamp into the darkness
so that those with vision might see material shapes -
even so is dhamma made clear
in many a figure by the good Gotama.

I am going to the Lord[22] Gotama for refuge,
and to dhamma
and to the Order of monks.

May the revered Gotama accept me
as a lay-follower,
one gone for refuge from today forth
for as long as life lasts."

Discourse to Saŋgārava:
The Tenth
Division on Brahmans:
The Fifth

TOLD ARE THE MIDDLE FIFTY

 


[1] Six other Saŋgārava suttas are given in DPPN., but probably not all were addressed to the Saŋgārava of this M. Sta.

[2] See S. i. 160; and K.S. i. 199, n. 1, 2.

[3] There are several v.ll, for this name, MA. iii. 451 for example reading Maṇḍalakappa. It was a little village.

[4] The text reading is upakkhalitvā, which means having tripped or stumbled; S. i. 160 (in a rather different context) reads upakkamitvā, having approached or gone on to, with v.l. upakkhalitvā; MA. iii. 451 reads pakkhalitvā, which can mean either "having washed" or "having stumbled." Brahmans often wash before a ceremonial event, but I have chosen to render by "tripped" in conformity with the textual meaning. The udāna (solemn utterance) would then be an expression used for warding off the ill-luck which might otherwise ensue after stumbling. Cf. Mhvu. iii. 223.

[5] As at M. ii. 133.

[6] bhadramukha, as at M. ii. 53. See above, p. 249, n. 1.

[7] sīlapaññāṇa, as at D. i. 124. See note at Dial. i. 156.

[8] Todeyyānaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ. These brahmans were so-called because they lived in Tudi (-gāma), Only the one was called Todeyya because he was the head of these; see above, p. 386, n. 1.

[9] MA. iii. 453 says of ādibrahmacariyaṁ: brahmacariyassa ādibhūtā uppādakā jānakā ti, which seems to mean that they were producers and generators of the Brahma-faring; but the grammar is against this. I think it more likely that the "fundamentals of the Brahma-faring" refer to "the practices that have been pointed out by me for disciples," enumerated in M. Sta. 77.

[10] abhiññāvosānapāramippatta. Cf. M. ii. 11 ff. (see above, p. 211, n. 2).

[11] Cf. M. i. 520, anussavika.

[12] Cf. M. i. 520, takkī-vīmaṁsī.

[13] I.e. not learning it or hearing it from others; cf. Vin. i. 8, na me ācariyo atthi, "I have no teacher."

[14] As at A. iii. 9; cf. D. ii. 33; S. ii. 9, 105. "Truths" is dhammesu, which AA. iii. 225 explains as catu-saccadhammesu. Dhammā can also mean things; or mental states, elements or ultimates.

[15] As at M. i. 240.

[16] As at M. i. 247.

[17] The fourth meditation, not mentioned here, is I think omitted in error.

Tmesis. > Greek: cutting. The separation of parts of a coompound word by the intervention of one or more words. - Websters. e.g.: un-f-----g-believable: unbelievable.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[18] aṭṭhita. This is a case of tmesis, for aṭṭhita is to be taken with padhāna. The meaning may more properly be that the striving was that of (or, worthy of) a steadfast man.

[19] sappurisa, also a case of tmesis.

[20] Cf. M. ii. 130 (above, p. 311).

[21] ucce. MA. iii. 464 says uccena saddena sammataṁ (v.l. samma) pākaṭaṁ mataṁ lokasmiṁ, with a loud noise agreed upon by the usual thought of the world.

[22] Reading here is bhagavantaṁ.


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