Majjhima Nikaya


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Majjhima Nikāya
II. Majjhima-Paṇṇāsa
2. Bhikkhu Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
II. The Middle Fifty Discourses
2. The Division on Monks

Sutta 65

Bhaddāli Suttaɱ

Discourse to Bhaddāli

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


 

[1][chlm][ntbb][upal] THUS have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying near Sāvatthī
in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika's monastery.

While he was [108] there the Lord addressed the monks, saying:

"Monks."

"Revered One," these monks answered the Lord in assent.

The Lord spoke thus:

"I, monks, partake of my food at one session.[1]

Partaking of my food at one session,
I, monks, am aware of good health
and of being without illness
and of buoyancy
and strength
and living in comfort.

Come, do you too, monks,
partake of your food at one session.

Partaking of your food at one session,
you too, monks, will be aware of good health,
of being without illness,
of bouyaney
and strength
and living in comfort."

When this had been said,
the venerable Bhaddāli spoke thus to the Lord:

"I, revered sir, am not capable[2] of eating my food at one session;
revered sir, if I ate my food at one session,
I might have scruples,[3]
I might have misgivings."

"Well then, you, Bhaddāli,
having eaten one portion there where you were invited,
having taken another portion away,
might eat that too;
so could you, Bhaddāli, eating thus, keep yourself going."

"I, revered sir, am not capable of eating in this fashion;
even eating so, revered sir,
I might have scruples,
I might have misgivings."

Then the venerable Bhaddāli,
while a rule of training was being laid down by the Lord,[4]
while the Order of monks was undertaking the training,
made known his inability.

Then the venerable Bhaddāli
did not see the Lord face to face
for an entire three months
because he was one who did not carry out in full
the training under the Teacher's instruction.

Now at that time a number of monks
were making up robe-material for the Lord,
and they said:

"When the Lord's robe-material is settled,[5]
he will set out on a three months tour."

Then the venerable Bhaddāli approached these monks;
having approached,
he exchanged greetings with these monks;
having conversed in a [109] friendly and courteous way,
he sat down at a respectful distance.

These monks spoke thus to the venerable Bhaddāli
as he was sitting down at a respectful distance:

"Reverend Bhaddāli,
this robe-material is being made up for the Lord.

When the robe-material is settled,
the Lord will set out on a three months tour.

Please, reverend Bhaddāli,
pay careful attention to this opportunity,[6]
lest later it is more difficult for you."

"Yes, your reverences,"
and the venerable Bhaddāli, having answered these monks in assent,
approached the Lord;
having approached,
having greeted the Lord,
he sat down at a respectful distance.

As he was sitting down at a respectful distance,
the venerable Bhaddāli spoke thus to the Lord:

"Revered sir, a transgression has overcome me,
foolish,
misguided
and wrong that I was,
inasmuch as I made known an inability
when a rule of training was being laid down by the Lord
and when the Order of monks was undertaking the training.

Revered sir, may the Lord acknowledge the transgression
as a transgression
for the sake of restraint in the future,"

"Indeed, Bhaddāli, a transgression overcame you,
foolish,
misguided
and wrong that you were,
inasmuch as while a rule of training was being laid down by me
and while the training was being undertaken by the Order of monks,
you made known your inability.

At that time
this was not realised by you, Bhaddāli:

The Lord is staying near Sāvatthī
and the Lord will know of me
that the monk named Bhaddāli
is not one that carries out in full
the training under the Teacher's instruction.[7]

At that time
this was not realised by you, Bhaddāli.

Nor at that time
was this realised by you, Bhaddāli:

A number of monks
who have come to Sāvatthī for the rains
will also know of me
that the monk named Bhaddāli
is not one that carries out in full
the training under the Teacher's instruction.

At that time
this was not realised by you, Bhaddāli.

Nor at that time
was this realised by you, Bhaddāli:

A number of nuns
who have come to Sāvatthī for the rains
will also know of me
that the monk named Bhaddāli
is not one that carries out in full
the training under the Teacher's instruction.

At that time
this was not realised by you, Bhaddāli.

Nor at that time
was this realised by you, Bhaddāli:

A number of layfollowers who are living in Sāvatthī
will also know of me
that the monk named Bhaddāli
is not one that carries out in full
the training under the Teacher's instruction.

At that time
this was not realised by you, Bhaddāli.

Nor at that time
was this realised by you, Bhaddāli:

A number of women layfollowers who are living in Sāvatthī
will also know of me
that the monk named Bhaddāli
is not one that carries out in full
the training under the Teacher's instruction.

At that time
this was not realised by you, Bhaddāli.

Nor at that time
was this realised by you, [110] Bhaddāli:

A number of recluses and brahmans belonging to other sects who have come to Sāvatthī for the rains
will also know of me
that the monk named Bhaddāli
is not one that carries out in full
the training under the Teacher's instruction.

At that time
this was not realised by you either Bhaddāli.

 


 

"Revered sir, a transgression has overcome me,
foolish,
misguided
and wrong that I was,
inasmuch as I made known an inability
when a rule of training was being laid down by the Lord
and when the Order of monks was undertaking the training.

Revered sir, may the Lord acknowledge the transgression
as a transgression
for the sake of restraint in the future,"

"Indeed, Bhaddāli,
a transgression overcame you,
foolish,
misguided
and wrong that you were,
inasmuch as while a rule of training was being laid down by me
and while the training was being undertaken by the Order of monks,
you made known your inability.

What do you think about this, Bhaddāli?

There might be a monk here,
freed both ways[8]
to whom I might speak thus:

'Come you, monk,
be a causeway for me across the mire.'

Would he make a causeway of himself[9]
or would he twist his body in another (direction),
or would he say 'No'?"

"Not this, revered sir."

"What do you think about this, Bhaddāli?

There might be a monk here,
freed through intuitive wisdom
to whom I might speak thus:

'Come you, monk,
be a causeway for me across the mire.'

Would he make a causeway of himself
or would he twist his body in another (direction),
or would he say 'No'?"

"Not this, revered sir."

"What do you think about this, Bhaddāli?

There might be a monk here,
a mental realiser[10]
to whom I might speak thus:

'Come you, monk,
be a causeway for me across the mire.'

Would he make a causeway of himself
or would he twist his body in another (direction),
or would he say 'No'?"

"Not this, revered sir."

"What do you think about this, Bhaddāli?

There might be a monk here,
won to view
to whom I might speak thus:

'Come you, monk,
be a causeway for me across the mire.'

Would he make a causeway of himself
or would he twist his body in another (direction),
or would he say 'No'?"

"Not this, revered sir."

"What do you think about this, Bhaddāli?

There might be a monk here,
freed through faith
to whom I might speak thus:

'Come you, monk,
be a causeway for me across the mire.'

Would he make a causeway of himself
or would he twist his body in another (direction),
or would he say 'No'?"

"Not this, revered sir."

"What do you think about this, Bhaddāli?

There might be a monk here,
who strives after dhamma
to whom I might speak thus:

'Come you, monk,
be a causeway for me across the mire.'

Would he make a causeway of himself
or would he twist his body in another (direction),
or would he say 'No'?"

"Not this, revered sir."

"What do you think about this, Bhaddāli?

There might be a monk here,
who strives after faith,[11]
to whom I might speak thus:

'Come you, monk,
be a causeway for me across the mire.'

Would he make a causeway of himself
or would he twist his body in another (direction),
or would he say 'No'?"

"Not this, revered sir."

"What do you think about this, Bhaddāli?

At that time were [111] you, Bhaddāli,
freed both ways
or freed through intuitive wisdom
or a mental realiser
or one that had won to view
or one freed through faith
or one striving after dhamma
or one striving after faith?"

"Not this, revered sir."

"At that time were not you, Bhaddāli,
empty,
void,
fallen short?"[12]

"Yes, revered sir.

 


 

"Revered sir, a transgression has overcome me,
foolish,
misguided
and wrong that I was,
inasmuch as I made known an inability
when a rule of training was being laid down by the Lord
and when the Order of monks was undertaking the training.

Revered sir, may the Lord acknowledge the transgression
as a transgression
for the sake of restraint in the future,"

"Indeed, Bhaddāli,
a transgression overcame you,
foolish,
misguided
and wrong that you were,
inasmuch as while a rule of training was being laid down by me
and while the training was being undertaken by the Order of monks,
you made known your inability.

But since you, Bhaddāli,
see the transgression
as a transgression
and confess it according to the rule,[13]
we acknowledge it for you.

For, Bhaddāli, in the discipline for an ariyan,
this is growth:
whoever, seeing a transgression
as a transgression,
confesses according to the rule,
he comes to restraint in the future.

Herein, Bhaddāli,
some monk is not one that carries out[14] in full the Teacher's instruction.

It occurs to him:

'Suppose I were to resort to a remote lodging -
to a forest,
to the root of a tree,
a mountain slope,
a wild place,
a hill cave,
a cemetery,
a woodland thicket,
the open air,
a heap of straw -
I should probably realise conditions of further-men,
the excellent knowledge and insight befitting the ariyans.'

So he resorts to a remote lodging -
to a forest,
to the root of a tree,
a mountain slope,
a wild place,
a hill cave,
a cemetery,
a woodland thicket,
the open air,
a heap of straw.

As he is staying aloof in this way
the Teacher upbraids him,
and when they have examined him
his learned fellow Brahma-farers upbraid him,
and devatās upbraid him,
and the self upbraids the self.

He, upbraided by the Teacher,
and upbraided by his learned fellow Brahina-farers
after they have examined him,
and upbraided by devatās,
and the self upbraided by the self,
does not realise conditions of further-men,
the excellent knowledge and insight befitting the ariyans.

What is [112] the reason for this?

It is thus, Bhaddāli,
since he is not one that carries out in full
the training under the Teacher's instruction.[15]

But, Bhaddāli, there is some monk here
who fully carries out the training
under the Teacher's instruction.

It occurs to him:

'If I were to resort to a remote lodging -
to a forest,
to the root of a tree,
a mountain slope,
a wild place,
a hill cave,
a cemetery,
a woodland thicket,
the open air,
a heap of straw,
I should probably realise conditions of further-men,
the excellent knowledge and insight befitting the ariyans.'

So he resorts to a remote lodging -
to a forest,
to the root of a tree,
a mountain slope,
a wild place,
a hill cave,
a cemetery,
a woodland thicket,
the open air,
a heap of straw.

As he is staying aloof in this way
neither the Teacher upbraids him,
nor, after they have examined him,
do his learned fellow Brahma-farers upbraid him,
nor do devotās upbraid him,
nor does the self upbraid the self.

He, neither upbraided by the Teacher,
nor upbraided by his learned fellow Brahma-farers
after they have examined him,
nor upbraided by devatās,
nor the self upbraided by the self,
realises conditions of further-men,
the excellent knowledge and insight befitting the ariyans.

He, aloof from pleasures of the senses,
aloof from unskilled states of mind,
enters and abides in the first meditation
which is accompanied by initial thought
and discursive thought,
is born of aloofness
and is rapturous and joyful.

What is the reason for this?

It is thus, Bhaddāli,
for one who fully carries out the training
under the Teacher's instruction.

And again, monks, a monk,
by allaying initial and discursive thought,
his mind subjectively tranquillised
and fixed on one point,
enters on
and abides in
the second meditation
which is devoid of initial and discursive thought,
is born of concentration
and is rapturous and joyful.

What is the reason for this?

It is thus, Bhaddāli,
for one who fully carries out the training
under the Teacher's instruction.

And again, monks, a monk,
by the fading out of rapture,
dwells with equanimity,
attentive and clearly conscious,
and experiences in his person
that joy of which the ariyans say:
'Joyful lives he who has equanimity and is mindful,'
and he enters on
and abides in
the third meditation.

What is the reason for this?

It is thus, Bhaddāli,
for one who fully carries out the training
under the Teacher's instruction.

And again, monks, a monk
by getting rid of joy,
by getting rid of anguish,
by the going down of his former pleasures and sorrows,
enters on
and abides in
the fourth meditation
which has neither anguish [113] nor joy,
and which is entirely purified
by equanimity and mindfulness.

What is the reason for this?

It is thus, Bhaddāli,
for one who fully carries out the training
under the Teacher's instruction.

 


 

Thus with the mind thus composed,
quite purified,
quite clarified,[16]
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
stable,
immovable,
he directs his mind
to the knowledge and recollection of former habitations.

He recollects a variety of former habitations, thus:

One birth,
two births,
three births,
four births,
five births,
ten births,
twenty births,
thirty births,
forty births,
fifty births,
a hundred births,
a thousand births,
a hundred thousand births,
and many an eon of integration
and many an eon of disintegration
and many an eon of integration-disintegration:

'Such a one was I by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so I was nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I came to be in another state
where I was such a one by name,
having such and such a clan,
such and such a colour,
so I was nourished,
such and such pleasant and painful experiences were mine,
so did the span of life end.

Passing from this,
I arose here.'

Thus he recollects divers former habitations
in all their modes and detail.

With the mind composed thus,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
stable,
immovable,
he directs his mind
to the knowledge of the passing hence
and the arising of beings.

With the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men,
he sees beings as they pass hence
or come to be;
he comprehends that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going,
according to the consequences of deeds,
and thinks:

'Indeed these worthy beings
who were possessed of wrong conduct in body,
speech
and thought,
scoffers at the ariyans,
holding a wrong view,
incurring deeds consequent on a wrong view -
these, at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a sorrowful state,
a bad bourn,
the abyss,
Niraya Hell.

But these worthy beings
who were possessed of good conduct in body,
speech
and thought,
who did not scoff at the ariyans,
holding a right view,
incurring deeds consequent on a right view -
these at the breaking up of the body after dying,
have arisen in a good bourn,
a heaven world.'

Thus with the purified deva-vision
surpassing that of men
does he see beings as they pass hence,
as they arise;
he comprehends that beings are mean,
excellent,
comely,
ugly,
well-going,
ill-going
according to the consequences of deeds.

With the mind composed thus,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
stable,
immovable,
he directs his mind
to the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers.

He comprehends as it really is:

'This is anguish',
'this is the arising of anguish',
'this is the stopping of anguish',
'this is the course leading to the stopping of anguish'.

He comprehends as it really is:

'These are the cankers',
'this is the arising of the cankers',
'this is the stopping of the cankers',
'this is the course leading to the stopping of the cankers'.

Knowing thus,
seeing thus,
his mind is freed from the canker of sense-pleasures
and his mind is freed from the canker of becoming
and his mind is freed from the canker of ignorance.

In freedom the knowledge comes to be:

'I am freed';
and he comprehends:

'Destroyed is birth,
brought to a close the Brahma-faring,
done is what was to be done,
there is no more of being such or so.'

What is the reason for this?

It is thus, Bhaddāli,
for one who fully carries out the training
under the Teacher's instruction."

When this had been said,
the venerable Bhaddāli spoke thus to the Lord:

"What is the cause, revered sir,
what the reason
why they constantly[17] take action[18]
against some monk here?

What is the [114] cause, revered sir,
what the reason
why they do not constantly take similar action
against some other monk here?"

"As to this, Bhaddāli,
some monk is a constant offender,
full of offences.[19]

On being spoken to by the monks
he shelves the question
by asking another,
he answers off the point,
he evinces anger
and ill-will
and discontent,[20]
he does not conduct himself properly,
is not subdued,
does not mend his ways,[21]
and does not say:

'What can I do to please the Order?'

Therefore, Bhaddāli, it occurs to the monks:

'This monk, your reverences,
is a constant offender,
full of offences.

On being spoken to by the monks
he shelves the question
by asking another,
he answers off the point,
he evinces anger
and ill-will
and discontent,
he does not conduct himself properly,
is not subdued,
does not mend his ways,
and does not say:

'What can I do to please the Order?'

It were good if the venerable ones
were to investigate this monk
in such a way
that this legal question of his
should not be settled quickly.'

So, Bhaddāli,
the monks investigate this monk
in such a way
that this legal question of his
is not settled quickly.

But, Bhaddāli,
some monk is a constant offender,
full of offences.

He, on being spoken to by the monks
does not shelve the question
by asking another,
he does not answer off the point,
he does not evince anger
and ill-will
and discontent,
he conducts himself properly,
is subdued,
mends his ways,
and he says:

'What can I do to please the Order?

Therefore, Bhaddāli,
it occurs to the monks:

'This monk, your reverences, is a constant offender,
full of offences.

He, on being spoken to by the monks
does not shelve the question
by asking another,
he does not answer off the point,
he does not evince anger
and ill-will
and discontent,
he conducts himself properly,
is subdued,
mends his ways,
and he says:

'What can I do to please the Order?

It were good if the venerable ones were to investigate this monk
in such a way
that this legal question of his
should be settled quickly.'

So, Bhaddāli,
the monte investigate this monk
in such a way
that this legal question of his
is settled quickly.

Then, Bhaddāli, some monk here is an occasional offender,
he is not full of offences.

But he, on being spoken to by the monks
shelves the question
by asking another,
he answers off the point,
he evinces anger
and ill-will
and discontent,
he does not conduct himself properly,
is not subdued,
does not mend his ways,
and does not say:

'What can I do to please the Order?'

Therefore, Bhaddāli, it occurs to the monks:

This monk, your reverences, is an occasional offender,
he is not full of offences.

But he, on being spoken to by the monks
shelves the question
by asking another,
he answers off the point,
he evinces anger
and ill-will
and discontent,
he does not conduct himself properly,
is not subdued,
does not mend his ways,
and does not say:

'What can [115] I do to please the Order?'

It were good if the venerable ones
were to investigate this monk
in such a way
that this legal question of his
should not be settled quickly.'

So, Bhaddāli,
the monks investigate this monk
in such a way
that this legal question of his
is not settled quickly.

But, Bhaddāli, some monk is an occasional offender,
he is not full of offences.

He, on being spoken to by the monks
does not shelve the question
by asking another,
he does not answer off the point,
he does not evince anger
and ill-will
and discontent,
he conducts himself properly,
is subdued,
mends his ways,
and he says:

'What can I do to please the Order?

Therefore, Bhaddāli, it occurs to the monks:

This monk, your reverences,
is an occasional offender,
he is not full of offences.

He, on being spoken to by the monks
does not shelve the question
by asking another,
he does not answer off the point,
he does not evince anger
and ill-will
and discontent,
he conducts himself properly,
is subdued,
mends his ways,
and he says:

'What can I do to please the Order?

It were good if the venerable ones were to investigate this monk
in such a way
that this legal question of his
should be settled quickly.'

So, Bhaddāli,
the monte investigate this monk
in such a way
that this legal question of his
is settled quickly.

In this connection, Bhaddāli,
some monk is going along
with only a little faith,
with only a little regard.[22]

Therefore, Bhaddāli, it occurs to the monks:

'This reverend monk
is going along with only a little faith,
only a httle regard.

If we constantly take action against this monk,
be careful lest even that little faith of his,
even that little regard,
deteriorate.'

Bhaddāli, it is like a man with only one eye[23] -
his friends and acquaintances,
his kith and kin
would take care of that one eye
so that that one eye of his
did not deteriorate,
thinking:

'Take care lest that one eye of his deteriorates.'

Even so, Bhaddāli,
some monk goes along
with only a little faith,
only a Httle regard.

Therefore, Bhaddāli, it occurs to the monks:

'This reverend monk
is going along with only a little faith,
only a httle regard.

If we constantly take action against this monk,
be careful lest even that little faith of his,
even that little regard,
deteriorate.'

This, Bhaddāli, is the cause,
this the reason
why they constantly take action against some monk here.

But, Bhaddāli, this is the cause,
this the reason
why they do not constantly take similar action
against some (other) monk here."

"What is the cause, revered sir,
what the reason
why there were formerly fewer rules of training
but more monks who were estabHshed in profound knowledge?

And what is the cause, revered sir,
what the reason
why there are now more rules of training
but fewer monks who are established in profound knowledge?"

[116] "It is thus, Bhaddāli:

When beings are deteriorating,
when true dhamma is vanishing away,
there are more rules of training
and fewer monks established in profound knowledge.

Not until some conditions which cause cankers appear here in the Order[24]
does the Teacher, Bhaddāli,
lay down a rule of training for disciples.[24]

But when, Bhaddāli,
some conditions which cause cankers appear here in the Order,
then the Teacher lays down a rule of training for disciples
so as to ward off
those very conditions which cause cankers.

Not until the Order has arrived at greatness,[25] Bhaddāli,
do some conditions which cause cankers
appear here in the Order.

But when, Bhaddāli,
the Order has arrived at greatness,
then some conditions which cause cankers
appear here in the Order,
and then the Teacher lays down a rule of training for disciples
so as to ward off
those very conditions which cause cankers.

Not until the Order has arrived at the height of gain,[26] Bhaddāli,
do some conditions which cause cankers
appear here in the Order.

But when, Bhaddāli,
the Order has arrived at the height of gain,
then some conditions which cause cankers
appear here in the Order,
and then the Teacher lays down a rule of training for disciples
so as to ward off
those very conditions which cause cankers.

Not until the Order has arrived at the height of fame,[27] Bhaddāli,
do some conditions which cause cankers
appear here in the Order.

But when, Bhaddāli,
the Order has arrived at the height of fame,
then some conditions which cause cankers
appear here in the Order,
and then the Teacher lays down a rule of training for disciples
so as to ward off
those very conditions which cause cankers.

Not until the Order has arrived at much learning,[28] Bhaddāli,
do some conditions which cause cankers
appear here in the Order.

But when, Bhaddāli,
the Order has arrived at much learning,
then some conditions which cause cankers
appear here in the Order,
and then the Teacher lays down a rule of training for disciples
so as to ward off
those very conditions which cause cankers.

Not until the Order has arrived at long standing,[29] Bhaddāli,
do some conditions which [117] cause cankers
appear here in the Order.

But when, Bhaddāli,
the Order has arrived at long standing,
then some conditions which cause cankers
appear here in the Order,
and then the Teacher lays down a rule of training for disciples
so as to ward off
those very conditions which cause cankers.

You were few at the time when I, Bhaddāli,
taught you the disquisition on dhamma -
the Parable of the Thoroughbred Colt.

Do you, Bhaddāli, remember?"

"No, revered sir."

"To what cause
do you attribute this, Bhaddāli?"

"It is that I, revered sir,
for a long time
was not one who carried out in full
the training under the Teacher's instruction."

"This was not the only cause or reason, Bhaddāli.

For, for a long time, Bhaddāli,
I have known your mind
with my mind
(and I knew):

While dhamma is being taught by me
this foolish man does not listen to dhamma with ready ear,
applying himself,
paying attention,
concentrating with all his mind.[30]

However, I, Bhaddāli, will teach you
the disquisition on dhamma -
the Parable of the Thoroughbred Colt.

Listen to it,
attend carefully,
and I will speak."

"Yes, revered sir,"
the venerable Bhaddāli answered the Lord in assent.

The Lord spoke thus:

"Bhaddāli, as a skilled horse-trainer,[31]
having received a beautiful thoroughbred,
first of all makes it get used to the training
in respect of wearing the bit;
while it is getting used to the training
in respect of wearing the bit,
whatever the contortions,
capers,
struggles[32]
while it is getting used to a training
it was not used to before,
yet because of the continual training,
the gradual training
it is brought to perfection[33] in that respect.

When, Bhaddāli, the beautiful thoroughbred [118] is perfected[34] in that respect
by the continual training,
the gradual training,
the horse-trainer makes it get used to a further training
in respect of wearing the harness.

While it is getting used to the training
in respect of wearing the harness,
whatever the contortions,
capers,
struggles
while it is getting used to a training
it was not used to before,
yet because of the continual training,
the gradual training
it is brought to perfection in that respect.

When, Bhaddāli, the beautiful thoroughbred is perfected in that respect
by the continual training,
the gradual training,
the horse-trainer makes it get used to a further training
in respect of going straight on[35].

While it is getting used to the training
in respect of going straight on,
whatever the contortions,
capers,
struggles
while it is getting used to a training
it was not used to before,
yet because of the continual training,
the gradual training
it is brought to perfection in that respect.

When, Bhaddāli, the beautiful thoroughbred is perfected in that respect
by the continual training,
the gradual training,
the horse-trainer makes it get used to a further training
in respect of (running in) a circle[36].

While it is getting used to the training
in respect of (running in) a circle,
whatever the contortions,
capers,
struggles
while it is getting used to a training
it was not used to before,
yet because of the continual training,
the gradual training
it is brought to perfection in that respect.

When, Bhaddāli, the beautiful thoroughbred is perfected in that respect
by the continual training,
the gradual training,
the horse-trainer makes it get used to a further training
in respect of its hoofs[37].

While it is getting used to the training
in respect of its hoofs,
whatever the contortions,
capers,
struggles
while it is getting used to a training
it was not used to before,
yet because of the continual training,
the gradual training
it is brought to perfection in that respect.

When, Bhaddāli, the beautiful thoroughbred is perfected in that respect
by the continual training,
the gradual training,
the horse-trainer makes it get used to a further training
in respect of galloping.

While it is getting used to the training
in respect of wearing galloping,
whatever the contortions,
capers,
struggles
while it is getting used to a training
it was not used to before,
yet because of the continual training,
the gradual training
it is brought to perfection in that respect.

When, Bhaddāli, the beautiful thoroughbred is perfected in that respect
by the continual training,
the gradual training,
the horse-trainer makes it get used to a further training
in respect of neighing[38].

While it is getting used to the training
in respect of neighing,
whatever the contortions,
capers,
struggles
while it is getting used to a training
it was not used to before,
yet because of the continual training,
the gradual training
it is brought to perfection in that respect.

When, Bhaddāli, the beautiful thoroughbred is perfected in that respect
by the continual training,
the gradual training,
the horse-trainer makes it get used to a further training
in respect of the "royal trick,"[39].

While it is getting used to the training
in respect of wearing the "royal trick,"
whatever the contortions,
capers,
struggles
while it is getting used to a training
it was not used to before,
yet because of the continual training,
the gradual training
it is brought to perfection in that respect.

When, Bhaddāli, the beautiful thoroughbred is perfected in that respect
by the continual training,
the gradual training,
the horse-trainer makes it get used to a further training
in respect of the "royal acrobatic feat"[40].

While it is getting used to the training
in respect of wearing the "royal acrobatic feat",
whatever the contortions,
capers,
struggles
while it is getting used to a training
it was not used to before,
yet because of the continual training,
the gradual training
it is brought to perfection in that respect.

When, Bhaddāli, the beautiful thoroughbred is perfected in that respect
by the continual training,
the gradual training,
the horse-trainer makes it get used to a further training
in respect of matchless speed.

While it is getting used to the training
in respect of matchless speed,
whatever the contortions,
capers,
struggles
while it is getting used to a training
it was not used to before,
yet because of the continual training,
the gradual training
it is brought to perfection in that respect.

When, Bhaddāli, the beautiful thoroughbred is perfected in that respect
by the continual training,
the gradual training,
the horse-trainer makes it get used to a further training
in respect of matchless swiftness.

While it is getting used to the training
in respect of matchless swiftness,
whatever the contortions,
capers,
struggles
while it is getting used to a training
it was not used to before,
yet because of the continual training,
the gradual training
it is brought to perfection in that respect.

When, Bhaddāli, the beautiful thoroughbred is perfected in that respect
by the continual training,
the gradual training,
the horse-trainer makes it get used to a further training
in respect of matchless manners.

While it is getting used to the training
in respect of matchless manners,
whatever the contortions,
capers,
struggles
while it is getting used to a training
it was not used to before,
yet because of the continual training,
the gradual training
it is brought to perfection in that respect.

When, Bhaddāli, the beautiful thoroughbred is perfected in each respect,
the horse-trainer provides it further
with a gloss and shine.[41]

Bhaddāli, a beautiful thoroughbred,
when endowed with these ten qualities,[42]
becomes worthy of a king,
a royal treasure,
and it is reckoned as an attribute of royalty.

Even so, Bhaddāli,
if a monk is endowed with ten qualities,
he is worthy of offerings,
worthy of hospitality,
worthy of gifts,
to be saluted with joined palms,
an unsurpassed field of merit for the world.

With what ten?

Herein, Bhaddāli, a monk is endowed with an adept's right view,
he is endowed with an adept's right thought,
he is endowed with an adept's [119] right speech,
he is endowed with an adept's right action,
he is endowed with an adept's right mode of liveliood,
he is endowed with an adept's right endeavour,
he is endowed with an adept's right mindfulness,
he is endowed with an adept's right concentration,
he is endowed with an adept's right knowledge,
he is endowed with an adept's right freedom.

Bhaddāli, if a monk is endowed with these ten qualities,
he is worthy of offerings,
worthy of hospitality,
worthy of gifts,
to be saluted with joined palms,
an unsurpassed field of merit for the world."

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, the venerable Bhaddāli rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

Discourse to Bhaddāli:
The Fifth

 


[1] As at M. i. 124.

[2] na ussahāmi, I am not able, or, I do not dare.

[3] kukkucca is scrupulous doubting, doubting whether one is doing right. Bhaddāli says he wonders if he could or could not fare the Brahma-faring for the whole of bis life if he ate thus. He had been a crow in a former birth, and because crows are great eaters he had the nickname of Mahāchātaka, Great Eater, MA. iii. 148 f.

[4] According to MA. iii. 149 this was the rule forbidding eating at the wrong time (given at Vin. iv. 85).

[5] niṭṭhita. See Vin. iii. 195 ff., and B.D. ii. 4, n. 5.

[6] desaka. MA. iii. 149 has the v.l. dosaka and explains by okāsa aparādha, occasion (permission) and fault.

[7] Quoted at DA. 32, VA. i. 107, UdA. 19, Asl. 57.

[8] See M. i. 477 (and below, p. 151). This and the other six terms (freed through intuitive wisdom down to the one who strives after faith) occur also at M. i. 477-479 and at A. i. 73-74, iv. 10; D. iii. 105, 253-254; Pug. 14-15; and with three others at A. v. 23.

[9] saŋkameyya. Cf. Jā. iii. 373, attānaṁ saŋkamaṁ katvā.

[10] kāyasakkhin. See M. i. 478. Cf. A. i. 118 f. on this and the next two terms, and where it is said it is difficult to decide which is the most excellent. MA. iii. 189 = AA. ii. 190 says the kāyasakkhin first attains jhāna and later realises stopping and nibbana. M. i. 478 = Pug. 14, 73 describes him as "a person who abides having attained the (eight) Deliverances kāyena (through mind? while in the body?) and some of whose cankers are destroyed if he has seen by means of right wisdom. "He should be compared with the person who is freed both ways and the one freed by means of wisdom.

[11] Cf. the strivera after dhamma and after faith at M. i. 226.

[12] MA. iii. 152 says "empty and void because of lack of inner development of the qualities of ariyans."

[13] Cf. Vin. i. 315, ii. 126, 192, iv. 18-19, etc. See PTC. s.v. accaya.

[14] Probably, sikkhāya, the training, should be inserted here as it occurs in all the corresponding passages in this Discourse.

[15] Cf. S. v. 378.

[16] For this passage, down to 'there is no more of being such or so,' see above, p. 12 ff.

[17] pavayha pavayha, urgent, pressing, constantly. MA. iii. 153 says: Having constantly reproved him for even trifling faults. Cf. M. iii. 118.

[18] kāraṇa-karonti. This probably means the juridical action that the Saṁgha (Order) has power to employ. Similarly below, adhikaraṇa, "legal question" refers only to the four types of these that the Samgha is able to deal with. They are treated of in detail at Vin. ii. 88 ff., and come under "ecclesiastical" jurisdiction only, having nothing to do with a secular court of justice.

[19] āpattibākula, as at Vin. i. 321, 330, 332.

[20] Cf. M. i. 99, 250; Vin. iv. 135.

[21] As at Vin. i. 49.

[22] pema, affection or regard.

[23] Lit., "like the eye of one man."

[24] Cf. Vin. iii. 10.

[25] mahalta, a considerable size. MA. iii. 165-156 says that when the Order has become large, mahantabhāva, then the lodgings do not suffice for the elders, those of middle standing and the newly ordained monks. So conditions causing cankers arise in regard to the lodgings. The rules of training laid down for an Order attained to largeness are (1) "whatever monk should lie down to sleep with one who is not ordained, there is a pācittiya offence" (Pāc. 5. Vin. iv. 16), and (2) "Whatever nun should ordain every year, there is a pācittiya. ... (3) Whatever nun should ordain two (probationers) la one year, there is a pācittiya offence "(Nuns' Pāc. 72,73, Vin. iv. 336, 337).

[26] lābhagga. Vin. iii. 10 reads lābhaggamahatta; see B.D. i. 19, n. 1. The conditions causing cankers to arise when the Order has arrived at the height of gains or acquisitions are controlled by Pāc. 41 (Vin. iv. 92, cited at MA. iii. 156): "Whatever monk should with his own hand give solid or soft food to an unclothed ascetic or to a male or female wanderer, there is a pācittiya offence."

[27] yasagga. Not at Vin. iii. 10. For this stage in the Order's deterioration the 51st Pāc. (Vin. iv. 110) was laid down: "in drinking strong drinks and intoxicants, there is a pācittiya offence," cited at MA. iii. 156. Cf. lābhagga-yasaggappattā of the Bodhisatta's mother at Jā. i. 51.

[28] At this stage there are misunderstandings, and people explain the Teacher's instruction by what is against dhamma and against vinaya. MA. iii. 156 cites Vin. iv. 135-139, which include the "perverse or wrong views" ascribed to the monk Ariṭṭha and the novice Kandaka (Pāc. 68, 70).

[29] rattaññuta. Here, as in the other cases, the reference is to the members of the Order rather than to the Order as a whole. So, here the meaning is "when those who have gone forth for a long time know how many nights it is since they first went forth." MA. iii. 157 refers to Upasena Vaŋganta-putta's offence in ordaining his pupil when he himself was only of one year's standing - he had seen monks being ordained when they were less than ten years' standing. So, "One of less than ten years' standing should not be ordained "(Vin. i. 59), and "One should not be ordained by an ignorant, inexperienced (monk) ... I allow monks to be ordained by an experienced, capable (monk) if they are of ten years' standing or of more than ten years' standing"(Vin. i. 60). As MA. iii. 157 remarks two rules of training are laid down to cover the time of reaching "long-standing."

[30] Cf. M. i. 325.

[31] Cf. M. iii. 2.

[32] Cf. M. i. 234 for these words where they are applied to Saccaka the Jain because of his inconsistent statements.

Dompt. To tame; to hold at bay.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

[33] parinibbāyati, or, is perfected, perfectly trained, dompted or extinguished in regard to its former restlessness, etc.

[34] parinibbuta.

[35] anukkama. MA. iii. 166 appears to explain that the trainer gives the four feet a hit with a knife so that the horse raises them. Childers, s.v. anukkama, gives "regular succession, order." The idea seems to be that the horse is trained to raise all its four feet the same distance from the ground.

[36] maṇḍale, in a ring or circle. MA. iii. 158 says that if someone is sitting on the horse's back he can pick up a weapon that has fallen to the ground; for the sake of doing this he makes the horse go in a circle. Cf. Mhvs. xxiii. 73 where a horse was made to gallop maṇḍale, "in a circle."

[37] khurakāya. The horse is trained to go along on the tips of its hoofs so that no sound is heard, MA. iii. 159.

[38] Important in battle.

[39] rājaguṇa. P.E.D. says "a trick of a circus horse"; according to MA. iii. 159 it is some trick of plunging into water.

[40] rājavaṁsa. Cf. vaɱsa ... ghaṭikā at D. i. 6.

[41] vaṇṇiya ca valiya ca. Meaning is not clear. The Comy, says nothing.

[42] Three at A. i. 244; four at A. ii. 113. Cf. A. i. 284, ii. 116, 170.

 


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