Aŋguttara Nikāya


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Aŋguttara-Nikāya
II. Dukanipāta
V. Parisā Vagga

The Book of the Gradual Sayings
or
More-Numbered Suttas

II. The Book of the Twos
V. On Companies

Suttas 41-50

Translated from the Pali by
F.L. Woodward, M.A.

Copyright The Pali Text Society
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[65]

Sutta 41

[41.1] "Monks, there are these two companies.[93]

What two?

The shallow and the deep.

And what, monks, is the shallow company?

Herein, monks, in whatsoever company
the monks are frivolous,[94]
empty-headed,
busy-bodies,
of harsh speech,
loose in talk,
lacking concentration,
unsteady,
not composed,
of [66] lighty mind,[95]
with senses uncontrolled,
— that company is called 'shallow.'

And what, monks, is the deep company?

Herein, monks, in whatsoever company
the monks are not frivolous,
not empty-headed,
not busy-bodies,
not of harsh speech,
not loose in talk,
but concentrated in mind,
steady,
composed,
one-pointed in mind,
with controlled senses,
— that company is called 'deep.'

These, monks, are the two companies:
but of these two
the deep company
has the pre-eminence."

 


 

Sutta 42

[42.1] "Monks, there are these two companies.

What two?

The discordant and the harmonious.

And what is the discordant company?

Herein, monks, in whatsoever company
the monks dwell quarrelsome,[96]
wrangling,
disputatious,
wounding each other
with the weapons of the tongue,
— such a company is called 'discordant.'

And what, monks, is the harmonious company?

Herein, monks, in whatsoever company
the monks dwell in harmony,
courteous,
without quarrels,
like milk and water mixed,
looking on each other
with the eye of affection,
— such a company is called 'harmonious.'"

 


 

Sutta 43

[43.1] "Monks, there are these two companies.

What two?

The distinguished[97] and the ignoble.

And what, monks, is the ignoble company?

Herein, monks, in whatsoever company
the monks are luxurious,[98]
lax,
taking the lead in backsliding (to the worldly life),
shirking the burden[99] of the secluded life,
and make no effort to reach the unattained,
to win the goal not won,
to [67] realize the unrealized,
— the generation that follows
comes to depend upon their view.

That generation also is luxurious
takes the lead in backsliding
shirks the burden of the secluded life,
and makes no effort to realize the unrealized.

This company, monks, is called 'the ignoble.'

And what, monks, is the distinguished company?

Herein, monks, in whatsoever company
the senior monks are not luxurious,
not lax,
not taking the lead in backsliding
not shirking the burden of the secluded life
making effort to reach the unattained,
to win the goal not won,
to realize the unrealized
— the generation that follows them
comes to depend upon their view.

That generation also is not luxurious not lax,
not taking the lead in backsliding
not shirking the burden of the secluded life
making effort to reach the unattained,
to win the goal not won,
to realize the unrealized.

This company, monks, is called 'the distinguished.'

These are the two companies,
and of these two
the distinguished company
has the pre-eminence."

 


 

Sutta 44

[44.1] "Monks, there are these two companies.

What two?

The Ariyan and the un-Ariyan.[100]

And what, monks, is the un-Ariyan company?

Herein, monks, in whatsoever company
the monks understand not, as it really is,
the meaning of
'This is Ill';
understand not, as it really is,
the meaning of
'This is the arising of Ill';
understand not, as it really is,
the meaning of
'This is the ending of Ill';
understand not, as it really is,
the meaning of
'This is the practice
leading to the ending of Ill,'
— this company is called 'the un-Ariyan.'

And what, monks, is the Ariyan company?

Herein, monks, in whatsoever company
the monks understand, as it really is,
the meaning of
'This is Ill';
understand, as it really is,
the meaning of
'This is the arising of Ill';
understand, as it really is,
the meaning of
'This is the ending of Ill';
understand, as it really is,
the meaning of
'This is the practice
leading to the ending of Ill,'
— this company is called 'the Ariyan.'

These are the two companies,
and of these two
the Ariyan company
has the pre-eminence."

 


 

Sutta 45

[45.1] "Monks, there are these two companies.

What two?

The dregs[101]
and the cream.[102]

And what, monks, are the dregs?

Herein, monks, in whatsoever company
the monks pursue the wrong path
of impulse,[103] malice, delusion, and fear,
it is called 'the dregs.'

[68] And what, monks, is the cream?

Herein, monks, in whatsoever company
the monks do not pursue the wrong path
of impulse, malice, delusion, and fear, it is called 'the cream.'

These are the two,
and of these two
the company of the cream
has the pre-eminence."

 


 

Sutta 46

[46.1][than] "Monks, there are these two companies.

What two?

The company trained in bluster,[104]
not in discussion by inquiry,[105]
and the company trained in discussion by inquiry,
not in bluater.

And what, monks, is the company
trained in bluster, not inquiry?

Herein, monks, in whatsoever company
the monks listen not
to the discourses uttered by the Tathāgata,
discourses deep and deep in meaning,
transcendental,
dealing with the Void,
when they are recited;
where they lend not a ready ear to them;
apply not to them a mind
bent on understanding;[106]
consider not that those teachings
are something to be learned by heart and mastered:
but when those discourses made by poets,[107]
tricked out with fair-sounding phrases,[108]
discourses external to Dhamma
uttered by their followers,[109]
— when such are recited
they listen thereto,
lend a ready ear to them,
apply to them a mind
bent on understanding
and consider [69] that those teachings
are something to be learned by heart and mastered,
— and when they have mastered that teaching
they do not question each other about it,
do not open up a discussion[110] thus:

'What is this?

What is the meaning of this?'

— when they neither open up the unrevealed
nor explain the unexplained,
nor dispel doubts
on divers doubtful points of doctrine, —
such a company, monks,
is called 'trained in bluster,
not in inquiry.'

And what, monks, is the company
trained in inquiry, not trained in bluster?

Herein, monks, in whatsoever company
the monks listen not
to those discourses made by poets,
tricked out with fair-sounding phrases,
discourses external to Dhamma
uttered by their followers,
— when such are recited
they listen not thereto,
lend not a ready ear to them
apply not to them a mind
bent on understanding
and consider not that those teachings
are something to be learned by heart and masttered;
but to those uttered by the Tathāgata, discourses deep and deep in meaning,
transcendental,
dealing with the Void,
when they are recited,
they lend a ready ear to them,
apply to them a mind
bent on understanding,
consider that those teachings
are something to be learned by heart and mastered
and having mastered that teaching
question each other about it,
open up discussion thus:

'What is this?

What is the meaning of this?'

— when such open up the unrevealed,
explain the unexplained
and dispel doubts on divers doubtful points of doctrine, —
such a company is called
'trained in inquiry, not in bluster.'

These are the two companies,
and of these two
the latter has the pre-eminence."

 


 

Sutta 47

[47.1] "Monks, there are these two companies.

What two?

The company that honours carna1[111] things
and not true Dhamma:
and the company that honours true Dhamma,
and not carnal things.

And what, monks, is the former?

Herein, Monks, in whatsoever company
the monks, in the presence of the white-robed householders,
sing each other's praises, saying:

'Such and such a monk is freed-both-ways:
such and such a monk is freed-by-insight:
so and so by bodily testimony:[112]
so and so by reaching view:
so and so is freed-by-faith:
such and such a monk
lives in accordance with the Norm and faith:
so and so is moral and lovely in deportment:
[70] so and so is immoral and unlovely in deportment;'
— thereby winning profit
and, so doing, making use of it,
entangled[113] with greed and attachment thereto,
heedless of the danger therein
and blind to their escape therefrom, —
this company, monks, is called
'one honouring carnal things,
not true Dhamma.'

And what, monks, is the company that honours true Dhamma, not carnal things?

Herein, Monks, in whatsoever company
the monks, in the presence of the white-robed householders,
do not sing each other's praises, saying:
'Such and such a monk is freed-both-ways:
such and such a monk is freed-by-insight:
so and so by bodily testimony:
so and so by reaching view:
so and so is freed-by-faith:
such and such a monk
lives in accordance with the Norm and faith:
so and so is moral and lovely in deportment:
so and so is immoral and unlovely in deportment;'
— thereby winning profit
and, so doing, making use of it,
entangled with greed and attachment thereto,
heedless of the danger therein
and blind to their escape therefrom, —
this company, monks, is called
'one honouring true Dhamma,
not carnal things.'

These are the two companies,
and of the two
the latter has the pre-eminence."

 


 

Sutta 48

[48.1] "Monks, there are these two companies.

What two?

The crooked and the straight.

And what, monks, is the crooked company?

Herein in whatsoever company
lawless deeds prevail over lawful deeds,
unrestrained deeds over deeds restrained,
where lawless deeds and deeds unrestrained are conspicuous,
whereas lawful and restrained deeds are inconspicuous,
— such a company is called 'crooked.'

In the crooked company
these things prevail and are conspicuous.

And what, monks, is the straight company?

Herein in whatsoever company
lawlful deeds prevail over lawless deeds,
restrained deeds over deeds unrestrained,
where lawlful deeds and deeds restrained are conspicuous,
whereas lawless and unrestrained deeds are inconspicuous,
— such a company is called 'straight.'

These are the two companies
and of these
the straight company is pre-eminent."

 


 

Sutta 49

[49.1] "Monks, there are these two companies.

What two?

The righteous and unrighteous.

And what, monks, is the unrighteous company?

Herein in whatsoever company
lawless deeds prevail over lawful deeds,
unrestrained deeds over deeds restrained,
where lawless deeds and deeds unrestrained are conspicuous,
whereas lawful and restrained deeds are inconspicuous,
— such a company is called 'unrighteous.'

In the unrighteous company
these things prevail and are conspicuous.

And what, monks, is the righteous company?

Herein in whatsoever company
lawlful deeds prevail over lawless deeds,
restrained deeds over deeds unrestrained,
where lawlful deeds and deeds restrained are conspicuous,
whereas lawless and unrestrained deeds are inconspicuous,
— such a company is called 'righteous.'

These are the two companies
and of these
the righteous company is pre-eminent."

 


 

Sutta 50

[50.1] "Monks, there are these two companies.

What two?

That of unrighteous speech
and that of righteous speech.

And what is the company of unrighteous speech?

Herein, monks, in whatsoever company
the monks take up a quarrel,
whether lawful or unlawful,
and so doing
the sides do not inform each other,
do not meet together for investigation,
do not conciliate each other
nor take steps to do so:
then, by persisting more and more
in their refusal to inform and conci1iate each other
and renounce their quarrel,
they make [71] it more stubborn still
by the strong attachment[114] to their respective views, saying:
'This is the truth, all else is folly';
— then this company is called
'one of unrighteous speech.'

And what, monks, is the company of righteous speech?

Herein, monks, in whatsoever company
the monks take up a quarrel,
whether lawful or unlawful,
and so doing
the sides do inform each other,
do meet together for investigation,
do conciliate each other
or take steps to do so:
then, by persisting more and more
in their informing and conci1iating each other
and renouncing their quarrel,
they do not make it more stubborn still
by the strong attachment to their respective views, saying:
'This is the truth, all else is folly';
— then this company is called
'one of righteous speech.'

These are the two companies,
and of these
the latter is pre-eminent."

 


[93] Cf. Pugg. 46, the four types of pools of water; A. ii, 105.

[94] Cf. M. i, 32; S. i, 61 (K.S. i, 84); S. v, 269 (my trans. and notes at K.S. v, 241).

[95] Vibbhanta-citta, as opp. to ekagga-citta (one-pointed) in next §; S. i reads vibhatta-.

[96] Cf. infra, text 275; S. iv, 225; K.S. iv, 151.

[97] Aggavatī (aggavant) = uttama-puggala-vatī. Comy. (of personalities or deportment); again at text 243.

[98] Cf. M. i, 14; A. ii, 148.

[99] Nikkhitta-dhurā.

[100] Comy. distinguishes these as 'that of Ariyan disciples' and 'that of the manyfolk.'

[101] Kasaṭo (metathesis for sakaṭo, bitter) = kacavara-, palāpaparisā (sweepings of refuse). Comy.

[102] Maṇḍa (the cream) pasanna-, sāroparisā. Comy.

[103] Cf. D. iii, 133. Chando (desire to do) here in its lower sense.

[104] Ukkācita (Comy. reads okk-) vinītā = dubbinītā. Comy. Pāli Dict. takes it as from [root] kac. to shine = 'enlightened (?),' but the context requires just the opposite meaning, for the 'good' company is described as no ukkācita-vinītā. The explanation will be found in the contrast between 'showy' poets and deep Dhamma. (At VM. i, 27; VibhA. 483 ukkācanā (balancing) = ukkhipitvā kācanā, carrying on a shoulder-pole. The trans. here of VM. i, 32 is superficial only.) The word means 'bombast,' acc. to which I trans.

[105] For paṭipucchā text at 285 reads paripucchā. Cf. S. iii, 104 (K.S. iii, 88, where I mistranslated the phrase).

[106] Aññā-cittaŋ (not 'gnosis' here).

[107] Kavi-katā. Cf. S. ii, 267 (K.S. ii, 179); A. iii, 107.

[108] Citt'akkharā citta-vyañjanā, lit. 'varied sounds of vowels and consonants.'

[109] Bāhira-katā, sāvaka-bhāsitā. Acc. to Comy. 'sprung up apart from the sāsana, respected by the disciples of the originator.'

[110] Paṭivivaranti = pucchan'atthāya cārikaŋ na vivaranti. Comy.

[111] Āmisa-garu = catu-paccaya-garukā lokuttara-dhammaŋ lāmakato gahetvā. Comy.

[112] Kāya-sakkhī 'has realized the truth about body.' For these seven classes cf. D. iii, 106 (Dialog. iii, 101); Pugg. 14; Dialog. i, 311.

[113] Gathitā, etc. Cf. Dialog. ii, 181; K.S. iv, 237; UdA. 120. S. reads gadhitā. See below text 274 and UdA. 365 for these phrases.

[114] Thāmasa parāmassa abhinivissa (gerunds) = diṭṭhi-thāmena ca diṭṭhi-parāmasena ca abhinivisitvā. Comy. Cf. Dhs., § 1175.


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