Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
II. Majjhima-Paṇṇāsa
2. Bhikkhu Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
II. The Middle Fifty Discourses
2. The Division on Monks

Sutta 70

Kīṭāgiri Suttaɱ

Discourse at Kīṭāgiri

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


[473][146]

[1][chlm][than][ntbb][upal] THUS have I heard:

At one time the Lord was walking on tour in Kāsi together with a large Order of monks.

While he was there the Lord addressed the monks, saying:

"I, monks, do not eat a meal at night.

Not eating a meal at night,
I, monks, am aware of good health[1]
and of being without illness
and of buoyancy and strength
and living in comfort.

Come, do you too, monks, not eat a meal at [147] night.

Not eating a meal at night, you too, monks,
will be aware of good health
and of being without illness
and of buoyancy and strength
and living in comfort."

"Yes, revered sir," these monks answered the Lord in assent.

Then the Lord, walking on tour in Kāsi,
in due course arrived at Kīṭāgiri,
a market town in Kāsi.

Then the Lord stayed at Kīṭāgiri,
the market town in Kāsi.

Now at that time
the monks named Assaji and Punabbasuka[2]
were residing in Kīṭāgiri.

Then several monks approached the monks Assaji and Punabbasuka;
having approached, they spoke thus to them:

"The Lord, your reverences, does not eat a meal at night,
nor does the Order of monks;
and because, your reverences, they do not eat a meal at night
they are aware of good health
and of being without illness
and of buoyancy and strength
and living in comfort.

Come, do you too, your reverences,
not eat a meal at night.

Not eating a meal at night, you too, your reverences,
will be aware of good health
and of being without illness
and of buoyancy and strength
and living in comfort."

When this had been said,
the monks Assaji and Punabbasuka spoke thus to these monks:

"We, your reverences,
eat in the evening
as well as in the morning
and during the day -
at the wrong time.[3]

But although we eat in the evening
as well as in the morning
and during the day -
at the wrong time -
we are aware of good health
and of being without illness
and of buoyancy and strength
and living in comfort.

Why should we,
giving up the things of the present,[4]
run after those of the future?[5]

We will eat in the evening
as well as in the morning
and during the day -
at the wrong time."

So because these monks were unable to convince the monks Assaji and Punabbasuka,
they approached the Lord;
having approached,
having greeted the Lord,
they sat down at a respectful distance.

As they were sitting down at a respectful distance,
these monks spoke [148] thus to the Lord:

"Now we, revered sir,
approached the monks Assaji and Punabbasuka;
having approached,
we spoke thus to the monks Assaji and Punabbasuka:

"The Lord, your reverences, does not eat a meal at night,
nor does the Order of monks;
and because, your reverences, they do not eat a meal at night
they are aware of good health
and of being without illness
and of buoyancy and strength
and living in comfort.

Come, do you too, your reverences,
not eat a meal at night.

Not eating a meal at night, you too, your reverences,
will be aware of good health
and of being without illness
and of buoyancy and strength
and living in comfort."

When this had been said,
the monks Assaji and Punabbasuka spoke thus to these monks:

"We, your reverences,
eat in the evening
as well as in the morning
and during the day -
at the wrong time.

But although we eat in the evening
as well as in the morning
and during the day -
at the wrong time -
we are aware of good health
and of being without illness
and of buoyancy and strength
and living in comfort.

Why should we,
giving up the things of the present,
run after those of the future?

We will eat in the evening
as well as in the morning
and during the day -
at the wrong time."

It is because we, revered sir,
were not able to convince the monks Assaji and Punabbasuka
that we are telling this matter to the Lord."

Then the Lord summoned a certain monk, saying:

"Come you, monk,
in my name summon the monks Assaji and Punabbasuka, saying:

'The Teacher is summoning the venerable ones.'"

"Yes, revered sir,"
and this monk, having answered the Lord in assent,
approached the monks Assaji and Punabbasuka;
having approached,
he spoke thus to the monks Assaji and Punabbasuka:

"The Teacher is summoning the venerable ones."

"Yes, your reverence,"
and the monks Assaji and Punabbasuka, having answered that monk in assent,
approached the Lord;
having approached,
having greeted the Lord,
they sat down at a respectful distance.

As they were sitting down at a respectful distance,
the Lord spoke thus to the monks Assaji and Punabbasuka:

"Is it true, as is said, monks,
that several monks, having approached you, spoke thus:

"The Lord, your reverences, does not eat a meal at night,
nor does the Order of monks;
and because, your reverences, they do not eat a meal at night
they are aware of good health
and of being without illness
and of buoyancy and strength
and living in comfort.

Come, do you too, your reverences,
not eat a meal at night.

Not eating a meal at night, you too, your reverences,
will be aware of good health
and of being without illness
and of buoyancy and strength
and living in comfort."

It is said that when this had been said, monks,
you spoke thus to those monks:

"We, your reverences,
eat in the evening
as well as in the morning
and during the day -
at the wrong time.

But although we eat in the evening
as well as in the morning
and during the day -
at the wrong time -
we are aware of good health
and of being without illness
and of buoyancy and strength
and living in comfort.

Why should we,
giving up the things of the present,
run after those of the future?

We will eat in the evening
as well as in the morning
and during the day -
at the wrong time."
"Yes, revered sir."

"Did you, monks, ever understand
that dhamma was taught thus by me:

Whatever an individual experiences -
be it pleasant or [149] painful or neither painful nor pleasant -
unskilled states decline in him,
skilled states grow much?"

"No, revered sir."

"Did not you, monks, understand that dhamma was taught thus by me:

For anyone here feeling a pleasant feeling of one kind[6]
unskilled states[7] grow much,
skilled states decline,
but for anyone here feeling a pleasant feeling of another kind[6] unskilled states decline,
skilled states grow much;
for anyone here feeling a painful feeling of one kind
unskilled states grow much,
skilled states decline,
but for anyone here feeling a painful feeling of another kind
unskilled states decline,
skilled states grow much;
for anyone here feeling a feeling that is neither painful nor pleasant of one kind
unskilled states grow much,
skilled states decline,
but for anyone here feeling a feeling that is neither painful nor pleasant of another kind
unskilled states decline,
skilled states grow much."

"Yes, revered sir."

"It is good, monks.

 


 

If this, monks, had not been understood by me,
if it had not been seen,
known,
realised,
apprehended by means of wisdom that:

For anyone here feeling a pleasant feeling of one kind
unskilled states grow much,
skilled states decline -
could I, monks, not understanding it thus, say:

Get rid of pleasant feeling of this kind[8] -
and would this have been suitable in me, monks?"

"No, revered sir."

"But, monks, since this has been understood by me,
seen,
known,
realised
and apprehended by means of wisdom that:

For anyone here feeling a pleasant feeling of one kind
unskilled states grow much,
skilled states decline -
therefore I say:

Get rid of pleasant feeling of this kind.

And if this, monks, had not been understood by me,
if it had not been seen,
known,
realised,
apprehended by means of wisdom that:

For anyone here feeling a pleasant feeling of another kind
unskilled states decline,
skilled states grow much -
could I, monks, not understanding it thus, say:

Entering on pleasant feeling of this (other) kind,[9]
abide in it -
and would this have been suitable in me, monks?"

"No, revered sir."

[150] "But, monks, since this has been understood by me, seen, known, realised and apprehended by means of wisdom that:

For anyone here feeling a pleasant feeling of this other kind
unskilled states decline,
skilled states grow much-therefore I say:

Entering on pleasant feeling of this (other) kind,
abide in it.

 


 

And if this, monks, had not been understood by me,
if it had not been seen,
known,
realised,
apprehended by means of wisdom that:

For anyone here feeling a painful feeling of one kind
unskilled states grow much,
skilled states decline -
could I, monks, not understanding it thus, say:

Get rid of painful feeling of this kind -
and would this have been suitable in me, monks?"

"No, revered sir."

"But, monks, since this has been understood by me,
seen,
known,
realised
and apprehended by means of wisdom that:

For anyone here feeling a painful feeling of one kind
unskilled states grow much,
skilled states decline -
therefore I say:

Get rid of painful feeling of this kind.

And if this, monks, had not been understood by me,
if it had not been seen,
known,
realised,
apprehended by means of wisdom that:

For anyone here feeling a painful feeling of another kind
unskilled states decline,
skilled states grow much -
could I, monks, not understanding it thus, say:

Entering on painful feeling of this (other) kind,
abide in it -
and would this have been suitable in me, monks?"

"No, revered sir."

"But, monks, since this has been understood by me, seen, known, realised and apprehended by means of wisdom that:

For anyone here feeling a painful feeling of this other kind
unskilled states decline,
skilled states grow much-therefore I say:

Entering on painful feeling of this (other) kind,
abide in it.

 


 

And if this, monks, had not been understood by me,
if it had not been seen,
known,
realised,
apprehended by means of wisdom that:

For anyone here feeling a neither painful nor pleasant feeling of one kind
unskilled states grow much,
skilled states decline -
could I, monks, not understanding it thus, say:

Get rid of neither painful nor pleasant feeling of this kind -
and would this have been suitable in me, monks?"

"No, revered sir."

"But, monks, since this has been understood by me,
seen,
known,
realised
and apprehended by means of wisdom that:

For anyone here feeling a neither painful nor pleasant feeling of one kind
unskilled states grow much,
skilled states decline -
therefore I say:

Get rid of neither painful nor pleasant feeling of this kind.

And if this, monks, had not been understood by me,
if it had not been seen,
known,
realised,
apprehended by means of wisdom that:

For anyone here feeling a neither painful nor pleasant feeling of another kind
unskilled states decline,
skilled states grow much -
could I, monks, not understanding it thus, say:

Entering on neither painful nor pleasant feeling of this (other) kind,
abide in it -
and would this have been suitable in me, monks?"

"No, revered sir."

"But, monks, since this has been understood by me, seen, known, realised and apprehended by means of wisdom that:

For anyone here feeling a neither painful nor pleasant feeling of this other kind
unskilled states decline,
skilled states grow much-therefore I say:

[477]Entering on neither painful nor pleasant feeling of this (other) kind,
abide in it.

 


 

I, monks, do not say of all monks
that there is something to be done through diligence;
yet, I, monks, do not say of all monks
that there is not something to be done through diligence.

Monks, those monks who are perfected ones,
canker-waned,
who have lived the life,
done what there was to be done,
laid down the burden,
who have attained their own goal,
the fetters of becoming utterly destroyed,
who are freed by right profound knowledge,
of monks such as these I do not say, monks,
that there is something to be done through diligence.

What is the reason for this?

It has (already) been done [151] by these through diligence,
these could not become negligent.

But, monks, those monks who are learners,
not attained to perfection,[10]
but who live striving for the incomparable security from the bonds,
of monks such as these I say, monks,
that there is something to be done through diligence.

What is the reason for this?

Even while these venerable ones are resorting to suitable lodgings,
associating with lovely friends,
and are themselves controlling their sense-organs,
having realised here and now by their own super-knowledge
that matchless goal of the Brahma-faring
for the sake of which young men of family
rightly go forth from home into homelessness,
entering on it,
they could abide in it.

So I, monks, beholding this fruit of diligence for these monks,
say that there is something to be done through diligence.

Monks, there are the seven (types of) persons existing in the world.

What seven?[11]

The one who is freed both ways,
the one freed by means of intuitive wisdom,
the mental realiser,
the one won to view,
the one freed by faith,
the striver after dhamma,
the striver after faith.

And which, monks, is the person
who is freed both ways?[12]

As to this, monks,
some person is abiding,
having apprehended[13] with the [152] person[14]
those peaceful Deliverances[15]
which are incorporeal[16]
having transcended material shapes;[17]
and having seen by means of wisdom
his cankers are utterly destroyed.

This, monte, is called
the person who is freed both ways.

I, monks, do not say of this monk
that there is something to be done through diligence.

What is the reason for this?

It has been done by him through diligence,
he could not become negligent.

And which, monks, is the person
who is freed by means of intuitive wisdom?

As to this, monks,
some person is abiding
without having apprehended with the person
those peaceful Deliverances
which are incorporeal
having transcended material shapes;
yet, having seen by means of wisdom
his cankers are utterly destroyed.[18]

This, monte, is called
the person who is freed by means of intuitive wisdom.

I, monks, do not say of this monk
that there is something to be done through diligence.

What is the reason for this?

It has been done by him through diligence,
he could not become negligent.

And which, monks, is the person
who is a mental-realiser?[19]

As to this, monks,
some person is abiding,
having apprehended with the person
those peaceful Deliverances
which are incorporeal
having transcended material shapes;
and having seen by means of wisdom
some (only) of his cankers are utterly destroyed.

This, monks, is called the person
who is a mental-realiser.

I, monks, say of this monk
that there is something to be done through diligence.

What is [153] the reason for this?

Even while this venerable one is resorting to suitable lodgings,
associating with lovely friends,
and is himself controlling his sense-organs,
having realised here and now
by his own super-knowledge
that matchless goal of the Brahma-faring
for the sake of which young men of family
rightly go forth from home into homelessness,
entering on it he might abide in it.

So I, monks, beholding this fruit of diligence for this monk,
say that there is something to be done through diligence.

And which, monks, is the person
who has won to view?[20]

As to this, monks, some person is abiding
without having apprehended with the person
those peaceful Deliverances
which are incorporeal
having transcended material shapes;
yet, having seen by means of wisdom
some of his cankers are utterly destroyed,
and those things proclaimed by the Tathāgata
are fully seen by him through intuitive wisdom
and fully practised.[21]

This, monks, is called the person who has won to view.

I, monks, say of this monk
that there is something to be done through diligence.

What is the reason for this?

Even while this venerable one is resorting to suitable lodgings,
associating with lovely friends,
and is himself controlling his sense-organs,
having realised here and now
by his own super-knowledge
that matchless goal of the Brahma-faring
for the sake of which young men of family
rightly go forth from home into homelessness,
entering on it he might abide in it.

So I, monks, beholding this fruit of diligence for this monk,
say that there is something to be done through diligence.

And which, monks, is the person who is freed by faith?[22]

As to this, monks, some person is abiding
without having apprehended with the person
those peaceful Deliverances
which are incorporeal
having transcended material shapes;
yet, having seen by means of wisdom
some of his cankers are utterly destroyed,
and his faith in the Tathāgata is settled,
genuine,
established.[23]

This, monks, is called
the person who is freed through faith.

I, monks, say of this monk
that there is something to be done through diligence.

What is the reason for this?

Even while this venerable one is resorting to suitable lodgings,
associating with lovely friends,
and is himself controlling his sense-organs,
having realised here and now
by his own super-knowledge
that matchless goal of the Brahma-faring
for the sake of which young men of family
rightly go forth from home into homelessness,
entering on it he might abide in it.

So I, monks, beholding this fruit of diligence for this monk,
say that there is something to be done through diligence.

And which, monks, is the person who is striving for dhamma?[24]

[154] As to this, monks, some person is abiding
without having apprehended with the person
those peaceful Deliverances
which are incorporeal
having transcended material shapes;
but (although) he has seen by means of wisdom,
his cankers are not (yet) utterly destroyed;
and those things proclaimed by the Tathāgata
are (only) moderately approved of[25] by him by means of intuitive wisdom,
although he has these states,
namely the faculty of faith,
the faculty of energy,
the faculty of mindfulness,
the faculty of concentration,
the faculty of wisdom.[26]

This, monks, is called
the person who is striving for dhamma.

I, monks, say of this monk
that there is something to be done through diligence.

What is the reason for this?

Even while this venerable one is resorting to suitable lodgings,
associating with lovely friends,
and is himself controlling his sense-organs,
having realised here and now
by his own super-knowledge
that matchless goal of the Brahma-faring
for the sake of which young men of family
rightly go forth from home into homelessness,
entering on it he might abide in it.

So I, monks, beholding this fruit of diligence for this monk,
say that there is something to be done through diligence.

And which, monks, is the person striving after faith?[27]

As to this, monks, some person is abiding without having apprehended with the person
those peaceful Deliverances
which are incorporeal
having transcended material shapes;
yet, having seen by means of wisdom
his cankers are not utterly destroyed;
but if he has enough faith in the Tathāgata,
enough regard,[28]
then he will have these things,
that is to say the faculty of faith,
the faculty of energy,
the faculty of mindfulness,
the faculty of concentration,
the faculty of wisdom.

This, monks, is called
the person who is striving after faith.

I, monks, say of this monk that there is something to be done through diligence.

What is the reason for this?

Even while this venerable one is resorting to suitable lodgings,
associating with lovely friends,
and is himself controlling his sense-organs,
having realised here and now
by his own super-knowledge
that matchless goal of the Brahma-faring
for the sake of which young men of family
rightly go forth from home into homelessness,
entering on it he might abide in it.

So I, monks, beholding this fruit of diligence for this monk,
say that there is something to be done through diligence.

I, monks, do not say that
the attainment of profound knowledge
comes straightaway;
nevertheless, monks,
the attainment of profound knowledge
comes by a gradual training,
a gradual doing,
a gradual course.

[480]And how, monks, does the attainment of profound knowledge
come by means of a gradual training,
a gradual [155] doing,
a gradual course?

As to this, monks,
one who has faith draws close;[29]
drawing close, he sits down near by;[30]
sitting down near by, he lends ear;
lending ear, he hears dhamma;
having heard dhamma, he remembers it;
he tests the meaning
of the things he has borne in mind;
while testing the meaning
the things are approved of;
there being approval of the things
desire[31] is born;
with desire born
he makes an effort;
having made the effort
he weighs it up;
having weighed it up
he strives;
being self-resolute
he realises with his person
the highest truth itself and,
penetrating it by means of wisdom,
he sees.[32]

But, monks, had there not been that faith,
there would not have been, monks, that drawing close;
there would not have been, monks, that sitting down near by;
there would not have been, monks, that lending ear;
there would not have been, monks, that hearing of dhamma;
there would not have been, monks, that remembering of dhamma;
there would not have been, monks, that testing of the meaning;
there would not have been, monks, that approval of the things;
there would not have been, monks, that desire;
there would not have been, monks, that effort;
there would not have been, monks, that striving.

Monks, you are on a wrong track,
you are on a false track, monks.

How very far, monks,
have not these foolish persons
strayed from this dhamma and discipline.

There is a fourfold exposition, monks,
the meaning of which,
when it is recited,
an intelligent man could soon understand
by means of wisdom.

I will recite it to you, monks,
you will understand it from me."

"Who are we, revered sir,
and who are the knowers of dhamma?"

"Monks, even a teacher who sets store on material things,[33]
is an heir to material things,
and lives in association with material things -
why, even to him,
this kind of higgling and haggling does not apply,
[156] that (his followers) will or will not do this or that
according as they like it or not.

So what has this to do with the Tathāgata
who lives dissociated from material things?

For a disciple who has faith in the Teacher's instruction
and lives in unison with it, monks,
it is a principle[34] that:

'The Teacher is the Lord,
a disciple am I;
the Lord knows,
I do not know.'[35]

For a disciple who has faith in the Teacher's instruction
and lives in unison with it, monks,
[481] the Teacher's instruction is a furthering in growth,[36]
giving strength.[37]

For a disciple who has faith in the Teacher's instruction
and lives in unison with it, monks,
it is a principle that:

'Gladly[38] would I be reduced
to skin and sinews and bone
and let my body's flesh and blood[39] dry up
if there came to be a vortex of energy
so that that which is not (yet) won
might be won by human strength,
by human energy,
by human striving.'

For a disciple who has faith in the Teacher's instruction
and lives in unison with it, monks,
one of two fruits is to be expected:
profound knowledge here and now,
or, if there is any basis (for rebirth remaining),
the state of no-return."

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, these monks rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

 


[1] As at M. i. 437.

[2] Two of the six sectarian leaders of groups of monks; names of the six leaders given at MA. iii. 186-7, Jā. ii. 387. These two, whose headquarters were at Kīṭāgiri, are mentioned at e.g. Vin. ii. 9 ff., 171, iii. 81, 178 f. See B.D. i. 314, n. 2.

[3] See M. i. 448 (above, p. 120).

[4] sandiṭṭhika, what can be seen and realised, a word used in the usual description of dhamma.

[5] kālika, involving time, so: not immediate. MA. iii. 187 explains as anāgate kāle pattabbam ānisaŋsaɱ, advantages to be obtained at a future time. The opposite, akālika, is another word used in the usual description of dhamma.

[6] evarūpa.

[7] dhammā.

[8] Reference is here being made to the six types of pleasure of the worldly life; cf. S. iv. 232; Vbh. 381.

[9] The pleasant states not to be got rid of are the six ways of getting pleasure through renunciation, S. iv. 232.

[10] As at M. i. 4.

[11] As at M. i. 439. Cf. Vism. 659 where these seven "ariyan persons" are given in a different order.

[12] ubhatobhāgavimutta. Cf. M. i. 439: D. ii. 71; A. i. 74, iv. 453; Pug. 14, 72, 73. At MA. iii. 188, DA. ii. 514, iii. 889 it is said that he is freed rūpakāyaio (from the body, or, class, kāya = nikāya, of material shape, i.e. body) through the incorporeal attainments, and nāmakāyato (from the class of mind, mental aggregates) through the Way. This kind of freedom is therefore from nāma and rūpa, also the view of SnA ii. 594, AA. iv. 207. It does not mean "freed through heart and intellect" as sometimes stated, e.g. Fur. Dial. i. 313. MA. iii. 188, DA. iii. 889 say: emerging one by one from the four incorporeal attainments, having mastered the (volitional) activities (saŋkhārā: of body, speech and thought), emerging from the cessation of the four attainments of arahantship, he has attained arahantship and is a non-returner - in this way it is fivefold. DA. ii. 514 says: emerging from the planes of infinite ether and so on, he has attained arahantship and is a non-returner, and emerging from cessation he has attained arahantship. It is fivefold DA. ii. 514 also cites Sn. 1074, which speaks of nāmakāya-vimvtto, freed from the class of "name" (mind), or, freed from name and body? This explanation, attributed to Cūḷa-Sumana, an Elder of Ceylon, and recorded at DA. ii. 514, is supposed to be the most authoritative interpretation.

[13] phasaitvā, with v. 11. phusitvā, phussitvā; at MA. i. 162 it is said nāmakāyena phusitvā; pāpuṇitvā adhigantvā ti vuttaɱ hoti, having apprehended with (through, or while in) the psycho-physical compound (taking kāyo as equal to rūpa), having mastered, having won. Cf. A. ii. 87, etc.

[14] kāyena, which would appear to mean the rūpakāya and the nāmakāya, see p. 151, n. 3 above, and SnA ii. 594.

[15] These number eight, see D. ii. 70-71. At MA. i. 162 it is said that "peaceful" (or "calm," santa) is because there is peace in regard to the factors, aŋga, as well as in regard to the object of meditation; while vimokkha means freed from opposing dhammā and intent on the object of meditation or thought.

[16] In respect of the object of thought and resultant (thought) they are devoid of material shapes, MA. i, 162.

[17] Having transcended (or, passed beyond) in the jhāna on material spheres, MA. i. 162.

[18] Pug. 14, 73; quoted at MA. iii. 188, DA. ii. 512; cf. A. iv. 453.

[19] kāyasakkhin. See M. i. 439, Pug. 14, 73. At MA. iii. 189 it is said that he realises that which is apprehended; whoever first realises a jhāna-realisation afterwards realises stopping, nibbāna. So, having begun with stream-attainment, he goes on to arahantship. Cf. A. iv. 451 and AA. iv. 206 which says "because the first jhāna is realised by means of this nāmakāya, therefore in this way (pariyāyena) he is called a kāyasakkhin." For kāya, meaning the three mental factors (presumably referring to the khandhas of feeling, perception and the saŋkhāras, as at Dhs. 40) see P. Purity, 806, n. 2, and Expos. i. 199.

[20] diṭṭhipatta. MA. iii. 189 quotes M. ii. 38 = Pug. 15 = 43 ff. which are all passages that speak of comprehending the four Truths of anguish as they really are.

[21] Pug. 15. See A. iv. 363 on the power, bala, of wisdom.

[22] See Sn. 1146: by faith you shall be free.

[23] Pug. 15 differs, giving the same interpretation for this person as for the preceding, while saying that they differ.

[24] dhammānusārin. Pug. 15 again differs. Cf. M. i. 142; S. iii. 225, 228. He and the next are stream-attainers. MA. iii. 190 = DA. 890 says dhammo ti paññā, dhamma is wisdom.

[25] Matteso nijjhānaɱ khamanti; cf. S. iii. 228, v. 377; A. iv. 241.

[26] On these five faculties, or cardinal virtues, see S. v. 199.

[27] Pug. 15 differs. Cf. M. i. 142.

[28] Cf. S. v. 377.

[29] MA. iii. 193 says that "he goes near (or, into the presence of) a teacher." The following passage also occurs at M. ii. 173.

[30] payirupāsati, can also mean to pay respects to someone, to visit someone. MA. iii, 193 = 426 says "he sits down in the presence of," santike. Cf. AA. ii. 196.

[31] chanda. MA. iii. 193 calls this desire for what is skilled, kusalachanda.

[32] Cf. A. ii. 115. At MA. iii. 193 it is said that "he realises the truth of nibbāna nāmakāyena, by means of the class of name; and that 'by means of wisdom' means he sees, having pierced by means of the wisdom of the Way which is connected with nāmakāya." Kāyena, "with the person", would seem to mean the very opposite of "through the medium of his bodily senses" as at Fur. Dial. i. 338.

[33] That is, a teacher who is "outside" the Buddhist fold.

[34] anudhamma, a (right) method; in accordance with dhamma.

[35] Here, according to MA. iii. 194: "The Lord knows the advantages in eating only once a day; I do not. But, because of my faith, I will eat only one meal a day, giving up eating three times daily."

[36] rumhantya.

[37] ojavant; MA. iii. 194 says sinehavant.

[38] As at A. i. 50; S. ii. 28.

[39] MA. iii. 194 says that thus the application to the skin, sinews, bones, and the flesh and blood constitutes a fourfold energy. But the "fourfold exposition" is more likely to refer to the disciple who has faith. Nor is there anything here about the four truths (MA. iii. 193).


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