Aŋguttara Nikāya


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Aŋguttara Nikāya
VIII. Aṭṭhaka Nipāta
VI. Gotamī Vagga

The Book of the Gradual Sayings
VIII. The Book of the Eights
VI: The Gotamid

Sutta 54

Vyaggha-Pajja Suttaɱ

Longknee, the Koḷiyan[1]

Translated from the Pali by E.M. Hare.

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[187]

[1][than][nara] THUS have I heard:

Once the Exalted One was dwelling among the Koḷiyans,[2]
at their market-town called Kakkarapatta.

There Longknee, the Koḷiyan clansman, visited the Exalted One and,
after greeting him,
sat down at one side.

So seated, he spoke thus to the Exalted One:

'Lord, we householders are immersed in the round of pleasure;
we are cumbered with bed-mate and sons;
we delight in the muslins from Benares
and in sandalwood;
we deck ourselves with flowers,
with garlands and cosmetics;
we enjoy the use of both silver and gold.

Lord, to such as us,
let the Exalted One also teach Dhamma;
teach the things which will be to our advantage
and for our happiness here on earth,
for our advantage and happiness
in the world to come!'

These four conditions, Tigerfoot,
lead to a clansman's advantage and happiness here on earth.

What four?

[188] Achievement in alertness,
achievement in wariness,
good company
and the even life.

 

§

 

And what, Tigerfoot, is achievement in alertness?

Herein, by whatsoever activity a clansman make his living,
whether by the plough,
by trading
or by cattle-herding,
by archery
or as a rajah's man,
or by any of the crafts[3] -
he is deft and tireless;
gifted with an inquiring turn of mind
into ways and means,
he is able to arrange and carry out his job.[4]

This is called achievement in alertness.

And what, Tigerfoot, is achievement in wariness?

Herein, whatsoever wealth a clansman get together by work and zeal,
collect by the strength of his arm,
earn by the sweat of his brow
and justly obtain in a lawful manner[5] -
such he husbands by watch and ward, thinking:

"Now how can I arrange
so that rajahs may not get this wealth out of me,
nor thieves filch it,
nor fire consume it,
nor water carry it off,
nor ill-disposed heirs make off with it?"

This is called achievement in wariness.

And what, Tigerfoot, is good company?

Herein, in whatsoever village or market-town a clansman dwell,
he consorts,
converses,
engages in talk
with householders[6] or householders' sons,
young men reared in virtue,
old men old in virtue,[7]
full of faith,
virtue,
charity
and wisdom.[8]

He emulates the fullness of faith
in such as are full of faith;
he emulates the fullness of virtue
in such as are full of virtue;
he emulates the fullness of charity
in such as are full of charity;
he emulates the fullness of wisdom
in such as are full of wisdom.

This is called good company.

And what, Tigerfoot, is the even life?

Herein a clansman
while experiencing both gain and loss in wealth,
continues his [189] business serenely,
not unduly elated or depressed.

Thinks he:

"Thus my income,
after deducting the loss,
will stand (at so much)
and my outgoings will not exceed my income."

[9]Just as one who carries scales,
or his apprentice,
knows, on holding up the balance,
that either by so much it has dipped down
or by so much it has tilted up;
even so, Tigerfoot,
a clansman experiencing both gain and loss
continues his business serenely,
neither unduly elated
nor unduly depressed,
but realizes that
after allowing for the loss
his income will stand at so much
and that his outgoings will not exceed his income.

-◦-

If, Tigerfoot, this clansman have but small earnings
and live on a grand scale,
it will be rumoured of him:

"This clansman eats his wealth
like a fig-tree glutton."[10]

And if his earnings be great
and he live meanly,
rumour will say of him:

"This clansman will die like a starveling.[11]

-◦-

Wherefore this clansman while experiencing both gain and loss in wealth,
continues his business serenely,
not unduly elated or depressed,
but realizes that
after allowing for the loss
his income will stand at so much
and that his outgoings will not exceed his income.

This is called the even life.

 

§

 

Tigerfoot, the four channels[12]
for the flowing away of amassed wealth
are these:
looseness with women,
debauchery in drinking,
knavery in dice-play
and friendship,
companionship
and intimacy with evil doers.

Just as in the case of a great reservoir
with only four inlets
and only four outlets,
if a man should close the inlets
and open the outlets
and there should be no proper fall of rain,
a lessening is to be expected
in that great reservoir
and not an increase;
even so, Tigerfoot, there are these four channels
for the flowing away of amassed wealth:
looseness with women,
debauchery in drinking,
[190] knavery in dice-play
and friendship,
companionship
and intimacy with evil doers.

Tigerfoot, the four channels
for the flowing in of great wealth are these:
abstinence from looseness with women,
from debauchery in drinking,
from knavery in dice-play
and having friendship,
companionship
and intimacy with the good.

Just as in the case of the great reservoir,
with only four inlets
and only four outlets,
if a man should open the inlets
and close the outlets
and if there should be a proper fall of rain,
an increase may be expected in that great reservoir
and not a lessening;
even so, Tigerfoot,
there are these fpur channels
for the flowing in of great wealth:
abstinence from looseness with women,
from debauchery in drinking,
from knavery in dice-play
and the friendship,
companionship
and intimacy with the good.

These, Tigerfoot, are the four conditions,
which lead to a clansman's advantage and happiness here on earth.

 

§

 

These four conditions, Tigerfoot,
lead to a clansman's advantage and happiness in the world to come.

What four?

Achievement[13] in faith,
achievement in virtue,
achievement in charity
and achievement in wisdom.

And what is achievement in faith?

Herein a clansman has faith and believes in the awakening of the Tathāgata, thinking:

Of a truth he is the Exalted One,
arahant,
fully awakened,
adept in knowledge and conduct,
well going,
a world-knower,
incomparable,
a tamer of tamable men,
among devas and men the teacher,
Buddha,
Exalted One.

This is called achievement in faith.

And what is achievement in virtue?

Herein a clansman abstains from taking life[ed1]
from taking what is not given,
from carnal lusts,
from lying,
abstains from taking sloth-causing liquors, spirits, wines.

This is called achievement in virtue.

And what is achievement in charity?

Herein a clansman dwells at home
with mind free of the stain of meanness;
freely bounteous,
open-handed,
gladly giving,
yoke-mate to asking,
he is a cheerful giver.

This is called achievement in charity.

And what is achievement in wisdom?

Herein a clansman is wise;
he is wise as to the way of growth and decay,
possessing Ariyan penetration of the way
to the utter destruction of ill.

This is called achievement in wisdom.

These, Tigerfoot, are the four conditions,
which lead to a clansman's advantage and happiness in the world to come.

 


 

[14]Up and alert about his task and toil,
A careful man, he minds his wealth and lives
The even life; and he is virtuous,
Believing, kind and bountiful; he clears
The onward Way[15] to faring well hereafter.
Thus for the believing home-seeker eight states
Have been declared by him whose name is Truth'[16]
As leading unto happiness both here and then,
To bliss hereafter and to welfare now.
This is the standard[17] for a householder,
For merit grows by generosity.'

 


[1] Dīghajānu; this no doubt was his nickname (see Dial. i, 193); his family name was Byagghapajja (Tigerfoot); see D.A. i, 262; C.H.I. i, 178; Thomas's Life, p. 7 f., where D.A. is translated.

[2] The Koḷiyans were members of Vajjian Confederacy; see above VII, § 19, and were of Sakyan origin, having their capital at Rāmagāma, about 40 miles east of Kapilavatthu (Chwang. ii, 20). Kakkarapatta means jungle-cock's feather.

[3] Cf. M. i, 85.

[4] Above, p. 179.

[5] Cf. A. ii, 67; iii, 45, 76.

[6] See S.B.E. xi, 257 n.

[7] The text reads daharā vā vuddhasīlino vuddhā vā vuddhasilino, one MS. omitting the last three words; the S.e. reads -sīlā for -sīlino in the second place. Cf. Soṇadaṇḍo sīlavā vuddhasīlīi vuddhasīlena samannāgato at D. i, 114; see D.A. i, 282. Comy. Vaḍḍhitasīlā vuddhasamācārā (v.l. suddha-).

[8] These four lead to happiness in the next world; see below.

[9] This simile recurs below twice where the sutta is repeated. There is a scale-simile at Th. i, 107, where the elder Dhammasava is said to weigh (the matter of) going forth. P.E.D. omits the compound tulā-dhāra; Childers gives also the meaning, jeweller.

[10] Udumbarakhādika. Comy. explains that when one shakes the fig-tree, wishing to eat the fruit thereof, much fruit falls, a large amount of which is wasted.

[11] Ajaddhumārika. Comy. simply anāṭhamaraṇaɱ S.e. spells ajaddhū.

[12] At D. iii, 182 six are given; cf. D. i, 101; A. ii 166; also Sn. 106; J. iv, 265.

[13] -sampadā, rendered, p. 162, by 'perfection'; and 'full,' 'fullness,' p. 188; at 179 'accomplished.'

[14] This gāthā provides a good example of how probably many verses came into being; thus the first line (of the text) recurs at J. vi, 297, with the last word reading vicakkhaṇo for vidhānavā, which recurs a little higher up, p. 287; cf. S. i, 214; the second half of the second line recurs at A. iv, 266 and 271; the third line at A. iv, 271, and the second half of it at S. i, 34; the fourth line and first half of the fifth also at A. iv, 271; the second half of the latter at Sn. 188; and the seventh line recurs at D. ii, 240; A. iii, 354. See Mrs. Rhys Davids' remarks at Vism. 765.

[15] Niccaɱ maggaɱ.

[16] Saccanāma. Comy. Buddhattā yeva buddho-ti evaɱ avitathanāmena; cf. comment at Pv.A. 231.

[17] Gahaṭṭhāna.

[ed1] Hare abbreviates here but there is not one case where he has translated the virtues in full. The missing lines (on taking what is not given, 'carnal lusts' and lying — adinnādānā paṭivirato hoti, kāmesumicchācārā paṭivirato hoti, musā-vādā paṭivirato hoti) are supplied from the previous volume of the G.S., translated by Woodward.


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