Dīgha Nikāya


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Sacred Books of the Buddhists
Volume II

Dīgha Nikāya

Dialogues of the Buddha
Part I

Sutta 5

Kūṭa-Danta Suttantaɱ

The Wrong Sacrifice and the Right

Translated from the Pali by T.W. Rhys Davids

Public Domain

Originally published under the patronage of
His Majesty King Chulālankarana,
King of Siam
by The Pali Text Society, Oxford

 


[160]

Introduction
to the
Kūṭadanta Sutta

Whoever put this Sutta together must have been deeply imbued with the spirit of subtle irony that plays no less a part in the Suttas than it does in so many of the Jātakas. I have already called attention to the great importance for the right understanding of early Buddhist teaching of a constant appreciation of this sort of subtle humour[1]. It has been hitherto, so far as I am aware, entirely overlooked that is, in the Suttas; every one recognises it in the Jātaka tales. The humour is not at all intended to raise a laugh, scarcely even a smile. And the aroma of it, pervading the whole of an exposition — none the less delightful because of the very serious earnestness of the narrator, all the while, as regards the ethical point at issue — is apt to be lost sight of precisely because of that earnestness. And just as a joke may be explained, but the point of it spoilt in the process, so in the attempt to write about this irony, much more delicate than any joke, one runs great danger of smothering it under the explanatory words.

The attempt, nevertheless, must be made. And it is most easy, perhaps, to do so by an example which no one will dispute. In the Rājovāda Jātaka[2] we are told of the two kings, reigning over the famous lands of Benares and Kosala, who simultaneously determined to examine into their own faults! No courtier would tell them of any. So they each went, and went in vain, to the people in the city, outside the palace on a similar quest. Finding no fault-finders there, they each went on to the city gate, and then to the surrounding suburbs, all in vain. So they each made over the kingdom to their respective ministers, and with a single attendant as charioteer, sallied forth into the world, [161] to find some one to tell them of their faults. Bent on this, so serious, quest, the two came face-to-face in a low cart-track with precipitous sides. Each calls on the other to make way for a king. Both are kings! How to settle the point? 'I have it,' says one charioteer: 'Let the younger give way. The kings turn out to be exactly of an age. 'Then let the lord of the lesser realm go back.' Their kingdoms are exactly equal in size. And so on, in succession, are found to be the strength of their two armies, the amount of their treasure, the glory of their renown, the fame of their realms, the distinction of their caste, and tribe, and family. Then at last comes the solution. The king of Kosala overcomes evil by evil. Of the other, the king of Benares, it is said:

Anger he conquers by calmness,
And by goodness the wicked,
The stingy he conquers by gifts.
And by truth the speaker of lies.[3]

And on this being proclaimed, the king of Kosala and his charioteer alighted from their chariot. And they took out the horses, and removed their chariot, and made way for the king of Benares.

There is not a word in the whole story, here told in abstract[4] to suggest that it is not all sober history. But of course the whole story is invented. The two kings are brought on to the stage merely to carry on their broad shoulders, the moral of the tale, and the dry humour of the predicament in which they find themselves is there to attract attention to, to add emphasis to, the lesson taught.

What is the especial point in this fun — a kind of fun quite unknown in the West? It is the piquancy of the contrast between the mock seriousness of the extravagant, even impossible details, and the real serious earnestness of the ethical tone. The fun of the extravagance can be matched, easily enough, in European, and especially in American humour. The piquancy of this contrast is Indian, and especially Buddhist. Even the theosophic myth-makers of the Vedas had a sense of the humour in the incongruities, the half realities of their myths. One feels it occasionally even in the Brāhmaṇas. In the Upanishads it is very marked. The Liturgy of the Dogs, the Fable of the Senses, the War of the Devas and Asuras, and several other such episodes [162] have this mixture of unreality and earnestness, and it finds its perhaps most touching expression in the legend of Naciketas. And the Buddhists, in their Jātaka stories, often adopted and developed old Indian tales of a similar sort.

But why should we think that this sort of humour is confined to the Jātakas? We have a Jātaka story of the Great King of Glory, certainly based on the Sutta of the same name, for it expressly quotes it, and embodies the numerous details which lead up to the sublime lesson at the end of it[5]. And those details are at least as extravagant as the details in the Rājovāda Jātaka. Allowing for all the earnestness undeniably animating both the story-teller and the hearers, it is clear that they enjoyed, all the time, the dry humour of the exaggeration and grotesqueness of the details of the story as it went along. Now the details are given only in the Sutta; and omitted, as well known, in the Jātaka. They build up a gorgeous fairy tale in which the ancient mythology of the sun-myth is brought into play in order to show how the greatest possible majesty and glory of the greatest and best of all possible kings is, after all, but vanity. And the details, here also, in the Sutta, are enlivened by an intentional exaggeration, a designed dry humour, similar to that in the Rājovāda Jātaka, above referred to.

A similar state of things is found in the Aggañña Sutta, as pointed out above in the Introduction to the Ambaṭṭha; in the Kevaḍḍha Sutta, translated below; and in many other Suttas. In all of them there is the same exaggeration, the same dry humour, the same restrained art of the storyteller. It is impossible not to see that to the early tellers and hearers of these legends, always striking, often with a special beauty of their own, the unreality of the whole thing was just as evident, and was meant to be as evident, as it is now to us. They knew quite well that the lesson taught was the principal matter, the main point compared with which all others were quite subservient. And it made no difference that, for instance, the Great King of Glory was expressly identified with the Buddha in a former birth. They accepted it all; and entered none the less into the spirit of the legend as legend, because they enjoyed both the lesson and the manner of the telling of it.

And so, I would submit, stands the case also with our present Sutta. The whole legend is obviously invented ad hoc. Its details are not meant to be taken seriously as [163] historical fact. The forced twist given to the meaning of the words vidhā and parikkhāro is not serious. The words could not be used in the new sense assigned. What we have is a sort of pun, a play upon the words, a piece of dialectic smartness, delightful to the hearers then, and unfortunately quite impossible to be rendered adequately, in English prose, for readers now.

And it is quite open to question whether this does not apply as much to the whole Sutta as to the legend of King Wide-realm. The Brahman Kūṭadanta (pointed-tooth) is mentioned nowhere else, and is very likely meant to be rather the hero of a tale than an historical character. In that case we should have before us a novelette, an historical romance, in which the Very Reverend Sir Goldstick Sharp-tooth, lord of the manor of Khānumata, — cruel enough, no doubt, and very keen on being sure that his 'soul' should be as comfortable in the next world as he was, now, in this, makes up his mind to secure that most desirable end by the murder of a number of his fellow creatures, in honour of a god, or as he would put it, by celebrating a sacrifice.

In order to make certain that not one of the technical details — for to the accurate performance of all these the god was supposed to attach great weight — should be done wrong, the intending sacrificer is ironically represented as doing the very last thing any Brahman of position, under similar circumstances, would think of doing. He goes to the Samaṇa Gotama for advice about the modes of the ritual to be performed at the sacrifice; and about the requisite utensils, the altar-furniture, to be used in making it.

The Buddha's answer is to tell him a wonderful legend of a King Wide-realm, and of the sacrifice he offered — truly the most extraordinary sacrifice imaginable. All its marvellous details, each one settled, be it noted, on the advice of a Brahman, are described with a deliberate extravagance none the less delicious because of the evident earnestness of the moral to be inferred.

The Brahman of our Sutta wants to know the three modes in which the ritual is to be performed. The three 'modes' are declared in the legend (§ 15) to be simply three conditions of mind, or rather one condition of mind at three different times, the harbouring of no regret, either before or during or after the sacrifice, at the expenditure involved. And the material accessories required, the altar-furniture, the priest's outfit, what is that? It is the hearty co-operation with the king of four divisions of his people, the nobles, the officials, the Brahmans, and the householders. That [164] makes four articles of furniture. And eight personal qualifications of the king himself. That makes other eight. And four personal qualifications of his advising Brahman make up the total of the sixteen articles required. No living thing, either animal or vegetable, is injured. All the labour is voluntary. And all the world co-operates in adding its share to the largesse of food, on strict vegetarian principles, in which, alone, the sacrifice consists. It is offered on behalf, not only of the king himself, but of all the good. And the king desires to propitiate, not any god, but living men. And the muttering of mystic verses over each article used and over mangled and bleeding bodies of unhappy victims, verses on which all the magic efficacy of a sacrifice had been supposed to depend, is quietly ignored.

It is all ironical, of course — just the very contrary, in every respect, of a typical Vedic sacrifice. And the evident unreality of the legend may be one explanation of the curious fact that the authors of the Jātaka book (notwithstanding that King Wide-realm's Chaplain is actually identified in the Sutta with the Buddha himself in a previous birth) have not included this professedly Jātaka story in their collection. This is the only case, so far discovered, in which a similar omission has been made.

Having thus laughed the Brahman ideal of sacrifice out of court with the gentle irony of a sarcastic travesty, the author or authors of the Sutta go on to say what they think a sacrifice ought to be. Far from exalting King Wide-realm's procedure, they put his sacrifice at the very bottom of a long list of sacrifices each better than the other, and leading up to the sweetest and highest of all, which is the attainment of Arahatship.

Here again, except in the last paragraph, there is nothing exclusively Buddhistic. That a sacrifice of the heart is better than a sacrifice of bullocks, the ethical more worthy than any physical sacrifice, is simply the sensible, rational, human view of the matter. The whole long history of the development of Indian thought, as carried on chiefly by Brahmans (however much it may have owed in the earliest period to the nobles and others), shows that they, the more enlightened and cultured of the Brahmans, were not only as fully alive to this truth as any Buddhist, but that they took it all along for granted.

Even in the Vedas themselves there is already the germ of this view in the mental attitude as regards Aditi and Varuṇa. And in the pre-Buddhistic Chāndogya, in the mystic identification of the sacrifice with man[6] we find [165] certain moral states placed on an equality with certain parts of the sacrificial procedure. And among these moral states, ahiɱsā, the habit of causing no injury to any living thing, is especially mentioned. This comes very near to the Hebrew prophet's: 'I will have mercy, and not sacrifice.'[7] The more characteristically Indian point of view is, no doubt, in the words of the old saying long afterwards taken up into the Mahābhārata, that it is truth (not mercy) that outweighs a thousand sacrifices.[8] But there is a very great probability that the ahiɱsā doctrine, foreshadowed in the Upanishad, and afterwards so extravagantly taken up by the Nigaṇṭhas, the Gains of the Buddha's time, was also a part of the earlier Gain doctrine, and therefore not only in germ, but as a developed teaching, pre-Buddhistic. Though the Buddhists did not accept this extreme position, there would seem therefore to be no valid reason for doubting the accuracy of the Buddhist tradition that their view of sacrifice was based on a very ancient belief which was, in fact, common ground to the wise, whether inside or outside, the ranks of the Brahmans.

Our Sutta is, then, merely the oldest extant expression, in so thorough and uncompromising a way, of an ancient and widely held trend of opinion. On this question, as on the question of caste or social privileges, the early Buddhists took up, and pushed to its logical conclusions, a rational view held also by others. And on this question of sacrifice their party won. The Vedic sacrifices, of animals, had practically been given up when the long struggle between Brahmanism and Buddhism reached its close. Isolated instances of such sacrifices are known even down to the Muhammadan invasion. But the battle was really won by the Buddhists and their allies. And the combined ridicule and earnestness of our Sutta will have had its share in bringing about the victory.

That they did win is a suggestive fact. How could they have done so if the Indians of that time had been, as is so often asserted of them by European writers, more deeply addicted to all manner of ritual than any other nation under heaven, more superstitious, more averse to change in religious ceremonial? There seems to me no reason to believe that they were very different, in these respects, from [166] Greeks or Romans of the same period. On the contrary there was a well marked lay feeling, a wide-spread antagonism to the priests, a real sense of humour, a strong fund of common sense. Above all there was then the most complete and unquestioned freedom of thought and expression in religious matters that the world had yet witnessed. To regard the Indian peoples through Brahman spectacles, to judge them from the tone prevalent in the Srauta and Gṛihya Sūtras, it would seem impossible that this victory could have been won. But it was won. And our views of Indian history must be modified accordingly.

 


 

There is a curious expression in the stock phrase describing the learned Brahman, so often found in the Piṭakas, which I have left untranslated in this Sutta, being uncertain as to the meaning in which it was used at the time when our Sutta was composed. It will be instructive, in more ways than one, to collect and consider the other passages in which the word occurs.

Lokāyata is explained by Wilson as 'the system of atheistical philosophy taught by Kārvāka,[9] and by the Petersburg Dictionary as 'Materialism'. Now the description of the good Brahman as put, in the Buddhist Suttas, into the mouth of Brahmans themselves,[10] mentions Lokāyata as one branch of his learning. The whole paragraph is complimentary. And though the exact connotation of one or two of the other terms is doubtful, they are all descriptive of just those things which a Brahman would have been rightly proud to be judged a master of. It is evident, therefore, that the Dictionary interpretations of the word are quite out of place in this connection.

Yet they are each of them, at least for a later period, well authenticated. Kumārila Bhaṭṭa, in his Vārttika (verse 10), charges the Mīmāɱsā system with having been, for the most part, converted into a Lokāyata system, and claims for his own book the merit of bringing it back to theistic lines.[11] Now of course the Mīmāɱsists would indignantly deny this. Kumārila, who seems to have been a good deal of a bigot, is here merely hurling at adversaries, who claimed to be as orthodox as himself, a term of abuse. But it is clear that he uses that term in the sense of 'atheistic.' The exact phrase [167] would be nāstika, as opposed to his own āstika-patha: that is, the system or the man who says 'there is not,' an infidel. This is somewhat wider than atheist; it comes however, in Kumārila's mouth, to much the same thing.

Saŋkarācārya uses the word Lokāyata several times,[12] and always in the same specific sense as the view of those who look upon the soul as identical with the body, as existing only so long as the body exists, not continuing, after death, in a new condition and separate from the body. A very similar, if not indeed the very same view is also controverted in the Brahmajāla Sutta (above, P. 46); and is constantly referred to throughout the Piṭakas under the stock phrase taɱ jīvaɱ taɱ sarīraɱ.[13] But it is never called Lokāyata in the Piṭakas. It seems to be the view that there is a soul; but that it is diffused through the body, and dies with it; and is not a separate unity, within the body but not of it, which flies away from the body after death. It is not necessary to suppose that either. Saŋkara or the Buddhists had in their minds any book setting forth a philosophy based on this single proposition, or any actual school using such a book as a manual. It may have been so. But the expressions used point rather to an opinion held by certain thinkers, in union with other opinions, and not expounded in any special treatise. Nor do either the Buddhists or Saŋkara pretend to set out that opinion in full. They are dealing with it only so far as is necessary to enforce their own contrary positions. And though 'materialist,' as a rough and ready translation of. Saŋkara's Lokāyatika, gives a good idea, to a European reader, of the sort of feeling conveyed to Saŋkara's Indian readers, yet it is not quite exact. European 'materialists' (and one or two may be discovered by careful search) do not hold the view which Saŋkara describes to his Lokāyatikas.

Buddhaghosa in our passage has: Lokāyataɱ vuccati vitaṇḍa-vāda-satthaɱ, 'the Lokāyata is a text-book of the Vitaṇḍas (Sophists)[14] This does not help us much; but previously, p. 91, he explains Lokakkhāyikā as follows: 'Foolish talk according to the Lokāyata, that is the Vitaṇḍa, such as: "By whom was this world created? By [168] such a one. A crow is white from the whiteness of its bones; cranes are red from the redness of their blood."'

Other Pāli comments on the word are the Abhidhāna Padīpikā (verse 112), which says simply, probably following Buddhaghosa: Vitaṇḍa-satthaɱ viññeyyaɱ yaɱ taɱ lokāyataɱ. The date of this work is, the middle of the twelfth century A.D. Much clearer is Aggavaɱsa in the Sadda-nīti, which is a generation older. He says:[15]

Loko ti bāla-loko; ettha āyatanti ussāhanti vāyamanti vādassādenāti lokāyataɱ. Ayatati vā tena loko, na yatati na īhati vā, lokāyataɱ. Taɱ hi gandhaɱ nissāya sattā puñña-kiriyāya. kittaɱ na uppadenti. Lokāyataɱ. nāma: sabbaɱ Ucchiṭṭhaɱ sabbaɱ anucchiṭṭhaɱ seto kāko kāḷo bako iminā va iminā va kāranenāti evam-ādi-niratthaka-karaɱa-paṭisaɱyuttaɱ titthiya-satthaɱ, yaɱ loke Vitaṇḍasatthaɱ vuccati, yaɱ sandhāya Bodhisatto asamadhuro Vidhūra-paṇḍito:

Na seve Lokāyatikaɱ, n'etaɱ puññāya vaḍḍhanaɱ" ti āha.

'Loko means the common world. Lokāyata means: "on that they āyatanti;" that is, they exert themselves about it, strive about it, through the pleasure they take in discussion. Or perhaps it means: "the world does not yatati by it;" that is, does not depend on it, move on by it. For living beings do not stir up their hearts to right-doing by reason of that book.[16] Now the Lokāyata is the book of the unbelievers (of the Titthiyas) full of such useless disputations as the following: "All is impure; all is not impure; the crow is white, the crane is black; and for this reason or for that" — the book known in the world as the Vitaṇḍa-sattha, of which the Bodisat, the incomparable leader, Vidhūra the pandit, said:

"Follow not the Lokāyata, that works not for progress in merit."

[169] The verse quoted-certainly a very old one-is in the Vidhūra Jātaka,[17] and the commentator there says: 'This means: Follow not Lokāyata disputation, Vitaṇḍa chatter, concerned with useless matters which neither give paradise nor lead men on into the Path.'

Saŋkara says: 'There is thus, according to them, no soul, separate from the body, and capable of going to the heavenly world or obtaining release.'[18] The unknown author of the Jātaka commentary, who certainly wrote however in the fifth century, gives the allied proposition as his own conclusion from the uselessness of their discussions, not as the opinion of the Lokāyatikas themselves. It would be an easy transition from the one expression to the other. And the difference is suggestive, especially in the light of other passages in both Sanskrit and Pāli books.

For while the Mahābhārata has precisely the same use of the word as the Piṭakas, later works use it in a manner approximating more and more nearly to that of Saŋkara. The passage in the Mahābhārata is at I, 2889 (= Hari Vaɱsa 14068), where, at the end of a list of the accomplishments of learned Brahmans, they are said to be masters of the Lokāyata. Being mentioned, as in our passage, at the end of the list, it is plain that this branch of learning is meant to be taken as of minor importance. But it is not yet considered unfavourably, much less opprobiously. And the Petersburg Dictionary, from which I take most of these references, points out that the word may possibly, in this passage, have some other meaning than 'Materialism.'

The Rāmāyaṇa goes further. There the word is also in a list, but the Laukāyatikā are blamed as 'clever in useless things.'[19] So in the Saddharma Puṇḍarīka, the good Mahāyānist does not serve or court or wait upon (among other low people) 'the Lokāyatikas who know by heart the Lokāyata mantras (mystic verses).'[20] The date of [170] this may be a century or two after Christ. And in the Gain book, entitled the Bhagavatī, which Weber puts at about the same time, the Lokāyatikas occur in a similar list of blameworthy persons.[21]

In the Milinda, which is probably somewhat earlier, the word is mentioned twice. One passage ascribes a knowledge of the Lokāyata (in a sentence expanded from the very clause in our Sutta) to the hero of the story, Nāgasena.[22] Here the Milinda is quite at the old standpoint. The other passage is in a parenthesis,[23] in which the sub-hero, the king, is described as 'fond of wordy disputations, and in the habit of wrangling against the quibbles of Lokāyatas and Vitaṇḍas.' This may possibly be a gloss which has crept into the text. But in any case it is evidence that, at the time when it was written, the later view of the meaning of the word had become prevalent.

In the long list of various sorts of hermits given in the Harsha Carita the Lokāyatikas come among others who would be classed by Vedāntists as heretics[24]. We cannot, unfortunately, draw any certain conclusion as to whether or not there were actually any Lokāyatikas living in Bāṇa's time. In expanding previous descriptions of the concourse of hermits in the forest, he may be merely including in his list all the sorts of such people he had ever heard or read of.

Lastly, the Lokāyata system is, in various works of the fourteenth century and later, appropriately fathered on Cārvāka, a mythical character in the Mahābhārata, an ogre, who appears in the garb of a Brahman.[25] It is not certain whether this is due to the ingenuity of a friend or a foe. In either case, like the fathering of the later Sāŋkhya on the ancient sage Kapila; or the fathering of the collection of fables, made by Planudes in the fourteenth century A.D., upon Aesop the story-teller of the — fifth century B.C., it has been eminently successful, has deceived many, and is still widely accepted.

Pending the discovery of other texts, and especially of [171] such as are not only the testimony of opponents, the best working hypothesis to explain the above facts seems to be that about 500 B. C. the word Lokāyata was used in a complimentary way as the name of a branch of Brahman learning, and probably meant Nature-lore-wise sayings, riddles, rhymes, and theories handed down by tradition as to cosmogony, the elements, the stars, the weather, scraps of astronomy, of elementary physics, even of anatomy, and knowledge of the nature of precious stones, and of birds and beasts and plants. To be a master of such lore was then considered by no means unbecoming to a learned Brahman, though it ranked, of course, below his other studies. At that time there was no school so called, and no special handbook of such knowledge. But portions of it trenched so closely upon, were so often useful as metaphor in discussing the higher and more especially priestly wisdom, that we find sayings that may well have belonged to it preserved in the pre-Buddhistic literature. Such passages, for instance, as B.r.i. ār. Up. III, 8, 3, Chānd. Up. IV, 17, 1, and VI, 2-7, on the worlds and on cosmogony; Chānd. III. on the colour of the rays of the sun; .B.r.i. ār. Up. II, 1, 5-7, and III, 7, 3-7, on the elements; Ait. ār. III, 2, 1, 4, and others, on the parts of the body; and many others of a similar kind on these and other subjects might be cited as examples.

The amount then existing of such lore was too small to make a fair proficiency in it incompatible with other knowledge. As the amount of it grew larger, and several branches of natural science were regularly studied, a too exclusive acquaintance with Lokāyata became looked upon with disfavour. Even before the Christian era masters of the dark sayings, the mysteries, of such mundane lore were marked with sophists and casuists. This feeling is increasingly vouched for in the early centuries of our era. In the fifth century we hear of a book, presumably on the 'riddles and mysteries of the craft, as it is called 'a book of quibbles.' Various branches of mundane science had been by that time fairly well worked out. Lokāyata was still the name for the old Nature-lore, on the same level as folk-lore, and in contradistinction, not only to theosophy on the one hand, but to such science as there was on the other.

In the first half of the eighth century Kumārila uses the word as a mere term of abuse, and in the sense of infidel of his equally orthodox opponents, the Mīmāɱsists. And shortly afterwards Saŋkara, in setting forth his theory of the soul, controverts a curious opinion which he ascribes to Lokāyatikas, — possibly wrongly, as the very same opinion [172] was controverted ages before in the Piṭakas, and not there called Lokāyata, though the word was in use in Piṭaka times.

Finally in the fourteenth century the great theologian Sāyaṇa-Mādhava has a longish chapter in which he ascribes to the Lokāyatikas the most extreme forms of the let-us-eat-and-drink-for-to-morrow-we-die view of life; of Pyrrhonism in philosophy, and of atheism in theology. The Lokāyata had no doubt, at that time, long ceased to exist. His very able description has all the appearance of being drawn from his own imagination; and is chiefly based on certain infidel doggerel verses which cannot possibly have formed a part of the Lokāyata studied by the Brahmans of old[26]. It is the ideal of what will happen to the man of some intellect, but morally so depraved that he will not accept the theosophist position.

Throughout the whole story we have no evidence of any one who called himself a Lokāyatika, or his own knowledge Lokāyata. After the early use of the word in some such sense as Nature-lore, folk-lore, there is a tone of unreality over all the statements we have. And of the real existence of a school of thought, or of a system of philosophy that called itself by the name there is no trace. In the middle period the riddles and quibbles of the Nature-lorists are despised. In the last period the words Lokāyata, Lokāyatika, become mere hobby horses, pegs on which certain writers can hang the views that they impute to their adversaries, and give them, in doing so, an odious name.

 


[173]

V. Kūṭa-Danta Suttantaɱ

The Wrong Sacrifice and the Right

[1] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

The Blessed One once, when going on a tour through Magadhā,
with a great multitude of the brethren,
with about five hundred brethren,
came to a Brahman village in Magadhā called Khānumata.

And there at Khānumata he lodged in the Ambalaṭṭhikā pleasaunce.[27]

Now at that time the Brahman Kūṭadanta was dwelling at Kānumata,
a place teeming with life,
with much grassland and woodland and water and corn,
on a royal domain presented him
by Seniya Bimbisāra the king of Magadhā,
as a royal gift,
with power over it as if he were the king.

And just then a great sacrifice was being got ready
on behalf of Kūṭadanta the Brahman.

And a hundred bulls,
and a hundred steers,
and a hundred heifers,
and a hundred goats,
and a hundred rams had been brought to the post for the sacrifice.

2. Now the Brahmans and householders of Khānumata
heard the news of the arrival of the Samaṇa Gotama[28].

[128] And they began to leave Khānumata
in companies and in bands
to go to the Ambalaṭṭhikā pleasaunce.

3. And just then Kūṭadanta the Brahman
had gone apart to the upper terrace of his house
for his siesta;
and seeing the people thus go by,
he asked his doorkeeper the reason.

And the doorkeeper told him.[29]

[174] 4. Then Kūṭadanta thought:

"I have heard that the Samaṇa Gotama understands
about the successful performance of a sacrifice
with its threefold method
and its sixteen accessory instruments.

Now I don't know all this,
and yet I want to carry out a sacrifice.

It would be well for me
to go to the Samaṇa Gotama,
and ask him about it."

So he sent his doorkeeper to the Brahmans and householders of Khānumata,
to ask them to wait till he could go with them
to call upon the Blessed One.

5. But there were at that time
a number of Brahmans staying at Khānumata
to take part in the great sacrifice.

And when they heard
that Kūṭadanta was intending to visit the Samaṇa Gotama,
they went to Kūṭadanta,
and asked whether that was so.

"That is my intention, Sirs.

I propose to call on the Samaṇa Gotama."

"Let not the venerable Kūṭadanta do that.

It is not fitting for him to do so.

If it were the venerable Kūṭadanta
who went to call upon him,
then the venerable Kūṭadanta's reputation
would decrease
and the Samaṇa Gotama's would increase.

This is the first reason
why you, Sir,
should not call upon him,
but he upon you."

And they laid before Kūṭadanta the Brahman
in like manner
also other considerations,
to wit:

That he was well born on both sides,
of pure descent
through the mother and through the father
back through seven generations,
with no slur put upon him,
and no reproach in respect of birth -

That he was prosperous,
well to do,
and rich —

That he was a repeater
(of the sacred words),
knowing the mystic verses by heart,
one who had mastered the Three Vedas,
with the indices,
the ritual,
the phonology,
and the exegesis
(as a fourth),
and the legends as a fifth,
learned in the words
and in the grammar,
versed in Lokāyata
(Nature-lore),
and in the theory of the signs
on the body of a great man —

That he was handsome,
pleasant to look upon,
inspiring trust,
gifted with great beauty of complexion,
fair in colour,
fine in presence,
stately to behold —

That he was virtuous,
increased in virtue,
gifted with virtue
that had waxed great —

That he had a pleasant voice
and pleasing delivery,
and was gifted with polite address,
distinct,
not husky,
suitable for making clear
the matter in hand —

That he was the teacher
of the teachers of many,
instructing three hundred Brahmans
in the repetition of the mystic verses,
and that many young Brahmans,
from various directions
and various counties,
all craving for the verses,
came to learn them by heart under him —

That he was aged,
old, and well stricken in years,
long-lived and full of days —

That he was honoured,
held of weight,
esteemed worthy,
venerated and revered by Seniya Bimbisāra,
the king of Magadhā —

That he was honoured,
held of weight,
esteemed worthy,
venerated and revered
by Pokkharasādi, the Brahman —

That he dwelt at Khānumata,
a place teeming with life,
with much grassland and woodland and corn,
on a royal fief
granted him by Seniya Bimbisāra,
the king of Magadhā,
as a royal gift,
with power over it
as if he were the king —

For each of these reasons
it was not fitting that he, Kūṭadanta the Brahman,
should call upon the Samaṇa Gotama,
but rather that the Samaṇa Gotama
should call upon him.

And when they had thus spoken,
Kūṭadanta said to them:

"Then, Sirs, listen,
and hear why it is fitting
that I should call upon the venerable Gotama,
and not he should call upon me —

'Truly, Sirs,
the venerable Gotama is well born on both sides,
of pure descent through the mother and the father
back through seven generations,
with no slur put upon him,
and no reproach in respect of birth —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama
has gone forth (into the religious life),
giving up the great clan of his relations —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama
has gone forth (into the religious life),
giving up much money and gold,
treasure both buried and above the ground —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama,
while he was still a young man,
without a grey hair on his head,
in the beauty of his early manhood,
has gone forth from the household life
into the homeless state —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama,
though his father and mother were unwilling,
and wept,
their cheeks being wet with tears,
nevertheless cut off his hair and beard,
and donned the yellow robes,
and went out from the household life
into the homeless state —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama is handsome,
pleasant to look upon,
inspiring trust,
gifted with great beauty of complexion,
fair in colour,
fine in presence,
stately to behold —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama
is virtuous
with the virtue of the Arahats,
good and virtuous,
gifted with goodness and virtue —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama
hath a pleasant voice,
and a pleasing delivery,
he is gifted with polite address,
distinct,
not husky,
suitable for making clear
the matter in hand —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama
is the teacher of the teachers of many —

Truly, Sirs the Samaṇa Gotama
has no passion of lust left in him,
and has put away all fickleness of mind —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama
believes in Karma,
and in action,
he is one who puts righteousness
in the forefront (of his exhortations)
to the Brahman race —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama
went forth from a distinguished family
primeval among the Kshatriya clans —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama
went forth from a family
prosperous,
well to do,
and rich —

Truly, Sirs, people come right across the country
from distant lands
to ask questions of the Samaṇa Gotama —

Truly, Sirs, multitudes of heavenly beings
put their trust in the Samaṇa Gotama —

Truly, Sirs, such is the high reputation
noised abroad concerning the Samaṇa Gotama,
that he is said to be an Arahat,
exalted,
fully awakened,
abounding in wisdom and righteousness,
happy,
with knowledge of the worlds,
a Blessed One,
a Buddha —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama
has all the thirty two bodily marks of a Great Being —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama bids all men welcome, is congenial, conciliatory, not supercilious, accessible to all, not backward in conversation —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama
is honoured,
held of weight,
esteemed and venerated and revered
by the four classes
(of his followers —
the brethren and sisters of the Order,
laymen and lay women) —

Truly, Sirs, many gods and men
believe in the Samaṇa Gotama —

Truly, Sirs, in whatsoever village or town
the Samaṇa Gotama stays,
there the non-humans
do the humans no harm —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama
as the head of an Order,
of a school,
as the teacher of a school,
is the acknowledged chief
of all the founders of sects.

Whereas some Samaṇas and Brahmans
have gained a reputation
by all sorts of insignificant matters,
not so the Samaṇa Gotama.

His reputation comes
from perfection in conduct
and righteousness —

Truly, Sirs, the king of Magadhā, Seniya Bimbisāra,
with his children and his wives,
with his people,
and his courtiers,
has put his trust in the Samaṇa Gotama —

Truly, Sirs, King Pasenadi of Kosala,
with his children and his wives,
with his people and his courtiers,
has put his trust in the Samaṇa Gotama —

Truly, Sirs, Pokkharasādi the Brahman,
with his children and his wives,
with his people and his intimates,
has put his trust in the Samaṇa Gotama —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama
is honoured,
held of weight,
esteemed,
and venerated and revered alike
by Seniya Bimbisāra, the king of Magadhā,
by Pasenadi the king of Kosala,
and by Pokkharasādi the Brahman —

Truly, Sirs, the Samaṇa Gotama
has now arrived at Khānumata.

But all Samaṇas and Brahmans
who come into our village borders
are our guests.

And guests we ought to esteem and honour,
to venerate
and revere.

And as he is now so come,
he ought to be so treated,
as a guest —

For each and all of these considerations
it is not fitting
that the Samaṇa Gotama should call upon us,
but rather does it behove us to call upon him.

And so far only
do I know the excellencies of the Samaṇa Gotama,
but these are not all of them,
for his excellence is beyond measure."

[134] Then they were satisfied,
and went with him
to call upon the Blessed One.[30]

So Kūṭadanta the Brahman
went up to where the Blessed One was.

And when he had come there
he exchanged with the Blessed One
the greetings and compliments
of politeness and courtesy,
and took his seat on one side.

9. And when he was seated there
Kūṭadanta the Brahman told the Blessed One
what he had heard,[31]
and requested him to tell him
about success in performing a sacrifice
in its three modes[32]
and with its accessory articles of furniture
of sixteen kinds.[33]

[175] "Well then, O Brahman,
give ear
and listen attentively
and I will speak."

"Very well, Sir," said Kūṭadanta in reply;
and the Blessed One-spake as follows: —

10. "Long ago, O Brahman,
there was a king by name Wide-realm (Mahā Vijita),[34]
mighty,
with great wealth and large property,
with stores of silver and gold,
of aids to enjoyment,[35]
of goods and corn;
with his treasure-houses
and his garners full.

Now when King Wide-realm
was once sitting alone in meditation
he became anxious at the thought:

'I have in abundance all the good things
a mortal can enjoy.

The whole wide circle of the earth
is mine by conquest to possess.

'Twere well if I were to offer a great sacrifice
that should ensure me weal
and welfare for many days.'

And he had the Brahman, his chaplain, called;
and telling him all that he had thought,
[135] he said:

'So I would fain, O Brahman,
offer a great sacrifice
— let the venerable one instruct me how —
for my weal and my welfare
for many days.'

11. Thereupon the Brahman who was chaplain
said to the king:

'The king's country, Sire,
is harassed and harried.

There are dacoits abroad
who pillage the villages and townships,
and who make the roads unsafe.

Were the king,
so long as that is so,
to levy a fresh tax,
verily his majesty would be acting wrongly.

But perchance his majesty might think:

"I'll soon put a stop to these scoundrels' game
by degradation and banishment,
and fines and bonds and death!"

But their licence
cannot be satisfactorily
put a stop to so.

The remnant left unpunished
would still go on harassing the realm.

Now there is one method to adopt
[176] to put a thorough end
to this disorder.

Whosoever there be in the king's realm
who devote themselves
to keeping cattle and the farm,
to them let his majesty the king
give food and seed-corn.

Whosoever there be in the king's realm
who devote themselves to trade,
to them let his majesty the king
give capital.

Whosoever there be in the king's realm
who devote themselves to government service,[36]
to them let his majesty the king
give wages and food.

Then those men,
following each his own business,
will no longer harass the realm,
the king's revenue will go up;
the country will be quiet

and at peace;
and the populace,
pleased one with another and happy,
dancing their children in their arms,
will dwell with open doors.'"

Then King Wide-realm, O Brahman,
accepted the word of his chaplain,
[138] and did as he had said.

And those men,
following each his business,
harassed the realm no more.

And the king's revenue went up.

And the country became quiet and at peace.

And the populace,
pleased one with another and happy,
dancing their children in their arms,
dwelt with open doors.

12. So King Wide-realm had his chaplain called,
and said:

'The disorder is at an end.

The country is at peace.

I want to offer that great sacrifice —
let the venerable one instruct me how —
for my weal and my welfare
for many days.'

'Then let his majesty the king send invitations
to whomsoever there may be in his realm
who are Kshatriyas,
vassals of his,
either in the country or the towns;
or who are ministers and officials of his,
either in the country or the towns;
or who are Brahmans of position,
either in the country or the towns;
or who are householders of substance,
either in the country or the towns,
saying:

"I intend to offer a great sacrifice.

Let the venerable ones
give their sanction
to what will be to me
for weal and welfare
for many days."'

Then King Wide-realm, O Brahman,
accepted the [177] word of his chaplain,
[137] and did as he had said.

And they each —
Kshatriyas and Ministers
and Brahmans and householders —
made alike reply:

'Let his majesty the king celebrate the sacrifice.

The time is suitable, O king!'[37]

Thus did these four,
as colleagues by consent,
become wherewithal
to furnish forth that sacrifice.[38]

13. King Wide-realm was gifted in the following eight ways: —

He was well born on both sides,
on the mother's side and on the father's,
of pure descent back through seven generations,
and no slur was cast upon him,
and no reproach,
in respect of birth —

He was handsome,
pleasant in appearance,
inspiring trust,
gifted with great beauty of complexion,
fair in colour,
fine in presence,
stately to behold —

He was mighty, with great wealth,
and large property,
with stores of silver and gold,
of aids to enjoyment,
of goods and corn,
with his treasure-houses and his garners full —

He was powerful,
in command of an army,
loyal and disciplined,
in four divisions
(of elephants, cavalry, chariots, and bowmen),
burning up, methinks,
his enemies by his very glory —

He was a believer,
and generous,
a noble giver,
keeping open house,
a welling spring[39] whence Samaṇas and Brahmans,
the poor and the wayfarers,
beggars,
and petitioners might draw,
a doer of good deeds —

He was learned in all kinds of knowledge —

He knew the meaning of what had been said,
and could explain:

'This saying has such and such a meaning,
and that such and such' —

[178] He was intelligent,
expert and wise,
and able to think out things present or past or future —[40]

And these eight gifts of his, too,
became wherewithal
to furnish forth that sacrifice.

14. The Brahman his chaplain
was gifted in the following four ways: —

He was well born on both sides,
on the mother's and on the father's,
of pure descent back through seven generations,
with no slur cast upon him,
and no reproach in respect of birth —

He was a student repeater
who knew the mystic verses by heart,
master of the Three Vedas,
with the indices,
the ritual,
the phonology,
and the exegesis (as a fourth),
and the legends as a fifth,
learned in the idioms and the grammar,
versed in Lokāyata (Nature-lore) and in the thirty marks on the body of a great man —

He was virtuous,
established in virtue,
gifted with virtue that had grown great —

He was intelligent,
expert,
and wise;
foremost,
or at most the second,
among those who hold out the ladle.

Thus these four gifts of his, too,
became wherewithal to furnish forth that sacrifice.

15. And further, O Brahman,
the chaplain,
before the sacrifice had begun,
explained to King Wide-realm the three modes:

Should his majesty the king,
before starting on the great sacrifice,
feel any such regret as:

'Great, alas, will be
the portion of my wealth used up herein,'
let not the king harbour such regret.

Should his majesty the king,
whilst he is offering the great sacrifice,
feel any such regret as:

'Great, alas, will be
the portion of my wealth used up herein,'
let not the king harbour such regret.

Should his majesty the king,
when the great sacrifice has been offered,
feel any such regret as:

'Great, alas, has been
the portion of my wealth used up herein,'
let not the king harbour such regret.'

[179] Thus did the chaplain, O Brahman,
before the sacrifice had begun,
explain to King Wide-realm the three modes.

16. And further, O Brahman,
the chaplain,
before the sacrifice had begun,
in order to prevent any compunction
that might afterwards,
in ten ways,
arise as regards those who had taken part therein,
said:

'Now there will come to your sacrifice, Sire,
men who destroy the life of living things,
and men who refrain therefrom
— men who take what has not been given,
and men who refrain therefrom
— men who act evilly in respect of lusts,
and men who refrain therefrom
— men who speak lies,
and men who do not
— men who slander,
and men who do not
— men who speak rudely,
and men who do not
— men who chatter vain things,
and men who refrain therefrom
[139, 140] men who covet,
and men who covet not
— men who harbour illwill,
and men who harbour it not
— men whose views are wrong,
and men whose views are right.

Of each of these let them,
who do evil,
alone with their evil.

For them who do well
let your majesty offer,
for them, Sire,
arrange the rites,
them let the king gratify,
in them shall your heart within find peace.'

17. And further, O Brahman,
the chaplain,
whilst the king was carrying out the sacrifice,
instructed
and aroused
and incited
and gladdened his heart
in sixteen ways:

'Should there be people
who should say of the king,
as he is offering the sacrifice:

"King Wide-realm is celebrating sacrifice
without having invited
the four classes of his subjects,
without himself having
the eight personal gifts,
without the assistance of a Brahman
who has the four personal gifts;"
then would they speak
not according to the fact.

For the consent of the four classes
has been obtained,
the king has the eight,
and his Brahman has the four,
personal gifts.

With regard to each and every one
of these sixteen conditions
the king may rest assured
that it has been fulfilled.

He can sacrifice,
and be glad,
and possess his heart in peace.'[41]

[180] [141] 18. And further, O Brahman,
at that sacrifice
neither were any oxen slain,
neither goats,
nor fowls,
nor fatted pigs,
nor were any kinds of living creatures put to death.

No trees were cut down
to be used as posts,
no Dabbha grasses mown
to strew around the sacrificial spot.

And the staves and messengers and workmen there employed
were driven neither by rods nor fear,
nor carried on their work
weeping with tears upon their faces.

Whoso chose to help, he worked;
whoso chose not to help, worked not.

What each chose to do, he did,
what they chose not to do,
that was left undone.

With ghee,
and oil,
and butter,
and milk,
and honey,
and sugar only
was that sacrifice accomplished.

[142]19. And further, O Brahman,
the Kshatriya vassals,
and the ministers and officials,
and the Brahmans of position,
and the householders of substance,
whether of the country or of the towns,
went to King Wide-realm,
taking with them much wealth,
and said:

'This abundant wealth, Sire,
have we brought hither for the king's use.

Let his majesty accept it at our hands!'

'Sufficient wealth have I, my friends,
laid up,
the produce of taxation that is just.

Do you keep yours,
and take away more with you!'

When they had thus been refused by the king,
they went aside,
and considered thus one with the other:

'It would not beseem us now,
were we to take this wealth away again
to our own homes.

King Wide-realm is offering a great sacrifice.

Let us too make an after-sacrifice!'

20. So the Kshatriyas established a continual largesse
to the east of the king's sacrificial pit,
and the officials
to the south thereof,
and the Brahmans
to the west thereof,
and the householders
to the north thereof.

And the things given,
and the manner of their gift,
was in all respects
like unto the great sacrifice
of King Wide-realm himself.

[143] Thus, O Brahman, there was a fourfold co-operation,
and King Wide-realm was gifted with [181] eight personal gifts,
and his officiating Brahman with four.

And there were three modes
of the giving of that sacrifice.

This, O Brahman,
is what is called
the due celebration of a sacrifice
in its threefold mode
and with its furniture of sixteen kinds!"

21. And when he had thus spoken,
those Brahmans lifted up their voices in tumult,
and said:

"How glorious the sacrifice,
how pure its accomplishment!"

But Kūṭadanta the Brahman
sat there in silence.

Then those Brahmans said to Kūṭadanta:

"Why do you not approve
the good words of the Samaṇa Gotama
as well-said?"

"I do not fail to approve:
for he who approves not as well-said
that which has been well spoken by the Samaṇa Gotama,
verily his head would split in twain.

But I was considering
that the Samaṇa Gotama does not say:

'Thus have I heard,'
nor 'Thus behoves it to be,'
but says only 'Thus it was then,'
or 'It was like that then.'

So I thought:

'For a certainty
the Samaṇa Gotama himself
must at that time
have been King Wide-realm,
or the Brahman who officiated for him
at that sacrifice.

Does the venerable Gotama
admit that he who celebrates such a sacrifice,
or causes it to be celebrated,
is reborn
at the dissolution of the body,
after death,
into some state of happiness in heaven?"

"Yes, O Brahman, that I admit.

And at that time
I was the Brahman who,
as chaplain,
had that sacrifice performed."

22. "Is there, O Gotama,
any other sacrifice
less difficult
and less troublesome,
with more fruit
and more advantage still
than this?"

[144] "Yes, O Brahman, there is."

"And what, O Gotama, may that be?"

"The perpetual gifts
kept up in a family
where they are given specifically
to virtuous recluses."

23. "But what is the reason, O Gotama,
and what the cause,
why such perpetual givings
specifically to virtuous recluses,
and kept up in a family,
are less difficult and troublesome,
of greater fruit
and greater [182] advantage
than that other sacrifice
with its three modes
and its accessories of sixteen kinds?"

"To the latter sort of sacrifice,
O Brahman,
neither will the Arahats go,
nor such as have entered on the Arahat way.

And why not?

Because at it
beating with sticks takes place,
and seizing by the throat.[42]

But they will go to the former,
where such things are not.

And therefore are such perpetual gifts
above the other sort of sacrifice."

24. "And is there, O Gotama,
any other sacrifice
less difficult and less troublesome,
of greater fruit
and of greater advantage
than either of these?"

[145] "Yes, O Brahman, there is."

"And what, O Gotama, may that be?"

"The putting up of a dwelling place (Vihāra)
on behalf of the Order
in all the four directions."

25. "And is there, O Gotama,
any other sacrifice
less difficult
and less troublesome,
of greater fruit
and of greater advantage
than each and all of these three?"

"Yes, O Brahman, there is."

"And what, O Gotama, may that be?"

"He who with trusting heart
takes a Buddha as his guide,
and the Truth,
and the Order —
that is a sacrifice
better than open largesse,
better than perpetual alms,
better than the gift of a dwelling place."

[146]26. "And is there, O Gotama, any other sacrifice
less difficult
and less troublesome,
of greater fruit
and of greater advantage
than all these four?"

"When a man with trusting heart
takes upon himself the precepts —
abstinence from destroying life;
abstinence from taking what has not been given
abstinence from evil;
conduct in respect of lusts;
abstinence from lying words;
abstinence from strong,
intoxicating,
maddening drinks,
the root of carelessness —
that is a sacrifice
better than open largesse,
better than perpetual alms,
better than the gift of dwelling places,
better than accepting guidance."

[183] 27. "And is there, O Gotama,
any other sacrifice
less difficult
and less troublesome,
of greater fruit
and of greater advantage
than all these five?"

"Yes, O Brahman, there is."

"And what, O Gotama, may that be?"

 

§

 

And the Blessed One said:

"Suppose, oh Brahman, there appears in the world
one who has won the truth, an Arahat,
a fully awakened one,
abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy,
who knows all worlds,
unsurpassed as a guide
to mortals willing to be led,
a teacher for gods and men,
a Blessed One, a Buddha.

He, by himself, thoroughly knows and sees,
as it were, face-to-face this universe,
— including the worlds above of the gods,
the Brahmas, and the Māras,
and the world below with its recluses and Brahmans,
its princes and peoples, —
and having known it,
he makes his knowledge known to others.

The truth, lovely in its origin,
lovely in its progress,
lovely in its consummation,
doth he proclaim,
both in the spirit and in the letter,
the higher life doth he make known,
in all its fullness and in all its purity.

A householder or one of his children,
or a man of inferior birth in any class
listens to that truth;
and on hearing it he has faith in the Tathāgata
(the one who has found the truth);
and when he is possessed of that faith,
he considers thus within himself:

'Full of hindrances is household life,
a path for the dust of passion.

Free as the air is the life
of him who has renounced all worldly things.

How difficult is it for the man who dwells at home
to live the higher life in all its fullness,
in all its purity,
in all its bright perfection!

Let me then cut off my hair and beard,
let me clothe myself in the orange-coloured robes,
and let me go forth
from the household life
into the homeless state.'

Then, before long,
forsaking his portion of wealth,
be it great or small,
forsaking his circle of relatives,
be they many or be they few,
he cuts off his hair and beard,
he clothes himself in the orange-coloured robes,
and he goes forth from the household life
into the homeless state.

When he has thus become a recluse
he lives self-restrained
by that restraint
that should be binding on a recluse.

Uprightness is his delight,
and he sees danger
in the least of those things he should avoid.

He adopts, and trains himself in, the precepts.

He encompasses himself with good deeds in act and word.

Pure are his means of livelihood,
good is his conduct,
guarded the doors of his senses.

Mindful and self-possessed
he is altogether happy.

And how, oh Brahman, is his conduct good?

In this, oh Brahman, that the Bhikshu,
putting away the killing of living things,
holds aloof from the destruction of life.

The cudgel and the sword he has laid aside,
and ashamed of roughness,
and full of mercy,
he dwells compassionate and kind
to all creatures that have life.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Putting away the taking of what has not been given,
the Bhikshu lives aloof
from grasping what is not his own.

He takes only what is given,
and expecting that gifts will come,
he passes his life in honesty
and purity of heart.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Putting away unchastity,
the Bhikshu is chaste.

He holds himself aloof,
far off,
from the vulgar practice,
from the sexual act.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Putting away lying words,
the Bhikshu holds himself aloof from falsehood.

He speaks truth,
from the truth he never swerves;
faithful and trustworthy,
he breaks not his word to the world.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Putting away slander,
the Bhikshu holds himself aloof from calumny.

What he hears here
he repeats not elsewhere
to raise a quarrel against the people here;
what he hears elsewhere
he repeats not here
to raise a quarrel against the people there.

Thus does he live as a binder together
of those who are divided,
an encourager of those who are friends,
a peacemaker,
a lover of peace,
impassioned for peace,
a speaker of words that make for peace.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Putting away rudeness of speech,
the Bhikshu holds himself aloof from harsh language.

Whatsoever word is blameless,
pleasant to the car,
lovely,
reaching to the heart,
pleasing to the people,
beloved of the people —
such are words he speaks.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Putting away frivolous talk,
the Bhikshu holds himself aloof
from vain conversation.

In season he speaks,
in accordance with the facts,
words full of meaning,
on religion,
on the discipline of the Order.

He speaks,
and at the right time,
words worthy to be laid up in one's heart,
fitly illustrated,
clearly divided,
to the point.

The Bhikshu holds himself aloof
from causing injury to seeds or plants.

He takes but one meal a day,
not eating at night,
refraining from food after hours
(after midday).

He refrains from being a spectator
at shows at fairs,
with nautch dances,
singing, and music.

He abstains from wearing,
adorning,
or ornamenting himself
with garlands, scents, and unguents.

He abstains from the use
of large and lofty beds.

He abstains from accepting silver or gold.

He abstains from accepting uncooked grain.

He abstains from accepting raw meat.

He abstains from accepting women or girls.

He abstains from accepting bondmen or bondwomen.

He abstains from accepting sheep or goats.

He abstains from accepting fowls or swine.

He abstains from accepting elephants, cattle. horses, and mares.

He abstains from accepting cultivated fields or waste.

He abstains from acting as a go-between or messenger.

He abstains from buying and selling.

He abstains from cheating
with scales or bronzes or measures.

He abstains from the crooked ways
of bribery, cheating, and fraud.

He abstains from maiming,
murder,
putting in bonds,
highway robbery,
dacoity,
and violence.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to the injury of seedlings
and growing plants
whether propagated from roots
or cuttings
or joints
or buddings
or seeds
the Bhikshu holds aloof from such injury
to seedlings and growing plants.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to the use
of things stored up;
stores, to wit,
of foods, drinks, clothing,
equipages, bedding, perfumes,
and curry-stuffs —
the Bhikshu holds aloof from such use
of things stored up.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to visiting shows;
that is to say:

(1) Nautch dances (naccaɱ);

(2) Singing of songs (gītaɱ);

(3) Instrumental music (vāditaɱ);

(4) Shows at fairs (pekkhaɱ);

(5) Ballad recitations (akkhānaɱ);

(6) Hand music (pāṇissaraɱ);

(7) The chanting of bards (vetālaɱ);

(8) Tam - tam playing (kumbhathūnaɱ);

(9) Fairy scenes (Sobhanagarakaɱ);

(10) Acrobatic feats by Kaṇḍālas (Kaṇḍāla-vaɱsa-dhopanaɱ);

(11) Combats of elephants, horses, buffaloes,
bulls, goats, rams,
cocks, and quails;

(12) Bouts at quarter-staff, boxing, wrestling;

(13) Sham-fights.

(14) roll-calls.

(15) manoeuvres.

(16) reviews —

the Bhikshu holds aloof from visiting such shows.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to games and recreations;
that is to say:

(1) Games on boards with eight,
or with ten,
rows of squares;

(2) The same games
played by imagining such boards in the air;

(3) Keeping going over diagrams drawn on the ground
so that one steps only where one ought to go;

(4) Either removing the pieces or men from a heap
with one's nail,
or putting them into a heap,
in each case without shaking it,
he who shakes the heap, loses;

(5) Throwing dice;

(6) Hitting a short stick with a long one;

(7) Dipping the hand with the fingers stretched out
in lac,
or red dye,
or flower-water,
and striking the wet hand
on the ground
or on a wall,
calling out
'What shell it be?'
and showing the form required —
elephants, horses, etc.;

(8) Games with balls;

(9) Blowing through toy pipes made of leaves;

(10) Ploughing with toy ploughs;

(11) Turning summersaults;

(12) Playing with toy windmills made of palm-leaves;

(13) Playing with toy measures made of palm-leaves;

(14, 15) Playing with toy carts or toy bows;

(16) Guessing at letters traced in the air, or on a. playfellow's back;

(17) Guessing the play fellow's thoughts;

(18) Mimicry of deformities;

The Bhikshu holds aloof from such games and recreations.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to the use of high and large couches;
that is to say:

(1) Moveable settees,
high, and six feet long;

(2) Divans with animal figures carved on the supports (Pallanko);

(3) Goats' hair coverlets
with very long fleece (Gonako);

(4) Patchwork counterpanes of many colours (Cittakā);

(5) White blankets (Paṭikā);

(6) Woollen coverlets embroidered with flowers (Paṭalikā);

(7) Quilts stuffed with cotton wool (Tūlikā);

(8) Coverlets embroidered with figures of lions, tigers, etc. (Vikatikā);

(9) Rugs with fur on both sides (Uddalomī);

(10) Rugs with fur on one side (Ekantalomī);

(11) Coverlets embroidered with gems (Kaṭṭhissaɱ);

(12) Silk coverlets (Koseyyaɱ);

(13) Carpets large enough for sixteen dancers (Kuttakaɱ);

(14) Elephant rugs;

(15) horse rugs;

(16) chariot rugs;

(17) Rugs of antelope skins sewn together (Ajina-paveṇi);

(18) Rugs of skins of the plantain antelope;

(19) Carpets with awnings above them (Sauttara-cchadaɱ);

(20) Sofas with red pillows
for the head and feet.

the Bhikshu holds aloof from such things.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to the use
of means for adorning
and beautifying themselves;
that is to say:

Rubbing in scented powders on one's body,
shampooing it,
and bathing it;

Patting the limbs with clubs
after the manner of wrestlers;

The use of mirrors, eye-ointments, garlands,
rouge, cosmetics, bracelets, necklaces, walking-sticks,
reed cases for drugs,
rapiers,
sunshades,
embroidered slippers,
turbans, diadems, whisks of the yak's tail,
and long-fringed white robes;

The Bhikshu holds aloof
from such means of adorning and beautifying the person.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to such low conversation as these:

Tales of kings, of robbers, of ministers of state
tales of war, of terrors, of battles;
talk about foods and drinks, clothes, beds, garlands, perfumes;
talks about relationships, equipages, villages, town, cities, and countries;
tales about women, and about heroes;
gossip at street corners, or places whence water is fetched;
ghost stories;
desultory talk;
speculations about the creation of the land or sea,
or about existence and non-existence;

the Bhikshu holds aloof from such low conversation.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to the use of wrangling phrases such as

'You don't understand this doctrine and discipline, I do.';

'How should you know about this doctrine and discipline?';

'You have fallen into wrong views. It is I who am in the right.';

'I am speaking to the point, you are not.';

'You are putting last
what ought to come first,
first what ought to come last.';

'What you've excogitated so long, that's all quite upset.';

'Your challenge has been taken up.';

'You are proved to be wrong.';

'Set to work to clear your views.';

'Disentangle yourself if you can.';

the Bhikshu holds aloof from such wrangling phrases.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to taking messages,
going on errands,
and acting as go-betweens;
to wit,
on kings,
ministers of state,
Kshatriyas,
Brahmans,
or young men,
saying:

'Go there,
come hither,
take this with you,
bring that from thence';

the Bhikshu abstains from such servile duties.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
are tricksters,
droners out (of holy words for pay),
diviners, and exorcists,
ever hungering to add gain to gain —
the Bhikshu holds aloof from such deception and patter.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,
by low arts,
such as these:

(1) Palmistry —
prophesying long life, prosperity, etc.
from marks on child's hands, feet. etc.;

(2) Divining by means of omens and signs;

(3) Auguries drawn from thunderbolts
and other celestial portents;

(4) Prognostication by interpreting dreams;

(5) Fortune-telling from marks on the body;

(6) Auguries from the marks on cloth gnawed by mice;

(7) Sacrificing to Agni;

(8) Offering oblations from a spoon;

(9-13) Making offerings to gods
of husks,
of the red powder between the grain and the husk,
of husked grain ready for boiling,
of ghee,
and of oil;

(14) Sacrificing by spewing mustard seeds, etc.,
into the fire out of one's mouth;

(15) Drawing blood from one's right knee
as a sacrifice to the gods;

(16) Looking at the knuckles, etc., and,
after muttering a charm,
divining whether a man is well born
or lucky or not;

(17) Determining whether the site
for a proposed house or pleasance,
is lucky or not;

(18) Advising on customary law;

(19) Laying demons in a cemetery;

(20) Laying ghosts;

(21) Knowledge of the charms to be used
when lodging in an earth house;

(22) Snake charming;

(23) The poison craft;

(24) The scorpion craft;

(25) The mouse craft;

(26) The bird craft;

(27) The crow craft;

(28) Foretelling the number of years
that a man has yet to live.

(29) Giving charms to ward off arrows;

(30) The animal wheel;

the Bhikshu holds aloof from such low arts.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,
by low arts,
such as these:

Knowledge of the signs
of good and bad qualities
in the following things
and of the marks in them
denoting the health or luck of their owners: —
to wit,
gems,
staves,
garments,
swords,
arrows,
bows,
other weapons,
women,
men,
boys,
girls,
slaves,
slave-girls,
elephants,
horses,
buffaloes,
bulls,
oxen,
goats,
sheep,
fowls,
quails,
iguanas,
earrings,
tortoises,
and other animals;

the Bhikshu holds aloof from such low arts.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,
by low arts,
such as soothsaying,
to the effect that:

'The chiefs will march out';

'The chiefs will march back';

'The home chiefs will attack,
and the enemies' retreat';

'The enemies' chiefs will attack,
and ours will retreat';

'The home chiefs will gain the victory,
and the foreign chiefs suffer defeat';

'The foreign chiefs will gain the victory,
and ours will suffer defeat';

'Thus will there be victory on this side,
defeat on that'

the Bhikshu holds aloof from such low arts.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,
by such low arts as foretelling:

(1) 'There will be an eclipse of the moon';

(2) 'There will be en eclipse of the sun';

(3) 'There will be en eclipse of a star'
(Nakshatra);

(4) 'There will be aberration of the sun or the moon';

(5) 'The sun or the moon will return to its usual path';

(6) 'There will be aberrations of the stars';

(7) 'The stars will return to their usual course';

(8) 'There will be a fall of meteors';

(9) 'There will be a jungle fire';

(10) 'There will be an earthquake';

(11) 'The god will thunder';

(12-15) 'There will be rising and setting,
clearness and dimness,
of the sun or the moon or the stars',|| ||

or foretelling of each of these fifteen phenomena
that they will betoken such and such a result;

the Bhikshu holds aloof from such low arts.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,
by low arts,
such as these:

Foretelling an abundant rainfall;

Foretelling a deficient rainfall;

Foretelling a good harvest;

Foretelling scarcity of food;

Foretelling tranquillity;

Foretelling disturbances;

Foretelling a pestilence;

Foretelling a healthy season;

Counting on the fingers;

Counting without using the fingers;

Summing up large totals;

Composing ballads, poetising;

Casuistry, sophistry;

the Bhikshu holds aloof from such low arts.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,
by low arts,
such as:

(1) Arranging a lucky day for marriages
in which the bride or bridegroom is brought home;

(2) Arranging a lucky day for marriages
in which the bride or bridegroom is sent forth;

(3) Fixing a lucky time for the conclusion of treaties of peace
[or using charms to procure harmony;

(4) Fixing a lucky time
for the outbreak of hostilities
[or using charms to make discord];

(5) Fixing-a lucky time
for the calling in of debts
[or charms for success in throwing dice];

(6) Fixing a lucky time
for the expenditure of money
[or charms to bring ill luck to an opponent throwing dice];

(7) Using charms to make people lucky;

(8) Using charms to make people unlucky;

(9) Using charms to procure abortion;

(10) Incantations to bring on dumbness;

(11) Incantations to keep a man's jaws fixed;

(12) Incantations to make a man throw up his hands;

(13) Incantations to bring on deafness;

(14) Obtaining oracular answers by means of the magic mirror;

(15) Obtaining oracular answers through a girl possessed;

(16) Obtaining oracular answers from a god;

(17) The worship of the Sun;

(18) The worship of the Great One;

(19) Bringing forth flames from one's mouth;

(20) Invoking Siri, the goddess of Luck —

the Bhikshu holds aloof from such low arts.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,
by low arts,
such as these:

(1) Vowing gifts to a god if a certain benefit be granted;

(2) Paying such vows;

(3) Repeating charms while lodging in an earth house;

(4) Causing virility;

(5) Making a man impotent;

(6) Fixing on lucky sites for dwelling;

(7) Consecrating sites;

(8) Ceremonial rinsings of the month;

(9) Ceremonial bathings;

(10) Offering sacrifices;

(11-14) Administering emetics and purgatives;

(15) Purging people to relieve the head
(that is by giving drugs to make people sneeze);

(16) Oiling people's ears
(either to make them grow or to heal sores on them);

(17) Satisfying people's eyes
(soothing them by dropping medicinal oils into them);

(18) Administering drugs through the nose;

(19) Applying collyrium to the eyes;

(20) Giving medical ointment for the eyes;

(21) Practising as an oculist;

(22) Practising as a surgeon;

(23) Practising as a doctor for children;

(24) Administering roots and drugs;

(25) Administering medicines in rotation;

the Bhikshu holds aloof from such low arts.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

And then that Bhikshu, oh Brahman,
being thus master of the minor moralities,
sees no danger from any side,
that is, so far as concerns
his self-restraint in conduct.

Just, oh Brahman, as a sovereign,
duly crowned,
whose enemies have been beaten down,
sees no danger from any side;
that is, so far as enemies are concerned,
so is the Bhikshu confident.

And endowed with this body of morals,
so worthy of honour,
he experiences, within himself,
a sense of ease without alloy.

Thus is it, oh Brahman,
that the Bhikshu becomes righteous.

Conduct (Karaṇa)

And how, oh Brahman,
is the Bhikshu guarded
as to the doors of his senses?

When, oh Brahman, he sees an object with his eye
he is not entranced in the general appearance
or the details of it.

He sets himself to restrain
that which might give occasion for evil states,
covetousness and dejection,
to flow in over him
so long as he dwells unrestrained
as to his sense of sight.

He keeps watch upon his faculty of sight,
and he attains to mastery over it.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

When, oh Brahman, he hears a sound with his ear
he is not entranced in the general appearance
or the details of it.

He sets himself to restrain
that which might give occasion for evil states,
covetousness and dejection,
to flow in over him
so long as he dwells unrestrained
as to his sense of hearing.

He keeps watch upon his faculty of hearing,
and he attains to mastery over it.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

When, oh Brahman, he smells an odour with his nose
he is not entranced in the general appearance
or the details of it.

He sets himself to restrain
that which might give occasion for evil states,
covetousness and dejection,
to flow in over him
so long as he dwells unrestrained
as to his sense of smell.

He keeps watch upon his faculty of smell,
and he attains to mastery over it.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

When, oh Brahman, he tastes a flavour with his tongue
he is not entranced in the general appearance
or the details of it.

He sets himself to restrain
that which might give occasion for evil states,
covetousness and dejection,
to flow in over him
so long as he dwells unrestrained
as to his sense of taste.

He keeps watch upon his faculty of taste,
and he attains to mastery over it.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

When, oh Brahman, he feels a touch with his body
he is not entranced in the general appearance
or the details of it.

He sets himself to restrain
that which might give occasion for evil states,
covetousness and dejection,
to flow in over him
so long as he dwells unrestrained
as to his sense of touch.

He keeps watch upon his faculty of touch,
and he attains to mastery over it.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

When, oh Brahman, he cognises a phenomenon with his mind
he is not entranced in the general appearance
or the details of it.

He sets himself to restrain
that which might give occasion for evil states,
covetousness and dejection,
to flow in over him
so long as he dwells unrestrained
as to his mental (representative) faculty.

He keeps watch upon his representative faculty,
and he attains to mastery over it.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

And endowed with this self-restraint,
so worthy of honour,
as regards the senses,
he experiences, within himself, a sense of ease
into which no evil state can enter.

Thus is it, oh Brahman,
that the Bhikshu becomes guarded
as to the doors of his senses.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

And how, oh Brahman, is the Bhikshu
mindful and self-possessed?

In this matter, oh Brahman,
the Bhikshu
in going forth or in coming back
whether looking forward,
or in looking round;
in stretching forth his arm,
or in drawing it in again;
in eating or drinking,
in masticating or swallowing,
in obeying the calls of nature,
in going or standing or sitting,
in sleeping or waking,
in speaking or in being still,
he keeps himself aware
of all it really means.

Thus is it, oh Brahman,
that the Bhikshu
becomes mindful and self-possessed.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

And how, oh Brahman, is the Bhikshu content?

'In this matter, oh Brahman,
the Bhikshu is satisfied with sufficient robes
to cherish his body,
with sufficient food
to keep his stomach going.

Whithersoever he may go forth,
these he takes with him as he goes
- just as a bird with his wings, oh Brahman,
whithersoever he may fly,
carries his wings with him as he flies.

Thus is it, oh Brahman,
that the Bhikshu becomes content.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

Then, master of this so excellent body of moral precepts,
gifted with this so excellent self-restraint as to the senses,
endowed with this so excellent mindfulness and self-possession,
filled with this so excellent content,
he chooses some lonely spot
to rest at on his way
— in the woods,
at the foot of a tree,
on a hill side,
in a mountain glen,
in a rocky cave,
in a charnel place,
or on a heap of straw in the open field.

And returning thither
after his round for alms
he seats himself, when his meal is done,
cross-legged,
keeping his body erect,
and his intelligence alert, intent.

Putting away the hankering after the world,
he remains with a heart that hankers not,
and purifies his mind of lusts.

Putting away the corruption
of the wish to injure,
he remains with a heart free from ill temper,
and purifies his mind of malevolence.

Putting away torpor of heart and mind,
keeping his ideas alight,
mindful and self-possessed,
he purifies his mind of weakness and of sloth.

Putting away flurry and worry,
he remains free from fretfulness,
and with heart serene within,
he purifies himself of irritability
and vexation of spirit.

Putting away wavering,
he remains as one passed beyond perplexity;
and no longer in suspense as to what is good,
he purifies his mind of doubt.

Then just, oh Brahman,
as when a man, after contracting a loan,
should set a business on foot,
and his business should succeed,
and he should not only be able
to pay off the old debt he had incurred,
but there should be a surplus over
to maintain a wife.

Then would he realise:

'I used to have to carry on my business
by getting into debt,
but it has gone so well with me
that I have paid off what I owed,
and have a surplus over
to maintain a wife.'

And he would be of good cheer at that,
would be glad of heart at that: —

Then just, oh Brahman,
as if a man were a prey to disease,
in pain, and very ill,
and his food would not digest,
and there were no strength left in him;
and after a time
he were to recover from that disease,
and his food should digest,
and his strength come back to him;
then, when he realised his former and his present state,
he would be of good cheer at that,
he would be glad of heart at that: —

Then just, oh Brahman,
as if a man were bound in a prison house,
and after a time
he should be set free from his bonds,
safe and sound,
and without any confiscation of his goods;
when he realised his former and his present state,
he would be of good cheer at that,
he would be glad of heart at that: —

Then just, oh Brahman,
as if a man were a slave,
not his own master,
subject to another,
unable to go whither he would;
and after a time
he should be emancipated from that slavery,
become his own master,
not subject to others,
a free man,
free to go whither he would;
then, on realising his former and his present state,
he would be of good cheer at that,
he would be glad of heart at that: —

Then just, oh Brahman,
as if a man, rich and prosperous,
were to find himself on a long road,
in a desert, where no food was,
but much danger;
and after a time
were to find himself out of the desert,
arrived safe,
on the borders of his village,
in security and peace;
then, on realising his former and his present state,
he would be of good cheer at that,
he would be glad of heart at that: —

Just so, oh Brahman, the Bhikshu,
so long as these five hindrances
are not put away within him
looks upon himself as in debt,
diseased,
in prison,
in slavery,
lost on a desert road.

But when these five hindrances
have been put away within him,
he looks upon himself as freed from debt,
rid of disease,
out of jail,
a free man,
and secure.

And gladness springs up within him
on his realising that,
and joy arises to him thus gladdened,
and so rejoicing
all his frame becomes at ease,
and being thus at ease
he is filled with a sense of peace,
and in that peace his heart is stayed.

This, oh Brahman, is that uprightness.

nbsp;

Then estranged from lusts,
aloof from evil dispositions,
he enters into and remains in the First Rapture
— a state of joy and ease born of detachment,
reasoning and investigation going on the while.

His very body does he so pervade,
drench,
permeate,
and suffuse
with the joy and ease born of detachment,
that there is no spot in his whole frame
not suffused therewith.

Just, oh Brahman, as a skilful bathman
or his apprentice
will scatter perfumed soap powder
in a metal basin,
and then besprinkling it with water,
drop by drop,
will so knead it together
that the ball of lather,
taking up the unctuous moisture,
is drenched with it,
pervaded by it,
permeated by it within and without,
and there is no leakage possible.

This, oh Brahman, is that wisdom.

Then further, oh Brahman,
the Bhikshu suppressing all reasoning and investigation
enters into and abides in the Second Jhāna,
a state of joy and ease,
born of the serenity of concentration,
when no reasoning or investigation goes on,
— a state of elevation of mind,
a tranquillisation of the heart within.

And his very body does he so pervade,
drench,
permeate,
and suffuse with the joy and ease born of concentration,
that there is no spot in his whole frame
not suffused therewith.

Just, oh Brahman,
as if there were a deep pool,
with water welling up into it
from a spring beneath,
and with no inlet from the east or west,
from the north or south,
and the god should not
from time to time
send down showers of rain upon it.
Still the current of cool waters
rising up from that spring
would pervade,
fill,
permeate,
and suffuse the pool
with cool waters,
and there would be no part or portion of the pool
unsuffused therewith.

This, oh Brahman, is that wisdom.

Then further, oh Brahman, the Bhikshu,
holding aloof from joy,
becomes equable;
and mindful and self-possessed
he experiences in his body
that ease which the Arahats talk of when they say:
'The man serene and self-possessed
is well at ease,'
and so he enters into
and abides in the Third Jhāna.

And his very body
does he so pervade,
drench,
permeate,
and suffuse with that ease
that has no joy with it,
that there is no spot in his whole frame
not suffused therewith.

Just, oh Brahman,
as when in a lotus tank
the several lotus flowers,
red or white or blue,
born in the water,
grown up in the water,
not rising up above the surface of the water,
drawing up nourishment from the depths of the water,
are so pervaded,
drenched,
permeated,
and suffused
from their very tips
down to their roots
with the cool moisture thereof,
that there is no spot in the whole plant,
whether of the red lotus,
or of the white,
or of the blue,
not suffused therewith.

This, oh Brahman, is that wisdom.

Then further, oh Brahman, the Bhikshu,
by the putting away alike of ease and of pain,
by the passing away alike of any elation,
any dejection,
he had previously felt,
enters into and abides in the Fourth Jhāna,
a state of pure self-possession and equanimity,
without pain and without ease.

And he sits there
so suffusing even his body
with that sense of purification,
of translucence of heart,
that there is no spot in his whole frame
not suffused therewith.

Just, oh Brahman,
as if a man were sitting
so wrapt from head to foot in a clean white robe,
that there were no spot in his whole frame
not in contact with the clean white robe
— just so, oh Brahman, does the Bhikshu sit there,
so suffusing even his body
with that sense of purification,
of translucence of heart,
that there is no spot in his whole frame
not suffused therewith.

This, oh Brahman, is that wisdom.

Wisdom (Vijjā)

With his heart thus serene,
made pure, translucent,
cultured, devoid of evil,
supple, ready to act,
firm, and imperturbable,
he applies and bends down his mind
to that insight that comes from knowledge.

He grasps the fact:

'This body of mine has form,
it is built up of the four elements,
it springs from father and mother,
it is continually renewed
by so much boiled rice and juicy foods,
its very nature is impermanence,
it is subject to erasion,
abrasion,
dissolution,
and disintegration;
and therein is this consciousness of mine, too, bound up,
on that does it depend.'

Just, oh Brahman,
as if there were a veluriya gem,
bright, of the purest water,
with eight facets,
excellently cut,
clear, translucent,
without a flaw,
excellent in every way.
And through it a string,
blue, or orange-coloured,
or red, or white, or yellow
should be threaded.
If a man, who had eyes to see,
were to take it into his hand,
he would clearly perceive
how the one is bound up with the other.

This is reckond in him as wisdom,
and it is higher and sweeter than the last.

With his heart thus serene,
made pure, translucent,
cultured, devoid of evil,
supple, ready to act,
firm, and imperturbable,
he directs and bends down his mind
to the knowledge of the destruction of the Deadly Floods.

He knows as it really is:

'This is pain.'

He knows as it really is:

'This is the origin of pain.'

He knows as it really is:

'This is the cessation of pain.'

He knows as it really is:

'This is the Path that leads to the cessation of pain.'

He knows as they really are:

'These are the Deadly Floods.'

He knows as it really is:

'This is the origin of the Deadly Floods.'

He knows as it really is:

'This is the cessation of the Deadly Floods.'

He knows as it really is:

'This is the Path that leads to the cessation of the Deadly Floods.'

To him, thus knowing, thus seeing,
the heart is set free
from the Deadly Taint of Lusts,
is set free from the Deadly Taint of Becomings
is set free from the Deadly Taint of Ignorance.

In him, thus set free,
there arises the knowledge of his emancipation,
and he knows:

'Rebirth has been destroyed.

The higher life has been fulfilled.

What had to be done has been accomplished.

After this present life
there will be no beyond!

Just, oh Brahman,
as if in a mountain fastness
there were a pool of water,
clear, translucent, and serene;
and a man, standing on the bank,
and with eyes to see,
should perceive the oysters and the shells,
the gravel and the pebbles
and the shoals of fish
as they move about or lie within it.

He would know:

'This pool is clear, transparent, and serene,
and there within it
are the oysters and the shells,
and the sand and gravel,
and the shoals of fish are moving about
or lying still.

This, O Brahman, is a sacrifice
less difficult
and less troublesome,
of greater fruit
and greater advantage
than the previous sacrifices.'

And there is no sacrifice man can celebrate,
O Brahman, higher and sweeter than this."

28. And when he had thus spoken,
Kūṭadanta the Brahman said to the Blessed One:

"Most excellent, O Gotama,
are the words of thy mouth,
most excellent!

Just as if a man were to set up
[184] what has been thrown down,
or were to reveal
that which has been hidden away,
or were to point out the right road
to him who has gone astray,
or were to bring a light into the darkness
so that those who had eyes could see external forms —
just even so has the truth
been made known to me
in many a figure
by the venerable Gotama.

I, even I,
betake myself to the venerable Gotama as my guide,
to the Doctrine
and the Order.

May the venerable One accept me as a disciple,
as one who, from this day forth,
as long as life endures,
has taken him as his guide.

And I myself, O Gotama,
will have the seven hundred bulls,
and the seven hundred steers,
and the seven hundred heifers,
and the seven hundred goats,
and the seven hundred rams set free.

To them I grant their life.

Let them eat green grass
and drink fresh water,
and may cool breezes waft around them."

29. Then the Blessed One discoursed
to Kūṭadanta the Brahman in due order;
that is to say,
he spake to him of generosity,
of right conduct,
of heaven,
of the danger,
the vanity,
and the defilement of lusts,
of the advantages of renunciation.

And when the Blessed One became aware
that Kūṭadanta the Brahman
had become prepared,
softened,
unprejudiced,
upraised,
and believing in heart,
then did he proclaim the doctrine
the Buddhas alone have won;
that is to say,
the doctrine of sorrow,
of its origin,
of its cessation,
and of the Path.

And just as a clean cloth,
with all stains in it washed away,
will readily take the dye,
just even so did Kūṭadanta the Brahman,
even while seated there,
obtain the pure and spotless Eye for the Truth,
and he knew:

"Whatsoever has a beginning,
in that is inherent also
the necessity of dissolution."

30. And then the Brahman Kūṭadanta,
as one who had seen the Truth,
had mastered it,
understood it,
dived deep down into it,
who had passed beyond doubt,
and put away perplexity
and gained full confidence,
who had become dependent on no other
for his knowledge of the teaching of the Master,
addressed the Blessed One and said:

[185] "May the venerable Gotama grant me the favour
of taking his to-morrow's meal with me,
and also the members of the Order with him."

And the Blessed One signified,
by silence,
his consent.

Then the Brahman Kūṭadanta,
seeing that the Blessed One had accepted,
rose from his seat,
and keeping his right towards him as he passed,
he departed thence.

And at daybreak he had sweet food,
both hard and soft,
made ready at the pit prepared for his sacrifice,
and had the time announced to the Blessed One:

"It is time, O Gotama;
and the meal is ready."

And the Blessed One,
who had dressed early in the morning,
put on his outer robe,
and taking his bowl with him,
went with the brethren to Kūṭadanta's sacrificial pit,
and sat down there on the seat prepared for him.

And Kūṭadanta the Brahman
satisfied the brethren
with the Buddha at their head,
with his own hand,
with sweet food,
both hard and soft,
till they refused any more.

And when the Blessed One had finished his meal,
and cleansed the bowl and his hands,
Kūṭadanta the Brahman took a low seat
and seated himself beside him.

And when he was thus seated
the Blessed One instructed
and aroused
and incited
and gladdened Kūṭadanta the Brahman
with religious discourse;
and then arose from his seat
and departed thence.

KŪṬADANTA SUTTA IS ENDED

 


[1]See, for instance, the notes above on P. 33; and the remarks, in the Introduction to the Ambaṭṭha, on the Aggañña Sutta.

[2] No. 1 in vol. ii of the Pāli text in Prof. Fausböll's edition, and of the Cambridge translation edited by Prof. Cowell.

[3] This verse is quoted in the Dhammapada (verse 223).

[4] The full version can also be seen in my 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. xxii-xxvi.

[5] Both Jātaka and Sutta are translated in full in my 'Buddhist Suttas' (vol. xi of the S.B.E., pp. 238-289).

[6] Chāndogya Upanishad III, 16 and 17.

Hosea vi. 6: "For I desired mercy, and not sacrifice; and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings."
Matt. ix. 13: "But go ye and learn what that meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice: for I am not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance."
xii. 7: "But if ye had known what this meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless."
Micah vi. 6-8: "Wherewith shall I come before the LORD, and bow myself before the high God? shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves of a year old?
Will the LORD be pleased with thousands of rams, or with ten thousands of rivers of oil? shall I give my firstborn for my transgression, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?
He hath shewed thee, O man, what is good; and what doth the LORD require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?"
Prov. xv. 8: "The sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination to the LORD: but the prayer of the upright is his delight."
xxi. 13: "Whoso stoppeth his ears at the cry of the poor, he also shall cry himself, but shall not be heard."

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[7] Hosea vi. 6; quoted Matt. ix. 13, and xii. 7. See also Micah vi. 6-8. Prov. xv. 8, and xxi. I 3, are, of course, later.

[8] Mahābhārata I, 3095 nearly = XIII, 1544. Compare XIII, 6073ṇ

[9] He gives as his authority, the Amara Kora; but the Kora merely mentions the word, in a list, without any explanation.

[10] Aŋguttara I, 163, and other passages.

[11] The passage is quoted in Muir's 'Sanskrit Texts,' III, 95.

[12] For instance in his commentary on the Brahma-Sūtra, I, 1, 2; II, 2, 2; III, 3, 53.

[13] For instance in the Mahāli and Jāliya Suttas, both translated below.

[14] Sum. I, 247. The Vitaṇḍas are quoted and refuted in the Attha Sālinī, pp. 3, 90, 92, 241 (where the word is wrongly spelt).

[15] Quoted sub voce in Subhūti. 'Abbidhānappadīpikā Sūci' p. 310. According to the Sāsana Vaɱsa Dīpikā (Dr. Mabel Bode's edition, p. 74), he lived at Arimaddana in Burma in 1127 A.D. See also Sāsana Vaɱsa Dīpo, verse 1238; Gandha Vaɱsa, pp. 63, 67; Forchammer, 'Jardine Prize Essay,' p. 34 ; J.P.T.S. 1882, p. 103.

[16] With this attempt at derivation may be compared Nīlakaṇṭha on the passage quoted below from the Mahābhārata (as given in B.R.), Loka evāyatante te lokayatikā. Also Prof. Cowell's suggestion (Sarvad. S., p. 2) that Lokāyata may be analysed etymologically as 'prevalent in the world.' The exact meaning of āyata is really very doubtful.

[17] Fausböll's edition, VI, 286. No less than four bas reliefs, illustrating this Jātaka, have been found at the Bharhut Tope. See my 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. cii. On the greater age of the verses, as compared with the prose, of the Jātakas, see ibid. lxxviii.

[18] Loc. cit. See Deussen, 'Vedānta-system,' 310; and Thibaut, 'Vedānta-Sutras,' II, 269.

[19] Gorresio's edition, II, 109, 29. Both these passages from the epics are from later portions of them.

[20] Chapter XIII, at the beginning. Burnouf (p. 168) reads tantras (instead of mantras), no doubt wrongly, and has a curious blunder in his note on the passage (P. 409). He says Lokāyata means in Pāli 'fabulous history, romance'; and quotes, as his authority, the passage given above from the Abhidhāna Padīpikā, in which Lokāyataɱ is simply explained as vitaṇḍa-satthaɱ. This last expression cannot possibly mean anything of that sort.

[21] Weber, Ueber ein fragment der Bhagavatī, II, 248.

[22] My Milinda, I, 7.

[23] Ibid. I, 17.

[24] Cowell's Translation, p. 236.

[25] Madhusūdana Sarasvatī, Prabodhacandrodaya, Sarva-darùana saŋgraha.

[26] Sarva-darraana-saɱgraha, Chapter I, translated by Prof. Cowell in the version published in 1882.

[27] Not the same as the one with the same name half way between Rājagaha and Nālandā (above, p. 1 of the text). Buddhaghosa (p.294) says it was like it.

[28] The whole of § 2 of the Soṇadaṇḍa is here repeated. [Ed.: reproduced here.]

[29] All given in the text in full, as in the Soṇadaṇḍa Sutta. [Ed.: reproduced here.]

[30] §§3-7 inclusive of the Soṇadaṇḍa are here repeated in full in the text. [Ed.: reproduced here.]

[31] As in §4.

[32] Vidhā. Childers gives 'pride' as the only meaning of this word. But he has made a strange muddle between it and vidho. All that he has under both words should be struck out. All that he has under vidho should be entered under vidhā, which has always the one meaning 'mode, manner, way.' Used ethically of the Arahats it refers, no doubt, to divers 'modes' of pride or delusion (as for instance in vidhāsu na vikampanti at S. I, 84, and in the passage quoted in Childers). He makes vidhā a very rare word, and vidho a common one. It is just the contrary. Vidhā is frequent, especially at the end of adjectival compounds. Vidho is most rare. It is given doubtfully by Buddhaghosa, in discussing a doubtful reading at Sum. I, 269, in the sense of 'yoke'; and is a possible reading at Vin. II, 136, 319; IV, 168, 363 in the sense of 'brooch' or 'buckle.'
Here vidhā in Kūṭadanta's mouth means, of course, mode of rite or ritual. Gotama lays hold of the ambiguity of the word, and twists it round to his ethical teaching in the sense of mode of generosity.

[33] Parikkhārā, 'accessories, fillings, equipments, appurtenances,' — the furniture of a room, the smallest things one wears, the few objects a wondering mendicant carries about with him, and so on. Here again the word is turned into a riddle, the solution of which is the basis of the dialogue.

[34] Literally 'he who has a great realm' — just as we might say Lord Broadacres.

[35] 'Such as jewels and plate.' says Buddhaghosa (p. 295).

[36] Raja-porise. On this word, the locative singular of a neuter abstract form, compare M. I, 85.

[37] Because it was right and fit to do such deeds when one was young and rich. To spend one's days in selfishness, and then, in old age to give gifts would be no good,' says Buddhaghosa (P. 297).

[38] Yaññassa parikkhārā. The latter word is here twisted round to a new sense.

[39] Opāna = udapāna. Compare M. I, 379; Vin. I, 236; Mil. 411; Sum. I, 298; and the note at 'Vinaya Texts,' II, 115.

[40] Buddhaghosa explains this as meaning that he knew the result of Karma, he knew that his present prosperity was a gift to him by the good deeds done to others in the past, and that there would a similar result in future for his good deeds done now.

[41] This whole closing sentence is repeated, in the text, of each of the sixteen.

[42] The attendants, at such a general largesse, says Buddhaghosa (P.303), push the recipients about, make them stand in a queue, and use violence in doing so.

 


 

 [Contents ]   [Preface ]   [#1. Brahma-gāla Suttanta: ]   [#2. Sāmañña-phala Suttanta: ]   [#3. The Ambaṭṭha Suttanta: ]   [#4. The Soṇadaṇḍa Suttanta: ]   [#5. The Kūṭadanta Suttanta: ]   [#6. The Mahāli Suttanta: ]   [#7. Gāliva Suttanta: ]   [#8. Kassapa-Sīhanāda Suttanta: ]   [#9. The Poṭṭhapāda Suttanta: ]   [#10. Subha Suttanta: ]   [#11. Kevaddha Suttanta: ]   [#12. Lohikka Suttanta: ]   [#13. Tevigga Suttanta:


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