Dīgha Nikāya


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Sacred Books of the Buddhists
Volume II

Dīgha Nikāya

Dialogues of the Buddha
Part I

Sutta 12

Lohicca Suttantaɱ

Some Points in the Ethics of Teaching

Translated from the Pali by T.W. Rhys Davids

Public Domain

Originally published under the patronage of
His Majesty King Chulālankarana,
King of Siam
by The Pali Text Society, Oxford

 


[285]

Introduction
to the
Lohikka Sutta

It is not easy to put ourselves in the mental position suitable for appreciating the kind of idea that underlies the argument in this Suttanta. The social view against which it is directed lies too remote from the social views universally admitted now in the West. But in the sixth century B.C. in the Eastern valley of the Ganges, the question as to the ethics of teachers and teaching was one of wide interest and of great importance.

Saŋkara quotes with approval the rules of the priestly law books which lay down that the ears of a Sūdra who hears the Veda (including of course the theosophy of the Upanishads) are to be filled with molten lead and lac. His tongue is to be split if he recites it; his body is to be cut through if he preserves it in his memory.[1] God himself has bestowed the exclusive right of teaching upon the hereditary priests;[2] who indeed claim to be, each of them, great divinities,[3] even to the gods.[4] And it would be a danger to social order if they taught women, or any males not twice-born, or any twice-born males who would not share their views as to the ethics of teaching, and as to the privileges and prerogatives of the priest as teacher.

These passages are much later than the Piṭakas. But they, and the many others like them, give a fair idea of the spirit animating one section at least of the priests, and of a trend of opinion that doubtless had its supporters also in Piṭaka times. When Asoka thought he had brought about such a chance in public opinion that those who had been very gods upon the earth had come to be gods no longer, he was very far from thinking right. That is a battle that is not so easily won. But the expression of his belief is sufficient to show that the striking idea he thought he had killed was far older than our existing text of Manu.

On the other hand one may be permitted to doubt whether the gentle measures approved by Saŋkara for keeping people in that state of life into which their evil deeds in a previous birth had brought them, were ever actually, in practice, [286] carried out. The Piṭakas themselves give ample proof that, in spite of the priests, there were not a few base-born people who succeeded, in that time at least, not only in getting taught, but in becoming teachers. And this was not the case only among the despised Buddhists. The numerous passages collected by Dr. Muir in his article in the 'Indian Antiquary' for 1877 show that the priestly literature itself — the law books and the epics — has preserved evidence of the lax way in which the strict rules as to exclusion from teaching or being taught were really carried out. And that is especially the case, according to the priestly tradition, in ancient times, as old, or older, than the rise of Buddhism.

The fact doubtless is that, though there were bigots among the Brahmans, and though they were strong enough to establish, before the time to which our present Sutta refers, rules as to restriction of teaching which no one in priestly circles could venture formally to dispute — yet that there was also always a strong party in India, to which many of the more liberal minded of the Brahmans themselves belonged, who looked with sympathy on relaxations of these rules. The general practice must have been that, the hereditary priests kept the magic of the sacrifice, and the emoluments and privileges that went with the knowledge of it, in their own hands. Even the higher teaching of the mysteries of theosophy was to be handed down only from priest-father to son, or from priestly teacher to pupil. But there were many exceptions. The numerous Brahmans who were not priests were wont, of course, to emphasise the importance rather of birth than of knowledge. We have enough evidence, even in the pre-Buddhistic Upanishads, of others, besides the priests, being teachers of the higher wisdom. The four powerful kings, and the still important free clans, though they gave support to the Brahmans, gave also equal support to other teachers — just as, in later times, Hindu and Buddhist sovereigns are found supporting Buddhists and Hindus alike.

Our knowledge of Indian views of life having been hitherto derived almost exclusively from the priestly books, scholars have inevitably tended to attach too great a degree of importance to what the priests describe as the proper state of things. As a matter of fact it never really prevailed. Even now the Brahmans, or those who in the census returns claim to be such, form only about five per cent of the population. And of these the vast majority are not priests at all; they are engaged in all sorts of worldly occupations.[5] We [287] must not judge India at any time, much less in the time of the Buddha, through the yellow spectacles of Saŋkara, or even of the priestly compilers of Manu. As M. Barth said, already in 1873, in protesting against Lassen for falling into this mistake:[6] 'We must distinguish, more than Lassen does, between different epochs, as well as between the pretensions of a caste and the real state of things. The Brahmans had not yet monopolised the intellectual life. Certain testimonies of the epics, applicable to this very period, as also the very nature of the Vedic books, show for example that there existed alongside of them an entire profane literature of great extent ... .which was certainly, at first, in other hands. ... Their teaching (that of the Brahmans), it is true, appears to have been in a high degree esoteric and exclusive.'

The position taken up by the Buddha on this question, as appears from our present Sutta (and such other passages as M. I, 513-524; A. I, 277; III, 123-127; M.P.S. II, 32 = A. III, 69 = V, 56 = Mil. 144), is that every one should be allowed to learn; that every one, having certain abilities, should be allowed to teach; and that, if he does teach, he should teach all and to all; keeping nothing back, shutting no one out. But no man should take upon himself to teach others unless and until he have first taught himself, and have also acquired the faculty of imparting to others the truth he has gained himself.

There can, I think, be very little doubt but that the great teacher is here voicing the opinion of many others of liberal views, his contemporaries and predecessors. He lays no claim, either in our Sutta or elsewhere, to any special peculiarity in this respect. It is taken for granted that the arguments put into his mouth in our Sutta will appeal to the Brahman to whom they are addressed. And they are based not on any distinctively Buddhist doctrine but on general ethical principles accepted, or rather acceptable, by all.

 


[288] [224]

XII. Lohikka Sutta

Some Points in the Ethics of Teaching

[1][than] THUS HAVE I HEARD.

The Exalted One,
when once passing on a tour
through the Kosala districts
with a great multitude of the members of the Order,
with about five hundred Bhikshus,
arrived at Sālavatikā
(a village surrounded by a row of Sāla trees).

Now at that time Lohikka[7] the Brahman
was established at Sālavatikā,
a spot teeming with life,
with much grassland and woodland and corn,
on a royal domain
granted him by King Pasenadi of Kosala,
as a royal gift,
with power over it as if he were the king.[8]

2. Now at that time Lohikka the Brahman
was thinking of harbouring
the following wicked view:

"'Suppose that a Samaṇa or a Brāhmaṇa
have reached up to some good state
(of mind),
then he should tell no one else about it.

For what can one man do for another?

To tell others
would be like the man who,
having broken through an old bond,
should entangle himself in a new one.'

Like that, I say,
is this (desire to declare to others);
it is a form of lust.

For what can one man do for another?"[9]

[289] Now Lohikka the Brahman heard the news:

"They say that the Samaṇa Gotama,
of the sons of the Sākyas,
who went out from the Sākya clan
to adopt the religious life,
has now arrived,
with a great company of the brethren of his Order,
on his tour through the Kosala districts,
at Sālavatikā.

Now regarding that venerable Gotama,
such is the high reputation
that has been noised abroad: —

'That Exalted One is an Arahat,
fully awakened,
abounding in wisdom and goodness,
happy,
with knowledge of the worlds,
unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led,
a teacher for gods and men,
an exalted one,
a Buddha.

He, by himself,
thoroughly knows and sees
as it were face-to-face,
this universe —
including the worlds above of the gods,
the Brahmās,
and the Māras;
and the world below
with its Samaṇas and Brāhmaṇas,
its princes and peoples —
and having known it,
he makes his knowledge known to others.

The truth,
lovely in its origin,
lovely in its progress,
lovely in its consummation,
doth he proclaim
both in the spirit
and in the letter.

The higher life
doth he make known
in all its fullness,
and in all its purity.

And good is it
to pay visits to Arahats like that.'"

[225] 4. Then Lohikka the Brahman
said to Bhesikā the barber:

"Come now, good Bhesikā,
go where the Samaṇa Gotama is staying,
and, on your arrival,
ask in my name
as to whether his sickness and indisposition has abated,
as to his health and vigour
and condition of ease;
and speak thus:

'May the venerable Gotama,
and with him the brethren of the Order,
accept the to-morrow's meal
from Lohikka the Brahman.'"

5. "Very well, Sir," said Bhesikā the barber,
acquiescing in the word of Lohikka the Brahman,
and did so even as he had been enjoined.

And the Exalted One consented,
by silence,
to his request.

6. And when Bhesikā the barber
perceived that the Exalted One had consented,
he rose from his seat,
and passing the Exalted One
with his right hand towards him,
went to Lohikka the Brahman,
and on his arrival spake to him thus:

[290] "We addressed that Exalted One,[10] Sir,
in your name,
even as you commanded.

And the Exalted One hath consented to come."

[226] 7. Then Lohikka the Brahman,
when the night had passed,
made ready at his, own dwelling place
sweet food, both hard and soft,
and said to Bhesikā the barber:

"Come now, good Bhesikā,
go where the Samaṇa Gotama is staying,
and on your arrival,
announce the time to him,
saying:

'It is time, O Gotama,
and the meal is ready.'"

"Very well, Sir," said Bhesikā the barber
in assent to the words of Lohikka the Brahman;
and did so even as he had been enjoined.

And the Exalted One,
who had robed himself early in the early morning,
went robed,
and carrying his bowl with him,
with the brethren of the Order,
towards Sālavatikā.

8. Now, as he went,
Bhesikā the barber walked,
step by step,
behind the Exalted One.

And he said to him:

"The following wicked opinion
has occurred to Lohikka the Brahman:

'Suppose that a Samaṇa or a Brahmaṇa
have reached up to some good state
(of mind),
then he should tell no one else about it.

For what can one man do for another?

To tell others
would be like the man who,
having broken through an old bond,
should entangle himself in a new one.

Like that, I say, is this
(desire to declare to others);
it is a form of lust.'

'Twere well, Sir,
if the Exalted One
would disabuse his mind thereof.

For what can one man do for another?"

"That may well be, Bhesikā,
that may well be."

[227]9. And the Exalted One went on
to the dwelling-place of Lohikka the Brahman,
and sat down on the seat prepared for him.

And Lohikka the Brahman
satisfied the Order,
with the Buddha at its head,
with his own hand,
with sweet food,
both hard [291] and soft,
until they refused any more.

And when the Exalted One had finished his meal,
and had cleansed the bowl and his hands,
Lohikka the Brahman brought a low seat
and sat down beside him.

And to him, thus seated,
the Exalted One spake as follows:

"Is it true, what they say, Lohikka,
that the following wicked opinion
has arisen in your mind:

'Suppose that a Samaṇa or a Brahmaṇa
have reached up to some good state
(of mind),
then he should tell no one else about it.

For what can one man do for another?

To tell others
would be like the man who,
having broken through an old bond,
should entangle himself in a new one.

Like that, I say, is this
(desire to declare to others);
it is a form of lust'"?

"That is so, Gotama."

10. "Now what think you, Lohikka?

Are you not established at Sālavatikā?"

"Yes, that is so, Gotama."

"Then suppose, Lohikka, one were to speak thus:

'Lohikka the Brahman has a domain at Sālavatikā.

Let him alone enjoy all the revenue
and all the produce of Sālavatikā,
allowing nothing to anybody else!'

Would the utterer of that speech
be a danger-maker
as touching the men
who live in dependence upon you,
or not?"

"He would be a danger-maker, Gotama."

"And making that danger,
would he be a person
who sympathised with their welfare,
or not?"

"He would not be considering their welfare, Gotama."

"And not considering their welfare,
would his heart stand fast
in love toward them,
or in enmity?"

"In enmity, Gotama."

"But when one's heart stands fast in enmity,
is that unsound doctrine,
or sound?"

"It is unsound doctrine, Gotama."

"Now if a man hold unsound doctrine, Lohikka,
I declare that one of two future births
will be his lot,
either purgatory or rebirth as an animal.

[228]11. Now what think you, Lohikka?

Is not King Pasenadi of Kosala
in possession of Kāsi and Kosala?"

"Yes, that is so, Gotama."

"Then suppose, Lohikka,
one were to speak thus:

'King Pasenadi of Kosala
is in possession of Kāsi and Kosala.

Let him enjoy all the revenue
and all the produce
of Kāsi and Kosala,
allowing nothing to [292] anybody else.'

Would the utterer of that speech
be a danger-maker
as touching the men
who live in dependence on King Pasenadi of Kosala —
both you yourself and others —
or not?"

"He would be a danger-maker, Gotama."

"And making that danger,
would he be a person
who sympathised with their welfare,
or not?"

"He would not be considering their welfare, Gotama."

"And not considering their welfare,
would his heart stand fast in love toward them,
or in enmity?"

"In enmity, Gotama."

"But when one's heart stands fast in enmity,
is that unsound doctrine,
or sound?"

"It is unsound doctrine, Gotama."

"Now if a man hold unsound doctrine, Lohikka,
I declare that one of two future births
will be his lot,
either purgatory
or rebirth as an animal.

12 and 14. So then, Lohikka, you admit
that he who should say that you,
being in occupation of Sālavatikā,
should therefore yourself
enjoy all the revenue and produce thereof,
bestowing nothing on any one else;
and he who should say
that King Pasenadi of Kosala,
being in power over Kāsi and Kosala,
should therefore himself
enjoy all the revenue and produce thereof,
bestowing nothing on any one else —
would be making danger
for those living in dependence on you;
or for those,
you and others,
living in dependence upon the King.

And that those who thus make danger for others,
must be wanting in sympathy for them.

And that the man wanting in sympathy
has his heart set fast in enmity.

And that to have one's heart set fast in enmity
is unsound doctrine.

13 and 15. Then just so, Lohikka,
he who should say:

'Suppose a Samaṇa or a Brāhmaṇa
to have reached up to some good state
(of mind),
then should he tell no one else about it.

For what can one man do for another?

To tell others
would be like the man who,
having broken through an old bond,
should entangle himself in a new one.

Like that, I say,
is this desire to declare to others,
it is a form of lust' —

[229] Just [293] so he who should say thus,
would be putting obstacles in the way
of those clansman who,
having taken upon themselves
the Doctrine and Discipline —
set forth by Him-who-has-won-the-Truth,
have attained to great distinction therein —
to the fruit of conversion, for instance,
or to the fruit of once returning,
or to the fruit of never returning,
or even to Arahatship —
he would be putting obstacles in the way
of those who are bringing to fruition
the course of conduct
that will lead to rebirth
in states of bliss in heaven.[11]

But putting obstacles in their way
he would be out of sympathy for their welfare;
being out of sympathy for their welfare
his heart would become established in enmity;
and when one's heart is established in enmity,
that is unsound doctrine.

Now if a man hold unsound doctrine, Lohikka,
I declare that one of two future births will be his lot,
either purgatory
or rebirth as an animal.[12]

[230] 16. There are these three sorts of teachers in the world, Lohikka,
who are worthy of blame.

And whosoever should blame such a one,
his rebuke would be justified,
in accord with the facts and the truth,
not improper.

What are the three?

In the first place, Lohikka,
there is a sort of teacher
who has not himself attained
to that aim of Samaṇaship
for the sake of which he left his home
and adopted the homeless life.

Without having himself attained to it
he teaches a doctrine
(Dhamma)
to his hearers,
saying:

'This is good for you,
this will make you happy.

Then those hearers of his
neither listen to him,
nor give ear to his words,
nor become stedfast in heart
through their knowledge thereof;
they go their own way,
apart from the teaching of the master.

Such a teacher may be rebuked,
setting out these facts,
and [294] adding:

'You are like one
who should make advances
to her who keeps repulsing him,
or should embrace her
who turns her face away from him.

Like that, do I say,
is this lust of yours
(to go on posing as a teacher of men,
no one heeding,
since they trust you not).

For what, then,
can one man do for another?'

This, Lohikka, is the first sort of teacher in the world
worthy of blame.

And whosoever should blame such a one,
his rebuke would be justified,
in accord with the facts and the truth,
not improper.

17. In the second place, Lohikka,
there is a sort of teacher
who has not himself attained
to that aim of Samaṇaship
for the sake of which he left his home
and adopted the homeless life.

Without having himself attained to it
he teaches a doctrine to his hearers,
saying:

'This is good for you;
that will make you happy.'

And to him his disciples listen;
[231] they give ear to his words;
they become stedfast in heart
by their understanding what is said;
and they go not their own way,
apart from the teaching of the master.

Such a teacher may be rebuked,
setting out these facts and adding:

'You are like a man who,
neglecting his own field,
should take thought
to weed out his neighbour's field.

Like that, do I say,
is this lust of yours
(to go on teaching others
when you have not taught yourself).

For what, then,
can one man do for another?'

This, Lohikka,
is the second sort of teacher in the world
worthy of blame.

And whosoever should blame such a one,
his rebuke would be justified,
in accord with the facts and the truth,
not improper.

18. And again, Lohikka,
in the third place,
there is a sort of teacher
who has himself attained to that aim of Samaṇaship
for the sake of which he left his home
and adopted the homeless life.

Having himself attained it,
he teaches the doctrine to his hearers,
saying:

'This is good for you,
that will make you happy.'

But those hearers of his
neither listen to him,
nor give ear to his words,
nor become stedfast in heart
through understanding thereof;
they go their own way,
apart [295] from the teaching of the master.

Such a teacher may be rebuked,
setting out these facts,
and adding:

'You are like a man who,
having broken through an old bond,
should entangle himself in a new one.

Like that, do I say,
is this lust of yours
(to go on teaching
when you have not trained yourself to teach).

For what, then, can one man do for another?'

This, Lohikka, is the third sort of teacher in the world
worthy of blame.

And whosoever should blame such a one,
his rebuke would be justified,
in accord with the facts and the truth,
not improper.

And these, Lohikka,
are the three sorts of teachers
of which I spoke."

[[232], [233]] 19. And when he had thus spoken,
Lohikka the Brahman spake thus
to the Exalted One:

"But is there, Gotama,
any sort of teacher
not worthy of blame in the world?"

"Yes, Lohikka, there is a teacher
not worthy, in the world, of blame."

"And what sort of a teacher, Gotama, is so?"

"Suppose, Lohikka, there appears in the world
one who has won the truth, an Arahat,
a fully awakened one,
abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy,
who knows all worlds,
unsurpassed as a guide
to mortals willing to be led,
a teacher for gods and men,
a Blessed One, a Buddha.

He, by himself, thoroughly knows and sees,
as it were, face-to-face this universe,
— including the worlds above of the gods,
the Brahmas, and the Māras,
and the world below with its recluses and Brahmans,
its princes and peoples, —
and having known it,
he makes his knowledge known to others.

The truth, lovely in its origin,
lovely in its progress,
lovely in its consummation,
doth he proclaim,
both in the spirit and in the letter,
the higher life doth he make known,
in all its fullness and in all its purity.

A householder or one of his children,
or a man of inferior birth in any class
listens to that truth;
and on hearing it he has faith in the Tathāgata (the one who has found the truth);
and when he is possessed of that faith,
he considers thus within himself:

'Full of hindrances is household life,
a path for the dust of passion.

Free as the air is the life
of him who has renounced all worldly things.

How difficult is it for the man who dwells at home
to live the higher life in all its fullness,
in all its purity,
in all its bright perfection!

Let me then cut off my hair and beard,
let me clothe myself in the orange-coloured robes,
and let me go forth
from the household life
into the homeless state.'

Then, before long,
forsaking his portion of wealth,
be it great or small,
forsaking his circle of relatives,
be they many or be they few,
he cuts off his hair and beard,
he clothes himself in the orange-coloured robes, and he goes forth from the household life
into the homeless state.

Putting away the killing of living things,
he holds aloof
from the destruction of life.

He lays the cudgel and the sword aside,
and ashamed of roughness,
and full of mercy,
he dwells compassionate and kind
to all creatures that have life.

Putting away the taking of what has not been given,
he lives aloof
from grasping what is not his own.

He takes only what is given,
and expecting that gifts will come,
he passes his life in honesty
and purity of heart.'

Putting away unchastity,
he is chaste.

He holds himself aloof,
far off,
from the vulgar practice,
from the sexual act.

Putting away lying words,
he holds himself aloof
from falsehood.

He speaks truth,
from the truth he never swerves;
faithful and trustworthy,
he breaks not his word to the world.

Putting away slander,
he holds himself aloof
from calumny.

What he hears here
he repeats not elsewhere
to raise a quarrel against the people here;
what he hears elsewhere
he repeats not here
to raise a quarrel against the people there.

Thus does he live as a binder together
of those who are divided,
an encourager of those who are friends,
a peacemaker,
a lover of peace,
impassioned for peace,
a speaker of words that make for peace.

Putting away rudeness of speech,
he holds himself aloof
from harsh language.

Whatsoever word is blameless,
pleasant to the ear,
lovely,
reaching to the heart,
urbane,
pleasing to the people,
beloved of the people -
such are words he speaks.'

Putting away frivolous talk,
he holds himself aloof
from vain conversation.

In season he speaks,
in accordance with the facts,
words full of meaning,
on religion,
on the discipline of the Order.

He speaks,
and at the right time,
words worthy to be laid up in one's heart,
fitly illustrated,
clearly divided,
to the point.'

He holds himself aloof
from causing injury
to seeds or plants.

He takes but one meal a day,
not eating at night,
refraining from food after hours (after midday).

He refrains from being a spectator
at shows at fairs,
with nautch dances,
singing,
and music.

He abstains from wearing,
adorning,
or ornamenting himself
with garlands,
scents,
and unguents.

He abstains from the use
of large and lofty beds.

He abstains from accepting
silver or gold.

He abstains from accepting
uncooked grain.

He abstains from accepting
raw meat.

He abstains from accepting
women or girls.

He abstains from accepting
bondmen or bondwomen.

He abstains from accepting
sheep or goats.

He abstains from accepting
fowls or swine.

He abstains from accepting
elephants,
cattle,
horses,
and mares.

He abstains from accepting
cultivated fields
or waste.

He abstains from
the acting as a go-between
or messenger.

He abstains
from buying and selling.

He abstains
from cheating with scales
or bronzes
or measures.

He abstains
from the crooked ways
of bribery,
cheating,
and fraud.

He abstains
from maiming,
murder,
putting in bonds,
highway robbery,
dacoity,
and violence.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to the injury
of seedlings and growing plants
whether propagated from roots
or cuttings
or joints
or buddings
or seeds
he holds aloof
from such injury to seedlings
and growing plants.'

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to the use
of things stored up;
stores, to wit,
of foods,
drinks,
clothing,
equipages,
bedding,
perfumes,
and curry-stuffs
he holds aloof
from such use of things stored up.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to visiting shows;
that is to say:

(1) Nautch dances.

(2) Singing of songs.

(3) Instrumental music.

(4) Shows at fairs.

(5) Ballad recitations.

(6) Hand music.

(7) The chanting of bards.

(8) Tam-tam playing.

(9) Fairy scenes.

(10) Acrobatic feats by Kaṇḍālas.

(11) Combats of elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, goats, rams, cocks, and quails.

(12) Bouts at quarter-staff,
boxing,
wrestling.

(13-16) Sham-fights, roll-calls, manoeuvres, re- views

he holds aloof
from visiting such shows

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to games and recreations;
that is to say:

(1) Games on boards with eight,
or with ten,
rows of squares.

(2) The same games
played by imagining such boards in the air.

(3) Keeping going over diagrams
drawn on the ground
so that one steps
only where one ought to go.

(4) Either removing the pieces or men
from a heap with one's nail,
or putting them into a heap,
in each case without shaking it.

He who shakes the heap, loses.

(5) Throwing dice.

(6) Hitting a short stick
with a long one.

(7) Dipping the hand
with the fingers stretched out
in lac,
or red dye,
or flower-water,
and striking the wet hand
on the ground
or on a wall,
calling out: 'What shell it be?'
and showing the form required -
elephants, horses, etc.

(8) Games with balls.

(9) Blowing through toy pipes made of leaves.

(10) Ploughing with toy ploughs.

(11) Turning summersaults.

(12) Playing with toy windmills
made of palm-leaves.

(13) Playing with toy measures
made of palm-leaves.

(14, 15) Playing with toy carts
or toy bows.

(16) Guessing at letters
traced in the air,
or on a playfellow's back.

(17) Guessing the play fellow's thoughts.

(18) Mimicry of deformities.

he holds aloof
from such games and recreations.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to the use
of high and large couches;
that is to say:

(1) Moveable settees,
high, and six feet long.

(2) Divans with animal figures carved on the supports.

(3) Goats' hair coverlets
with very long fleece.

(4) Patchwork counterpanes
of many colours.

(5) White blankets.

(6) Woollen coverlets
embroidered with flowers.

(7) Quilts stuffed with cotton wool.

(8) Coverlets embroidered with figures
of lions, tigers, etc.

(9) Rugs with fur on both sides.

(10) Rugs with fur on one side.

(11) Coverlets embroidered with gems.

(12) Silk coverlets.

(13) Carpets large enough for sixteen dancers.

(14-16) Elephant, horse, and chariot rugs.

(17) Rugs of antelope skins sewn together.

(18) Rugs of skins of the plantain antelope.

(19) Carpets with awnings above them.

(20) Sofas with red pillows
for the head and feet.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to the use
of means for adorning and beautifying themselves;
that is to say:

Rubbing in scented powders
on one's body,
shampooing it,
and bathing it.

Patting the limbs with clubs
after the manner of wrestlers.

The use of mirrors,
eye-ointments,
garlands,
rouge,
cosmetics,
bracelets,
necklaces,
walking-sticks,
reed cases for drugs,
rapiers,
sunshades,
embroidered slippers,
turbans,
diadems,
whisks of the yak's tail,
and long-fringed white robes,

he holds aloof
from such means of adorning and beautifying the person.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to such low conversation as these:

Tales of kings,
of robbers,
of ministers of state
tales of war,
of terrors,
of battles;
talk about foods and drinks,
clothes,
beds,
garlands,
perfumes;
talks about relationships,
equipages,
villages,
town,
cities,
and countries;
tales about women,
about heroes;
gossip at street corners,
or places whence water is fetched;
ghost stories;
desultory talk;
speculations about the creation
of the land or sea,
or about existence and non-existence,

he holds aloof
from such low conversation.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to the use of wrangling phrases
such as -

'You don't understand
this doctrine and discipline,
I do.'

'How should you know about
this doctrine and discipline?'

'You have fallen into wrong views.'

'It is I who am in the right.'

'I am speaking to the point,
you are not.'

'You are putting last
what ought to come first,
first what ought to come last.'

'What you've excogitated so long,
that's all quite upset.'

'Your challenge has been taken up.'

'You are proved to be wrong.'

'Set to work to clear your views.'

'Disentangle yourself if you can,'

he holds aloof
from such wrangling phrases.

'Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
continue addicted to taking messages,
going on errands,
and acting as go-betweens;
to wit,
on kings,
ministers of state,
Kshatriyas,
Brahmans,
or young men, saying:

'Go there,
come hither,
take this with you,
bring that from thence'

he abstains from such servile duties.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
are tricksters,
droners out (of holy words for pay),
diviners,
and exorcists,
ever hungering to add gain to gain
he holds aloof
from such deception and patter.'

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,
by low arts,
such as these:

(1) Palmistry —
prophesying long life,
prosperity, etc. (or the reverse),
from marks on child's hands, feet. etc.

(2) Divining
by means of omens and signs.

(3) Auguries
drawn from thunderbolts
and other celestial portents.

(4) Prognostication
by interpreting dreams.

(5) Fortune-telling
from marks on the body.

(6) Auguries
from the marks on cloth gnawed by mice.

(7) Sacrificing to Agni.

(8) Offering oblations from a spoon.

(9-13) Making offerings to gods
of husks
of the red powder between the grain and the husk,
of husked grain ready for boiling,
of ghee,
and of oil.

(14) Sacrificing
by spewing mustard seeds, etc.,
into the fire
out of one's mouth.

(15) Drawing blood from one's right knee
as a sacrifice to the gods.

(16) Looking at the knuckles, etc.,
and, after muttering a charm,
divining whether a man
is well born
or lucky
or not.

(17) Determining whether the site
for a proposed house or pleasance,
is lucky
or not.

(18) Advising on customary law.

(19) Laying demons in a cemetery.

(20) Laying ghosts.

(21) Knowledge of the charms to be used
when lodging in an earth house.

(22) Snake charming.

23) The poison craft.

(24) The scorpion craft.

(25) The mouse craft.

(26) The bird craft.

(27) The crow craft.

(28) Foretelling the number of years
that a man has yet to live.

(29) Giving charms to ward off arrows.

(30) The animal wheel.

he holds aloof from such low arts.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,
by low arts,
such as these -

Knowledge of the signs
of good and bad qualities
in the following things
and of the marks in them
denoting the health
or luck
of their owners: —
to wit,
gems,
staves,
garments,
swords,
arrows,
bows,
other weapons,
women,
men,
boys,
girls,
slaves,
slave-girls,
elephants,
horses,
buffaloes,
bulls,
oxen,
goats,
sheep,
fowls,
quails,
iguanas,
earrings,
tortoises,
and other animals

he holds aloof from such low arts.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,
by low arts,
such as soothsaying,
to the effect that -

The chiefs will march out.

The chiefs will march back.

The home chiefs will attack,
and the enemies' retreat.

The enemies' chiefs will attack,
and ours will retreat.

The home chiefs will gain the victory,
and the foreign chiefs suffer defeat.

The foreign chiefs will gain the victory,
and ours will suffer defeat.

Thus will there be victory on this side,
defeat on that,

he holds aloof from such low arts.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,
by such low arts
as foretelling -

(1) There will be an eclipse of the moon.

(2) There will be en eclipse of the sun.

(3) There will be en eclipse of a star.

(4) There will be aberration
of the sun or the moon.

(5) The sun or the moon
will return to its usual path.

(6) There will be aberrations of the stars.

(7) The stars will return to their usual course.

(8) There will be a fall of meteors.

(9) There will be a jungle fire.

(10) There will be an earthquake.

(11) The god will thunder.

(12-15) There will be rising and setting,
clearness and dimness,
of the sun or the moon or the stars,

or foretelling
of each of these fifteen phenomena
that they will betoken
such and such a result.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,
by low arts,
such as these:-

Foretelling an abundant rainfall.

Foretelling a deficient rainfall.

Foretelling a good harvest.

Foretelling scarcity of food.

Foretelling tranquillity.

Foretelling disturbances.

Foretelling a pestilence.

Foretelling a healthy season.

Counting on the fingers.

Counting without using the fingers.

Summing up large totals.

Composing ballads, poetising.

Casuistry, sophistry,

he holds aloof from such low arts.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,
by low arts,
such as-

(1) Arranging a lucky day
for marriages in which the bride or bridegroom
is brought home.

(2) Arranging a lucky day
for marriages in which the bride or bridegroom
is sent forth.

(3) Fixing a lucky time
for the conclusion of treaties of peace
[or using charms to procure harmony.

(4) Fixing a lucky time
for the outbreak of hostilities
[or using charms to make discord].

(5) Fixing-a lucky time
for the calling in of debts
[or charms for success in throwing dice].

(6) Fixing a lucky time
for the expenditure of money
[or charms to bring ill luck
to an opponent throwing dice].

(7) Using charms to make people lucky.

(8) Using charms to make people unlucky.

(9) Using charms to procure abortion.

(10) Incantations to bring on dumbness.

(11) Incantations to keep a man's jaws fixed.

(12) Incantations to make a man throw up his hands.

(13) Incantations to bring on deafness.

(14) Obtaining oracular answers
by means of the magic mirror.

(15) Obtaining oracular answers
through a girl possessed.

(16) Obtaining oracular answers
from a god.

(17) The worship of the Sun.

(18) The worship of the Great One.

(19) Bringing forth flames
from one's mouth.

(20) Invoking Siri,
the goddess of Luck —

he holds aloof from such low arts.

Whereas some recluses and Brahmans,
while living on food provided by the faithful,
earn their living by wrong means of livelihood,
by low arts,
such as these:-

(1) Vowing gifts to a god
if a certain benefit be granted.

(2) Paying such vows.

(3) Repeating charms
while lodging in an earth house.

(4) Causing virility.

(5) Making a man impotent.

(6) Fixing on lucky sites for dwelling.

(7) Consecrating sites.

(8) Ceremonial rinsings of the month.

(9) Ceremonial bathings.

(10) Offering sacrifices.

(11-14) Administering emetics and purgatives.

(15) Purging people
to relieve the head
(that is by giving drugs
to make people sneeze).

(16) Oiling people's ears
(either to make them grow
or to heal sores on them).

(17) Satisfying people's eyes
(soothing them by dropping medicinal oils into them).

(18) Administering drugs through the nose.

(19) Applying collyrium to the eyes.

(20) Giving medical ointment for the eyes.

(21) Practising as an oculist.

(22) Practising as a surgeon.

(23) Practising as a doctor for children.

(24) Administering roots and drugs.

(25) Administering medicines in rotation.

he holds aloof from such low arts.

And then he, Lohikka,
being thus master of the minor moralities,
sees no danger from any side,
that is, so far as concerns
his self-restraint in conduct.

Just, Lohikka, as a sovereign, duly crowned,
whose enemies have been beaten down,
sees no danger from any side;
that is, so far as enemies are concerned,
so is he confident.

And endowed with this body of morals,
so worthy of honour,
he experiences, within himself,
a sense of ease without alloy.

And whosoever the teacher be, Lohikka,
under whom the disciple attains
to distinction so excellent as that,
that, Lohikka, is a teacher
not open to blame in the world.

And whosoever should blame such a one,
his rebuke would be unjustifiable,
not in accord either with the facts
or with the truth,
without good ground.

 

§

 

And how, Lohikka, is he guarded as to the doors of his senses?

When, Lohikka, he sees an object with his eye
he is not entranced in the general appearance
or the details of it.

He sets himself to restrain
that which might give occasion for evil states,
covetousness and dejection,
to flow in over him
so long as he dwells unrestrained
as to his sense of sight.

He keeps watch upon his faculty of sight,
and he attains to mastery over it.

When, Lohikka, he hears a sound with his ear
he is not entranced in the general appearance
or the details of it.

He sets himself to restrain
that which might give occasion for evil states,
covetousness and dejection,
to flow in over him
so long as he dwells unrestrained
as to his sense of hearing.

He keeps watch upon his faculty of hearing,
and he attains to mastery over it.

When, Lohikka, he smells an odour with his nose
he is not entranced in the general appearance
or the details of it.

He sets himself to restrain
that which might give occasion for evil states,
covetousness and dejection,
to flow in over him
so long as he dwells unrestrained
as to his sense of smell.

He keeps watch upon his faculty of smell,
and he attains to mastery over it.

When, Lohikka, he tastes a flavour with his tongue
he is not entranced in the general appearance
or the details of it.

He sets himself to restrain
that which might give occasion for evil states,
covetousness and dejection,
to flow in over him
so long as he dwells unrestrained
as to his sense of taste.

He keeps watch upon his faculty of taste,
and he attains to mastery over it.

When, Lohikka, he feels a touch with his body
he is not entranced in the general appearance
or the details of it.

He sets himself to restrain
that which might give occasion for evil states,
covetousness and dejection,
to flow in over him
so long as he dwells unrestrained
as to his sense of touch.

He keeps watch upon his faculty of touch,
and he attains to mastery over it.

When, Lohikka, he cognises a phenomenon with his mind
he is not entranced in the general appearance
or the details of it.

He sets himself to restrain
that which might give occasion for evil states,
covetousness and dejection,
to flow in over him
so long as he dwells unrestrained
as to his mental (representative) faculty.

He keeps watch upon his representative faculty,
and he attains to mastery over it.

And endowed with this self-restraint,
so worthy of honour,
as regards the senses,
he experiences, within himself, a sense of ease
into which no evil state can enter.

Thus is it, Lohikka,
that the Bhikshu becomes guarded
as to the doors of his senses.

And whosoever the teacher be, Lohikka,
under whom the disciple attains
to distinction so excellent as that,
that, Lohikka, is a teacher
not open to blame in the world.

And whosoever should blame such a one,
his rebuke would be unjustifiable,
not in accord either with the facts
or with the truth,
without good ground.

 

§

 

And how, Lohikka, is the Bhikshu
mindful and self-possessed?

In this matter, Lohikka,
the Bhikshu
in going forth or in coming back
whether looking forward,
or in looking round;
in stretching forth his arm,
or in drawing it in again;
in eating or drinking,
in masticating or swallowing,
in obeying the calls of nature,
in going or standing or sitting,
in sleeping or waking,
in speaking or in being still,
he keeps himself aware
of all it really means.

Thus is it, Lohikka,
that the Bhikshu becomes mindful and self-possessed.

And whosoever the teacher be, Lohikka,
under whom the disciple attains
to distinction so excellent as that,
that, Lohikka, is a teacher
not open to blame in the world.

And whosoever should blame such a one,
his rebuke would be unjustifiable,
not in accord either with the facts
or with the truth,
without good ground.

 

§

 

And how, Lohikka, is the Bhikshu content?

In this matter, Lohikka,
the Bhikshu is satisfied with sufficient robes
to cherish his body,
with sufficient food
to keep his stomach going.

Whithersoever he may go forth,
these he takes with him as he goes
- just as a bird with his wings, Lohikka,
whithersoever he may fly,
carries his wings with him as he flies.

Thus is it, Lohikka,
that the Bhikshu becomes content.

And whosoever the teacher be, Lohikka,
under whom the disciple attains
to distinction so excellent as that,
that, Lohikka, is a teacher
not open to blame in the world.

And whosoever should blame such a one,
his rebuke would be unjustifiable,
not in accord either with the facts
or with the truth,
without good ground.

 

§

 

Then, master of this so excellent body of moral precepts,
gifted with this so excellent self-restraint as to the senses,
endowed with this so excellent mindfulness and self-possession,
filled with this so excellent content,
he chooses some lonely spot
to rest at on his way
— in the woods,
at the foot of a tree,
on a hill side,
in a mountain glen,
in a rocky cave,
in a charnel place,
or on a heap of straw in the open field.

And returning thither
after his round for alms
he seats himself, when his meal is done,
cross-legged,
keeping his body erect,
and his intelligence alert, intent.

Putting away the hankering after the world,
he remains with a heart that hankers not,
and purifies his mind of lusts.

Putting away the corruption
of the wish to injure,
he remains with a heart free from ill temper,
and purifies his mind of malevolence.

Putting away torpor of heart and mind,
keeping his ideas alight,
mindful and self-possessed,
he purifies his mind of weakness and of sloth.

Putting away flurry and worry,
he remains free from fretfulness,
and with heart serene within,
he purifies himself of irritability
and vexation of spirit.

Putting away wavering,
he remains as one passed beyond perplexity;
and no longer in suspense as to what is good,
he purifies his mind of doubt.

Then just, Lohikka,
as when a man, after contracting a loan,
should set a business on foot,
and his business should succeed,
and he should not only be able
to pay off the old debt he had incurred,
but there should be a surplus over
to maintain a wife.

Then would he realise:

'I used to have to carry on my business
by getting into debt,
but it has gone so well with me
that I have paid off what I owed,
and have a surplus over
to maintain a wife.'

And he would be of good cheer at that,
would be glad of heart at that: —

Then just, Lohikka,
as if a man were a prey to disease,
in pain, and very ill,
and his food would not digest,
and there were no strength left in him;
and after a time
he were to recover from that disease,
and his food should digest,
and his strength come back to him;
then, when he realised his former and his present state,
he would be of good cheer at that,
he would be glad of heart at that: —

Then just, Lohikka,
as if a man were bound in a prison house,
and after a time
he should be set free from his bonds,
safe and sound,
and without any confiscation of his goods;
when he realised his former and his present state,
he would be of good cheer at that,
he would be glad of heart at that: —

Then just, Lohikka,
as if a man were a slave,
not his own master,
subject to another,
unable to go whither he would;
and after a time
he should be emancipated from that slavery,
become his own master,
not subject to others,
a free man,
free to go whither he would;
then, on realising his former and his present state,
he would be of good cheer at that,
he would be glad of heart at that: —

Then just, Lohikka,
as if a man, rich and prosperous,
were to find himself on a long road,
in a desert, where no food was,
but much danger;
and after a time
were to find himself out of the desert,
arrived safe,
on the borders of his village,
in security and peace;
then, on realising his former and his present state,
he would be of good cheer at that,
he would be glad of heart at that: —

Just so, Lohikka, the Bhikshu,
so long as these five hindrances
are not put away within him
looks upon himself as in debt,
diseased,
in prison,
in slavery,
lost on a desert road.

But when these five hindrances
have been put away within him,
he looks upon himself as freed from debt,
rid of disease,
out of jail,
a free man,
and secure.

And gladness springs up within him
on his realising that,
and joy arises to him thus gladdened,
and so rejoicing
all his frame becomes at ease,
and being thus at ease
he is filled with a sense of peace,
and in that peace his heart is stayed.

And whosoever the teacher be, Lohikka,
under whom the disciple attains
to distinction so excellent as that,
that, Lohikka, is a teacher
not open to blame in the world.

And whosoever should blame such a one,
his rebuke would be unjustifiable,
not in accord either with the facts
or with the truth,
without good ground.

 

§

 

Then estranged from lusts,
aloof from evil dispositions,
he enters into and remains in the First Rapture
— a state of joy and ease born of detachment,
reasoning and investigation going on the while.

His very body does he so pervade,
drench,
permeate,
and suffuse
with the joy and ease born of detachment,
that there is no spot in his whole frame
not suffused therewith.

Just, Lohikka, as a skilful bathman
or his apprentice
will scatter perfumed soap powder
in a metal basin,
and then besprinkling it with water,
drop by drop,
will so knead it together
that the ball of lather,
taking up the unctuous moisture,
is drenched with it,
pervaded by it,
permeated by it within and without,
and there is no leakage possible.

Then further, Lohikka,
the Bhikshu suppressing all reasoning and investigation
enters into and abides in the Second Jhāna,
a state of joy and ease,
born of the serenity of concentration,
when no reasoning or investigation goes on,
— a state of elevation of mind,
a tranquillisation of the heart within.

'And his very body does he so pervade,
drench,
permeate,
and suffuse with the joy and ease born of concentration,
that there is no spot in his whole frame
not suffused therewith.

'Just, Lohikka,
as if there were a deep pool,
with water welling up into it
from a spring beneath,
and with no inlet from the east or west,
from the north or south,
and the god should not
from time to time
send down showers of rain upon it.
Still the current of cool waters
rising up from that spring
would pervade,
fill,
permeate,
and suffuse the pool
with cool waters,
and there would be no part or portion of the pool
unsuffused therewith.

Then further, Lohikka, the Bhikshu,
holding aloof from joy,
becomes equable;
and mindful and self-possessed
he experiences in his body
that ease which the Arahats talk of when they say:
"The man serene and self-possessed
is well at ease,"
and so he enters into
and abides in the Third Jhāna.

And his very body
does he so pervade,
drench,
permeate,
and suffuse with that ease
that has no joy with it,
that there is no spot in his whole frame
not suffused therewith.

Just, Lohikka,
as when in a lotus tank
the several lotus flowers,
red or white or blue,
born in the water,
grown up in the water,
not rising up above the surface of the water,
drawing up nourishment from the depths of the water,
are so pervaded,
drenched,
permeated,
and suffused
from their very tips
down to their roots
with the cool moisture thereof,
that there is no spot in the whole plant,
whether of the red lotus,
or of the white,
or of the blue,
not suffused therewith.

Then further, Lohikka, the Bhikshu,
by the putting away alike of ease and of pain,
by the passing away alike of any elation,
any dejection,
he had previously felt,
enters into and abides in the Fourth Jhāna,
a state of pure self-possession and equanimity,
without pain and without ease.

And he sits there
so suffusing even his body
with that sense of purification,
of translucence of heart,
that there is no spot in his whole frame
not suffused therewith.

Just, Lohikka,
as if a man were sitting
so wrapt from head to foot in a clean white robe,
that there were no spot in his whole frame
not in contact with the clean white robe
— just so, Lohikka, does the Bhikshu sit there,
so suffusing even his body
with that sense of purification,
of translucence of heart,
that there is no spot in his whole frame
not suffused therewith.

And whosoever the teacher be, Lohikka,
under whom the disciple attains
to distinction so excellent as that,
that, Lohikka, is a teacher
not open to blame in the world.

And whosoever should blame such a one,
his rebuke would be unjustifiable,
not in accord either with the facts
or with the truth,
without good ground.

 

§

 

With his heart thus serene,
made pure, translucent,
cultured, devoid of evil,
supple, ready to act,
firm, and imperturbable,
he applies and bends down his mind
to that insight that comes from knowledge.

He grasps the fact:

'This body of mine has form,
it is built up of the four elements,
it springs from father and mother,
it is continually renewed
by so much boiled rice and juicy foods,
its very nature is impermanence,
it is subject to erasion,
abrasion,
dissolution,
and disintegration;
and therein is this consciousness of mine, too, bound up,
on that does it depend.'

Just, Lohikka,
as if there were a veluriya gem,
bright, of the purest water,
with eight facets,
excellently cut,
clear, translucent,
without a flaw,
excellent in every way.
And through it a string,
blue, or orange-coloured,
or red, or white, or yellow
should be threaded.
If a man, who had eyes to see,
were to take it into his hand,
he would clearly perceive
how the one is bound up with the other.

And whosoever the teacher be, Lohikka,
under whom the disciple attains
to distinction so excellent as that,
that, Lohikka, is a teacher
not open to blame in the world.

And whosoever should blame such a one,
his rebuke would be unjustifiable,
not in accord either with the facts
or with the truth,
without good ground.

 

§

 

With his heart thus serene,
made pure, translucent,
cultured, devoid of evil,
supple, ready to act,
firm, and imperturbable,
he directs and bends down his mind
to the knowledge of the destruction of the Deadly Floods.

He knows as it really is:

'This is pain.'

He knows as it really is:

'This is the origin of pain.'

He knows as it really is:

'This is the cessation of pain.'

He knows as it really is:

'This is the Path that leads to the cessation of pain.'

He knows as they really are:

'These are the Deadly Floods.'

He knows as it really is:

'This is the origin of the Deadly Floods.'

He knows as it really is:

'This is the cessation of the Deadly Floods.'

He knows as it really is:

'This is the Path that leads to the cessation of the Deadly Floods.'

To him, thus knowing, thus seeing,
the heart is set free
from the Deadly Taint of Lusts,
is set free from the Deadly Taint of Becomings,
is set free from the Deadly Taint of Ignorance.

In him, thus set free,
there arises the knowledge of his emancipation,
and he knows:

'Rebirth has been destroyed.

The higher life has been fulfilled.

What had to be done has been accomplished.

After this present life
there will be no beyond!

Just, Lohikka,
as if in a mountain fastness
there were a pool of water,
clear, translucent, and serene;
and a man, standing on the bank,
and with eyes to see,
should perceive the oysters and the shells,
the gravel and the pebbles
and the shoals of fish
as they move about or lie within it:
he would know:

'This pool is clear, transparent, and serene,
and there within it
are the oysters and the shells,
and the sand and gravel,
and the shoals of fish are moving about
or lying still.

[296] And whosoever the teacher be, Lohikka,
under whom the disciple attains
to distinction so excellent as that,[13]
that, Lohikka, is a teacher
not open to blame in the world.

And whosoever should blame such a one,
his rebuke would be unjustifiable,
not in accord either with the facts
or with the truth,
without good ground."

 

§

 

[234] 78. And when he had thus spoken,
Lohikka the Brahman said to the Exalted One:

"Just, Gotama, as if a man
had caught hold of a man
falling over the precipitous edge of purgatory,
by the hair of his head,
and lifted him up safe back on the firm land —
just so have I,
on the point of falling into purgatory,
been lifted back on to the land
by the venerable Gotama.

Most excellent, O Gotama,
are the words of thy mouth,
most excellent!

Just as if a man were to set up
what has been thrown down,
or were to reveal
what has been hidden away,
or were to point out the right road
to him who has gone astray,
or were to bring a light into the darkness
so that those who had eyes
could see external forms —
just even so has the truth been made known to me,
in many a [297] figure,
by the venerable Gotama.

And I, even I, betake myself
to the venerable Gotama as my guide,
to the Doctrine,
and to the Order.

May the venerable Gotama
accept me as a disciple;
as one who,
from this day forth
as long as life endures,
has taken him as his guide!"

 

HERE ENDS THE LOHICCA SUTTANTA

 


[1] Commentary on the Vedānta-Sūtras I, 3, 38.

[2] Manu 1, 88.

[3] Ibid. IX, 317, 319.

[4] Ibid. XI, 85.

[5] Baines, 'General Report on the Census of 1891, pp. 190, 202. The census shows that out of 261 millions only fifteen millions could read or write. On this striking fact Mr. Baines comments (p. 211) 'The second influence antagonistic to a more general spread of literacy is the long continued existence of a hereditary class whose object it has been to maintain their own monopoly of book learning as the chief buttress of their social supremacy. The opposition of the Brahmins to the rise of the writer class has been already mentioned; and the repugnance of both, in the present day, to the diffusion of learning amongst the masses, can only be appreciated after long experience.

[6] 'Revue Critique,' June, 1873, translated by Dr. Muir in the Indian Antiquary,' 1874 .

[7] This is, I think, a local name; the name of the place from which he had come. If that be so, the better rendering throughout would be 'the Lohikka Brahman.'

[8] See above, pp. 108, 144.

[9] This is open to two interpretations: 'What can the teacher gain from a disciple?' or 'What can a disciple gain from a teacher?' 'Why should you trouble about others? they cannot help you!' or 'Why should you trouble about others? you cannot help them!' But in either case the implied ground of the argument is the proposition that a man's rise or fall, progress or defeat, in intellectual and religious matters, lies in himself. He must work out his own salvation.

[10] It is clear from this expression that Bhesikā was already a follower of the new teaching.

[11] Literally 'Who are making. heavenly embryos ripe for rebirth in heavenly states.'

[12] Paragraphs (12, 13 are repeated of the case put about Pasenadi, king of Kosala. In the translation both cases are included at the beginning of § 12.

[13] Ulāraɱ visesaɱ adhigacchati. See for instance Saɱyutta V, 154, 5.


 [Contents ]   [Preface ]   [#1. Brahma-gāla Suttanta: ]   [#2. Sāmañña-phala Suttanta: ]   [#3. The Ambaṭṭha Suttanta: ]   [#4. The Soṇadaṇḍa Suttanta: ]   [#5. The Kūṭadanta Suttanta: ]   [#6. The Mahāli Suttanta: ]   [#7. Gāliva Suttanta: ]   [#8. Kassapa-Sīhanāda Suttanta: ]   [#9. The Poṭṭhapāda Suttanta: ]   [#10. Subha Suttanta: ]   [#11. Kevaddha Suttanta: ]   [#12. Lohikka Suttanta: ]   [#13. Tevigga Suttanta:


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